Skip to main content

Full text of "Electric railway journal"

See other formats






Scientific Library 



a Case Shelf. 










Electric Railway 




July to December, 1910 

( i 

McGraw Publishing Company 
239 West 39th Street 
New York 

r f 





July 2 pages I to 62 

July 9 " 63 to 98 

July 16 " 99 to 132 

July 23 " 133 to 168 

July 30 " 169 to 206 

Aug. 6 " 207 to 248 

Aug. 13 " 249 to 284 

Aug. 20 " 285 to 316 

Aug. 27 " 317 to 348 

Sept. 3 " 349 to 386 

Sept. 10 " 387 to 422 

Sept. 17 " 423 to 454 

Sept. 24 " 455 to 490 

Oct. 1 " 491 to 538 

Oct. 8 (Souvenir Sec- 
tion) " 539 to 642 

Oct. 8 (News Section) " 643 to 678 

Oct. 11 " 679 to 702 

Oct. 12 " 703 to 758 

Oct. 13 " 759 to 800 

Oct. 14 " 801 to 828 

Oct. 15 " 829 to 864 

Oct. 22 " 865 to 896 

Oct. 29 " 897 to 932 

Nov. 5 " 933 to 978 

Nov. 12 " 979 to 1012 

Nov. 19 " 1013 to 1052 

Nov. 26 " 1053 to 1086 

Dec. 3 " 1087 to 1 134 

Dec. 10 " 1 135 to 1178 

Dec. 17 " 1 179 to 1222 

Dec. 24 " 1223 to 1260 

Dec. 31 " 1261 to 1298 

Acceleration speed time curves, London un- 
derground railway, 216 
Accelerometer, Spirit-level [Everett], '962 
Accident claim department: 

Adoption of progressive ideas [Johnson], 

43i . 

Effects of injury by electricity [Moor- 
head], 366 

Human element in train operation, 403 

Philadelphia, Reduction in accidents, 261 

Prevention : 

Denver notice, 1204 

Instruction of children: 
Baltimore, *I49 

Campaigns in various cities, 65 
Seattle, Wash., 241 
Interurban collisions. Possible means 
for prevention [Adams], cuo 

Relations with other departments [O'Cal- 

Iaghan], 185 

Traumatic neurosis, 397 

Accident claims: 

■ Metropolitan Street Ry., Statistics, 8 

Models in trial cases, 2 

Odd letter, 436 

Record of claimants with the Hooper- 
Holmes Bureau, 114 
Accidents : 

Anti-accident notice of Kingston, Ports- 
mouth &• Cataraqui Electric Ry., 381 

Electric railways in United States, 1045 

Germany, 517 

Indiana, 891, 1046 

Kingsland, Ind.. 493, 511 

Monorail line, New York, *I4S 

New York City, in May, and September, 

126, 1007 

Pennsylvania, May, iqio, 242 

Staunton, 111., 644, 840, 859 

Tipton, Ind., 493, 511, 120^ 

(See also Interurban railways, Operation) 

Accountants' Association: 

Address of President Swift, 732 

Convention proceedings, 304, 720, 763, 808 

Joint committee meeting on shop account- 
ing, 117 

Joint meeting with Engineering Associa- 
tion, 713 

Report of Executive Committee, 720 

Report on shop accounting, 744; Discus- 
sion, 713 

Cleveland Railway Company's franchise, 

841; Correction of tables, 1194; Com- 
ment, 867 

Computation of earnings, Discussion of 

best method, 516 
Cost accounting rBoylan, Adams and 

Lasher], 747 

Accounting: (Continued) 

Depreciation : 

Allowances for, by Illinois Traction 

System, 353 
Cardiff, Wales, 409 
Chicago Consolidated appraisal, 11 13 
Discussion at Atlantic City conven- 
tion, 713 

Discussion by National Association of 
Railway Commissioners, 1061 

Glasgow, Treatment of depreciation, 

Kansas City, Charges, 424 

Third Avenue R. R.. New York, 263 

Detail records, Value of [Neal], 794 

Freight and express [Hixson], 749; Dis- 
cussion, 720; Comment, 704 

Freight and express classilication pro- 
posed by Transportation and Traffic 
Committee, 735 

Interline baggage, 21, 108 

Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Decisions in classification, Questions 

and answers, 188 
Development of system of accounts 

[Adams], 195 
Standard classification of accounts. 
(See Accounting, Standard classi- 

Monthly reports: 

Discussion by Central Electric Ac- 
counting Conference, 514 
Uniform comparative statements 
[Wrightl, 2i 

New Jersey conference on uniform ac- 
counts, 276, 330, 957 

-Operating expense accounts for mainte- 
nance shops [Lindall], 744 

Operating expense accounts for power 

plants [Hewitt], 745 

Park accounting [Schmock], 22; Discus- 
sion, 21 

Power station expenses, segregation of 

railway and lighting load, 898; 
[Hewittl, 745 

Prepayment cars, Collecting and auditing 

receipts of [Boylan], 819; Discus- 
sion, 808 

Publicity of accounts, Report of Board of 

Supervising Engineers, of Chicago 
Traction, 650 

Shop accounts [Lambl, 1199 

Discussion on report of New York 
State Street Railway Association, 
1 161 

Report of Accountants' and Engineer- 
ing associations, 744; Discussion, 

Standard classification: 

Accounts and census returns, 845 
Europe, 511 

Report of Accountants' Association, 


Report of Accounting Conference, 514 
Report _ of National Association of 
Railway Commissioners on uni- 
form, 1 1 1 4 

Stores accounting [Elkins]; Discussion, 

1 200 

Way-bills, Unit type versus blanket, 516 

(See also Blanks and forms) 

Accounting Conference (See Central Electric 

Accounting Conference) 
Advertising : 

Billboards, 560, 586, '633, *634 

Car : 

Central New York and Atlantic Coast 

Lines. *s66 
New England roads, 547 

Circular letters (See Letters, Circular) 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R. 

[Schmock], 946 

Contract of Fonda, Johnstown & Glovers- 

ville R. R., <6=; 

Display cards, Ohio, Indiana and Michi- 
gan, *s8^ 

Handbills, Ohio and Indiana, 590 

House to house distribution of pamphlets, 

Boston Elevated Ry., *i2o8 

Motto: The public be pleased, 367 

New England railways, *543, *547 

Newspaper : 

Central New York and Atlantic Coast 
roads, 564 

Chicago City Ry., 1038 

Indiana, 580 

Mississippi Valley roads, *6i3 
New England roads, *547 
Ohio roads, ^582 

Notes on advertising the service, 760 

Pacific Electric Ry., 632 

Park : 

Central New York roads, 569 
New England roads, 548 

Traffic posters, cards, etc., London under- 
ground electric railway, 1092; Com- 
ment, 7088 

(See also Publicity; Traffic promotion) 

Air-brakes. (See Brakes, Air) 

Air purifying system for compressors and 
other motors (Spencer), *46 

Airship "America," 762 

wage question, 56, 381, 


756, 796, 


Akron, Ohio; Northern Ohio Traction & Light 
Co., Dividend, 380; Bonds, 1293 

Albany, N. Y., United Traction Co. 

Albany and Rensselaer fare reduction, 

1 1 27 

Arbitration of 

4'7. 492 

Report to Commission on cars, 1283 

Troy-Albany fare decision, 278, 424 

Albany Southern R. R. (See Hudson, N. 

Allentown, Pa., Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Benefit Association, 12^4 

liond transaction, 926 

Folder, *559 

Mortgage, 54 

Power developments, "172 

Allgemeine Elektricitats-Gesellschaft, Annual 
report, 846 

Aluminum armature coils in Europe, 511 

American Cities Railway & Light Co. (See 
New Orleans) 

American Electric Railway Accountants' As- 
sociation. (See Accountants' Asso- 

American Electric Railway Association: 
Address of President Shaw, 707; Com- 
ment, 703 

Advance copies of convention reports, 423 

Badges, 683 

Ball game at Atlantic City convention, 


Bulletin of convention, 88 

Change of name proposed, 424 

Chicago special train, 349, 173, 686 

Committee on Associate Membership, 683 

Committee on Education, Kcpo't, 812 

Committee on Insurance, Tueeting, 500; Re- 
port, 794; Discussion, 1165 
Committee on Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission Affairs, Report, 809; Discus- 
sion, 771 

— Convention benefits, Reports from com- 
panies on, 686 

Convention cities, 703 

Conventionalities, 681, 705, 761, 803 

Election of officers, 806 

Exhibit arrangements, "272, 305 

Exhibit notes, 410, 438, 476, 691 

693. 697, 702, 750, 751, 755, 
800, 820, 826, 827 

Members, Geographical distribution 

„ 374 

News, 228 

Outlook for, 829 

Proceedings of convention, 658, 712, 771 

Public Relations Committee, Meeting of, 


Railroad rates, 402 

Reasons for attending convention, 154 

Reception to officers, 682 

Registration at convention. 644, 958 

Renort of the Secretary-Treasurer. 715 

Roller Chair Committee's schedule, 683 

St. Louis special train, 682 

Seaboard Air Line special, 686 

Transportation arrangements, 333, 438 

Vaudeville performance at convention, 


American Electric Railway Claim Agents' As- 
sociation. (See Claim Agents' Asso- 

American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation : 

Address of President Harvie, 733 

Committee on Buildinss and Structures, 

Meeting, 117; Report, 836; Discus- 
sion, 851 

Committee on Equipment. Meeting, 184; 

Report, *77=;; Comment, 7^9; Discus- 
sion, 767; [Harvie], 1158; [Barnes], 

Committee on Heavy Electric Traction, 

Meeting, 227; Report, 817; Discussion, 
769, 851 

Committee on Power Distribution, Report, 

792; Discussion, 770: Comment. 760 

Committee on Power Generation, Report, 

784; Discussion, 71^, 767 

Committee on Shop Accounting, Meeting, 

117; Report, 7.14; Discussion, 713. 

Committee on Standards, Report, 836; Dis- 
cussion, 851 

Committee on Way Matters, Data Sheet 

20; Meeting, 223: Renort, 722: Discus- 
sion, 737, 1 1 66 : [Schreiber], 1151; 
[French], 1150; Comment, 704, 1035 

Committee work for coming year, 1035 

Convention proceedings, 304, 737, 767. 

Executive Committee. Meeting, 1035 

Joint meeting with Accountants' Associa- 
tion, 713 
Question box, 723, 847 

Reports of committees, Method of pre- 
paring, 1035 

Resolutions on death of F. H. Lincoln, 


American Electric Railway Manufacturers' As- 
sociation : 
Annual meeting, 763 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XXXVI. 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' 

Association: (Continued) 

Exhibit Committee meeting, 305 

Executive Committee meeting, Annual, 


American Electric Railway Transportation & 
Traffic Association: 

Address of President Todd, 685 

Committee on City Rules, Meeting, 146; 

Report, 772; Discussion, 764; Com- 
ment, 759 

Committee on Construction of Schedules 

and Time Tables, Meeting, 255; Re- 
port, *82i; Discussion, 804; Com- 
ment, 759 

Committee on Express and Freight Traffic, 

Report, 735; Discussion, 717. 

Committee on Interurban Rules, Meeting, 

17; Comment, 3; Report, 734; Discus- 
sion, 716 

Committee on Passenger Traffic, Report, 


Committee on Transfers and Transfer In- 
formation. Meeting, 256; Report, 780; 
Discussion, 764 

Committee on Training of Transportation 

Employees, Report, 846; Discussion, 
804; Comment. 801 

Convention proceedings, 305, 687, 716, 

764, 804 

Election of officers, 805 

Executive Committee meetings, 329, 1073 

Rules for city railways, Bell signals, 209 

Rules for interurban railways, Bell sig- 
nals, 209 

Training of employees, Data sheet, 34 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
Annual convention, Discussion of rail- 
way papers, 81 
American Light & Traction Co. (See New 
York City) 

American Railway Association, Committee on 

Electrical Working, 1074 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 

Heavy electric traction discussed at 

London meeting, 12, 84, 298 
Amortization of capital, Paris franchise, 505 
Ampere-hour meters in Bordeaux, 507 
Amsterdam, Rail corrugation in, 4^4 
Anderson, Ind., Indiana Union Traction Co.: 
— i — Accident near Tipton, Ind., 493, 511, 1203 
Letter to Indiana Commisiun concerning 

recommendations for operating road, 


Announcers, Train, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Co., *396 

Anti-friction bearings. (See Bearings) 

Appleton, Wis., Wisconsin Traction, Light, 
Heat & Power Co., Bond issue, 126 

Appraisal of railway property: 

-Allowance for obsolescence upheld in fran- 
chise tax case of Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Co., 1 1 54 

Basis of valuation in case of municipal 

purchase [Ossoski], 999 

Chicago Consolidated Traction Co., Valua- 
tion by Arnold and Weston, 309, 374, 
1 1 1 1 

Coney Island & Brooklyn fare case 

[Ford], 752; Discussion, 712 

Detroit United Ry., 258, 294; Statement 

by Mr. Rifenberick, 297; [Bar- 
croft], C304; [Arnold], C372; 
Comment, 425 
Notes, 89, 122, 159, 198, 237, 413, 445, 

Report of Committee of Fifty, 111, 


Report of National Association of Rail- 
way Commissioners, 1062; Discussion, 


South Chicago City Ry., 650 

Toledo Railwavs & Lisht Co., 968, 990 

VVausau Ry., Wisconsin, 404 

Wisconsin street railways, 1043 

(See also Accounting, Depreciation) 

Arbitration. (See Strike prevention) 
Ardmore (Okla.) Traction Co., Sale, 310 
Armature bander (Horton), '659 
Armature bearings: 

Anti-friction bearings, Test of, Philadel- 

->hia IStitzer], '323; Comment, 318, 

(Westinehouse), *S22 

Armature coils, Aluminum [Mariage], 511 
Asbestos-wood switchboards (Johns-Manville) , 

Atchison (Kan.) Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Increase of capital stock, 890, 1079 

Mortgage, 926 

Athletic club, San Francisco, *398 
Atlanta, Ga.: 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co.: 

Benefit association, 433 

Bond sale, 1079 

Dividend, 970 

Telephone inspection system, 1001 

Traction erowth, 945 

Atlantic City (N. J.) & 'Shore R. R., Coasting 
tests [Hopkins], 79; Discussion, 82 

Atlantic Coast States. Traffic promotion, *S55 

Atlantic Shore Line Ry. (See Sanford, Me.) 

Auburn & Turner R. R. (See Turner, Me.) 

Auburndale, Mass., Theater at Norumbega 
Park, *22i 

Augusta, Ga. : 

Augusta- Aiken Railway & Electric Co.: 

Benefit association, 434 
Control, 162 
Incorporation, 1079 

Augusta, Ga.: (Continued) 
Oil cup, *87 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. (See Chicago) 
Austria, locomotive, Narrow-gage, geared, side- 
rod, *3oi • 
Austria-Hungary, Statistics on electric trac- 
tion, 293 

Automobile equipment of Kansas City Railway 
& Light Co., *i 2 8o 

Automobiles, Reckless drivers of, Railway em- 
ployees to assist in apprehending, in 
Connecticut, 380 


Discussion by Heavy Electric Traction 

Committee, 227 

European practice, 509 

Future demand for heat-treated, 457 

Specifications for heat-treated steel. Re- 
port of Committee, 817; Discussion, 
760, 851 

Steel, Report of Standards Committee, 836 

Babylon (N. Y.) R. R. : 

Bond issue, 1007 

Increase of capital stock, 482 

Baggage, Interline, 21, ro8 

Baggage check for interline roads, Discussion, 

Bakersfield (Cal.) Power, Transit & Light Co., 

Control of, 200 
Ball bearings. (See Bearings) 
Baltimore. Md. : 

Accident instruction for school children, 

*I49 . 

Car house. Park Terminal, *426; Com- 
ment. 425 

Chartered-car folder, *57o 

Dasher signs, *s68 

Front-door entrance of cars, Reasons 

against [House], 1187 

Passes discontinued, 344 

Sprinklers in car house, '428 

United Railway & Electric Co.: 

Fare matters, 440, 959, J255 

Guide map, "562 

Near side stops, io8t 

Residents' tickets withdrawn, IT27 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R., locomotive, Electric, 

* 1066 

Bangor, Me., Repair shop practice, 460 

Anti-friction. Car tests with, in Philadel- 
phia [Stitzer], "322; Comment, 318, 


—Ball bearings for car journals [Hopkins], 


(, "522 

Beebe interurban system, Central New York, 

Private car, *66a 
Betrgs, T. L, and the St. Louis Car Co., 331 
Bell signals. (See Sienals) 
Belton (Tex.) & Temple Traction Co., Sale, 


Benton Harbor (Mich.)-St. Joe Railwav & 
Light Co., Pav-as-you-enter cars, "194 
Berkshire Street Ry. (See Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Berlin, Germany: 

Elevated, Franchises TOssoski], 1000 

Rail corrugation in, 435 

—Subways proposed, "366 

Track construction in parked streets 

fWattman], "501 

Track foundations of reinforced concrete, 

. *43 

Bermuda, Proposed electric railway, 873 
Berne-Lots chherg Simplon Ry., Single-phase 

locomotives, *02o 
Binghamton (N. Y.) Ry., Earnings, 239 
Bins. (See Coal bins) 
Birmingham. Ala.: 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co., 

Dividend. 125 

Paving, Concrete mixer, *s 18 

Black River Traction Co. (See Watertown, 

N. Y.) 
Blanks and forms: 

Car construction progress, 498 

Construction, maintenance and emergency 

crews, 289 

Contract ard inquiry [Roberts], 226 

Daily car record, 819 

Emergency calls, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co., 395 

Freight bills, Uncollected, 870 

Maintenance of overhead construction, 

Brooklyn, 140 
Maintenance record of cars, Lynchburg, 

Va.. *r286 

Manufacturing orders, 748 

Motorman's daily car report, 985 

Return stores credit slip, 747 

Revision of. Report of committee, 825 

Shop records in Richmond, Va., 988 

Stockroom, 1059 the dnv. Boston 

vated Ry. [Dana], 1095 

Time ticket, 747 

Track maintenance, 731 

Block signals. (See Signals) 

Bloomsburg (Pa.) & Millville Street 
Mortgage foreclosure, 1126 

Blower, Steam Turbine, Tvphoon f'Wing), 

Boiler capacity and efficiency, Forced 

in connection with, Report of commit- 
tee, 784 




Boiler compounds, Question box of Engineer- 
ing Association, 847, 851 
Boiler room expansion, 171 

Boilers, Horizontal water-tube (Casey-Hedges), 

Bonding of underground cables, 771 
Bordeaux, Rail corrugation in, 435 
Boring bearings. Cylindrical chuck for, "659 
Boring tool. Expansion car wheel (Davis), 

* 9 2. 

Boston, Mass.: 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies, 

Notes paid off, 125 

Cambridge subway and steam railroad 

competition, 981 

Courtesy bulletins to passengers, 1087 

Electrification problem, Reports of N. Y., 

N. H. & H. and N. Y. Central rail- 
roads, 1031; Comment, 1014, 1054 

Elevated Ry. : 

Advertising pamphlets distributed from 

house to house, *i2o8 
Comparison with Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit as to operating results, 

Educational campaign, 856. 1045 
Freight and express, Petition to 

carry, 380 ... 
Interchange of cars considered, 1172 
Meetings of employees, 364 
Publicity bureau, 542 
Reduction in fare to Revere Beach 

denied, 11 71 
Report for nine months, 859 
Spacing signal, *i2io 
Stock issue, 969 

Superintendent of the day. Develop- 
ment of the office of [Dana], 


Welfare work, 968 

Hearing on extension of rapid transit 

facilities, 991 

Hyde Park Electric Light Co., Cost of 

production 873 

— — Massachusetts Electric Companies, Annual 
report, 12.S2 

Rail wear in Tremont Street subwav, 45° 

Suburban Electric Companies, Publica- 
tions, 54s 

Transit needs. Chamber of Commerce 

urees study of, 922 
West End Street Ry., Stock issue, 239, 


Boston & Albany R. R., Electrification at 
Boston, 961; Report on plans, 1034: 
Comment, 1014. 1054 
Boston & Eastern Electric R. R.: 
— — Hearings on extension, 196, 377, 478 _ 

Tunnel under Boston harbor, Hearing 

on, 1 14 

Boston & Northern and Old Colony Street 

Bond issue, 1007 

Cars, Open, *498 

Fare decision, Abington to Brockton, 915. 


Freight and express business, 1196 

— — Hearing on Newburyport fares, 906 

Instruction car, *252 

Lawrence, Mass., fare case, 311 

Revere Beach fare decision, 1 171, 1254 

Traffic promotion. Methods of, '541 

Boston & Western Electric R. R., Certificate 

received, 124 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies, Divi- 
dend deferred, 54 
Boston & Worcester Street Ry.: 

Limited service, 548 

Traffic promotion, 542 

Bracket, Trollev, for T2oo-volt line, Southern 

Cambria Ry., *35<> 
Brady, Arthur W., President of American 

Electric Railway Association, *8o6 
Brake rigging, Improved, for M. C. B. type 

truck, South Bend, Ind., *ii48 
Brake shoes: 

English standard. *n 

Safetv (Lancaster), *662 

Tests in England [Dawsonl. 876 

Tests with a new shoe, Philadelphia, 431 

Wear. Unequal, 3K0 

Brake slack adjuster (Standard Coupler Co.), 


Brakes, (Ackley) abroad, 750 
Brakes, Air: 

— ■ — Air purifving system (Spencer), *46 

Instruction in use of, Portland, Ore., 183 

Lock, Automatic (Kerschener), *4o8 

Braking, Relation to speed, 1180 

McKinley, Opening, 317, 344, 529, 873, 

* 1029 

Mineola, N. Y., *i226 

— : — Spokane & Inland Rv-, *I28i 
Willoughby, Ohio, '517 

British Columbia Electric Ry. (See Van- 
couver, B. C.) 

— — Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. : 

Bond issue, 239; Approval of Public 

Service Commission, 1282 
Discussion on parked streets, 149 
Earnings, 1125 

Fare case and the theory of rate 
regulation [Ford], 752; Discus- 
sion, 712 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

July — December, iqio.] 



Brooklyn : 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. : (Cont.) 

Issue of notes, 1254 
Operating statistics, 1127 
Fourth Avenue subway, Progress, 924 

Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 341; Comment, 388 
Changes in routine and discipline, 

Comparison of operating results with 
Boston Elevated Ry., 456 

Construction, maintenance and emer- 
gency crews, *288 

Dividend, 125 

Earnings, 1125 

Feeder installation features, *393 
Franchise tax case, Allowance for 

obsolescence upheld, 1154 
Hearing on service and ventilation 

of various lines, 1101 
High-tension operating rules, 390 
Instruction of student conductors, 360 
Light repairs and auxiliary circuit 

work, *395 
Line department, Efficiency features 

of construction and maintenance, 


Locomotive, Electric, '520 

Manufacturing facilities, storage, pur- 
chasing and experimental work, 
*938; Comment, 935 

Operating statistics, 1 127 

Third-rail construction and mainte- 
nance, *39o 

Transfer changes, 483 

Transfer system, '994; Hearing on, 
918, 960, 1037, 1 102; Comment, 

Wheel guard installations, 11 01 
Brooklyn Bridge traffic, 344 
Brushes, Carbon. (See Carbon brushes) 
Brussels, Rail corrugation in, 435 
Bucharest, Roumania, Proposed changes in 

electric railway system, 303 
Buenos Ayres, Proposed underground lines, 

Buffalo, N. Y.: 

International Traction Co. 

Interest on bonds, 859 

Reorganization, 53. 92, 239 
—Jamestown, Chautauqua & Lake Erie R. 

R.. Electrification, 160 
Litigation, Deposit of fare in fare box of 

pay-as-you-enter cars, ^51 
Burlington County Traction Co. (See Mt. 

Holly, N. J.) 
Burns from electrical contact [Moorhead], 


Business. Needs of, 1189 

Butte, Mont., Poles, Cast-steel, *193 


Cable anchors (DossertL *I284 
Cable clamps (Matthews), *47 
Cable grip (Perfection), *ni9 


Bonding underground, 771 

Specifications, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co., 941, 942 
Calgary, Alta., Can., P.-A.-Y.-E. notices, 93 
Cambridge, Mass. (See Boston) 
Canada, Flectric railway statistics, 11 
Canadian Pacific Ry., Electrification plans, 300 
Canvas for car roofing (Con-ser-vit), 664 
Capital, Returns on, 50 years ago, 1137 
Capital Traction Co. (See Washington, D. C.) 
Capitalization : 

President Mellen on, 914 

Rulings, Coney Island & Brooklyn fare 

case [Hewitt], 752; Discussion, 712 

Testimony before Railroad Securities Com- 
mission, T278 

Third Avenue Ry.. Decision, 909 

Car cleaning. (See Cleaning cars) 

Car construction: 

Boston & Northern St. Ry., Open cars, 490 

Center-vestibule steel cars, Oklahoma Ry., 

*H44, 1187 

Europe, Discussion, 509 

New York subway steel cars, '882 

Preservatives on car bodies, Question box 

of Engineering Association, 849 
Question D0X °f Engineering Association, 


Winnipeg, *6g 

Car design: 

Center-vestibule steel car, Oklahoma Ry., 

*I 142 

— — Chicago street railways, Report of super- 
vising engineers, "904 
Europe, Discussion, 509 

International Street Railway Congress, 

Discussion, 509 

Lessons from sturage-battery cars, 1136 

Milwaukee 1200-volt line, *I02 

One-man prepayment car [Boughton], 


Parlor car, Pacific Electric Ry., '635 

Pay-within cars: 

Cleveland, *9S4 

Washington, D. C, '1002 

Pittsburgh steel cars, "835 

Problems of, T70 

Proportions of long platform cars, 865 

Car design: (Continued) 

Reducing car weights, Report of com- 
mittee, *775; Discussion, 767; Com- 
ment, 759 

Seats, Distance between [Roberts], 768 

Storage battery cars, *I47 

Car fittings, Improving, 287 
Car houses 

Baltimore, Park Terminal, '426; Com- 
ment, 425 

Chicago City Ry., *95i 

Chicago Rys., 951 

Dayton, Ohio, Reinforced concrete [Lath- 

rop], *I264 
——Economies, Small, 934 

Fire protection. Question box of Engi- 
neering Association, 848 

New York, Second Avenue R. R., '901 

Car interchange. (See Interchange of cars) 
Car-mile statistics [Maynes], 514; Discussion, 
5 1 5 

Car service. Report of National Association 

of Railway Commissioners, 11 14 
Car weights: 

Boston & Northern open cars, 499 

Europe, Discussion, 509 

Lessons from storage-battery cars, 1136 

Paint and varnish. Weight of, 423 

Reducing, Methods for, Report of com- 
mittee, *775; Discussion, 767; Com- 
ment, 759 

Storage battery car, 1069 

Carbon brushes: 

Broken, Causes of. Question box of Engi- 
neering Association, 840 

Tests of Speer Carbon Co., St. Mary's, 

Pa.. 190 
Cardiff. (See England) 

Chartered. (See Chartered cars) 

Closed : 

Fort Worth, Texas, Turtle-back roof, 


Tohn^town, Pa., *354 
London Underground Rys., *2i2 
Milwaukee 1200-volt line, *io2 
Oklahoma Ry., *iooi 
Winuineg Electric Ry., *68 
Winnineg St Selkirk. *i6 

Combination, Oklahoma plan, *I20 

Convertible, Toronto, *ui8 

Cost of, and life, in 10 cities, 112 

Detroit, Appraisal by Barcroft, 296 


Aurora, Eliin & Chicago R. R., 618 
Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R., 

Express, combined with snow plow (Rus- 
sell), *3o6 


One-niece steel end box car. Southern 

Pacific Co.. 121 
Scioto Valley Traction Co., *868 

Funeral : 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 619 
Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry., 

Instruction : 

Boston & Northern Street Ry., '252 

Detroit United Ry., *T209 

Moonlight trail, Wichita, Kan., *477 

Observation : 

Montreal, *574 

Pacific Electric Ry.. "635 

Spokane & Inland Ry., '636 

Open. Boston & Northern St. Ry., *498 


Auburn & Syracuse Electric R. R., 

Aurora. Elgin & Chicago R. P., 618 
Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R., 


Oregon Electric Ry., *fi6o 
Otseeo & Herkimer R. R., 573 
Pacific Electric Rv., *6i% 
Spokane & Inland Ry., "636 

Pay-as-you-enter : 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., "155 
Benton Harbor, Mich.. *194 
Center entrance, Oklahoma, '1142, 

Chicago Citv Ry., 904 

Decatur. 111., Swinging fare box, '148 

Exhibits at Atlantic City, 691 

Jacksonville, Ela., '1247 

Loading speed of, too 

One-man car, Waco, Tex. [Bough- 
ton], *302 

Protecting cars at railroad crossings, 
Discussion, 153 

Syracuse, N. Y., *ng 

Toronto, Riot against railway com- 
pany, 1205 

Wichita, Kan., 

Wichita Falls, Tex., '48 
Pay-within : 

Cleveland, *<)54 

Model, at Atlantic City, 691 

Philadelphia, New seating plan, '474 

Washington, D. C, *ioo2, 1047 

Poultry. Evansville, Ind., 56 

Prepayment : 

Fare collection TBoylan], 819; Dis- 
cussion, 808 

Oklahoma. *IT42, TT87 

Omaha, Neb., *T28s 

Pittsburgh, Center entrance, "1155 

Pittsburgh, Steel cars, '834 

(Abbreviations- " NHlStrated. c Correspondence.) 


Prepayement: (Continued) 

Results of operation in New York, 11 

Seating arrangement, 898 

Turn-in device (Ohmer), 800, *i209 

Private, Beebe syndicate lines, '664 

Radial, in Europe, Discussion, 509 

Semi-convertible : 

Brill, 719 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 961 

Utah Light & Railway Co., *i284 

(Barber), '524 

Oklahoma, "1142, 1187 

Pittsburgh, * 1 1 5 5 

Single-end vs. double-end, 287 

Sleeping, Illinois Traction System, 618, 


Statistics for United States, 332 (Sup) 


Center-vestibule, Oklahoma Ry., "1142, 

Center-vestibule trailers, Pittsburgh, 


New York subway, *882 
Painting [Marshall], 912, 1074 

Storage-battery : 

Beach-Edison, 692 

Design and power consumption, 1136; 

I Hopkins], 1 207 
(Federal) double-truck, *io68 
Third Avenue, New York, *I47 
Twenty-eighth Street Line, New York, 

1 246 

— — Subway: 

Cleveland, 473 

New York, *882 

Turn-in, Ohmer device, 800, *i209 

Work, Value of, 99 

Cattle guard. Wooden, New York State Rys., 
* 1 100 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Ry., Freight ser- 
vice. 622 

Census report on municipal lighting stations, 

Center-nearirf?," Mealing of ti e word, in 
New York State railroad law. Re- 
port of committee, 1160; Discussion, 
1 161 

Central Electric Accounting Conference: 

Annual meeting, 1 [98 

June meeting on the "Greyhound," 20 

Proposed merger with the Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association, 513 

September meeting, 476, 514 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

Constitution and by-laws, 512, 1145 

Couplers, Discussion on, 403 

December meeting, 1145 

Map of association territory proposed, 512 

Merger with Accounting Conference pro- 
posed, 513 
September meeting, 512 

Standardization Committee meeting and 

report, 331, 403, '470 
Central Electric Traffic Association: 
August meetin?, 343 

Interurban railway guide proposed, 513 

July meeting, 145 

November meeting, mfi8 

Purpose and work [Neereamer], 519 

September meeting, 513 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co. (See Har- 

risburg, Pa.) 
Champaign, 111., Illinois Traction System: 
Accident near Staunton, 111., 644, 840, 


— — Annual report, 379; Comment, 353 

Block signal system, *io70 

Coal bin, Submerged, 434 

Dispatchers' signals, 1039, 1120 

Freight service, 620 

Freight terminal at St. Louis, '629 

Locomotive, 60-ton electric, '646 

McKinley Bridge opening, 317, 344, 529, 

873, *I029 

Peoria electrolysis decision, 916: Com- 
ment, 937 

Repair shop extension at Decatur, 111., 

„ *368 

Repair shop at Granite City, *i9o 

St. Louis express terminal station, '462 

Signal installation, 948 

Statistical report. Monthly, 1277 

Time table card, *6i6 

Waiting stations. *I276 

Water-power plant, Marseilles, TIL, 1277 

Charleston, (S. C.) Consolidated Railway & 

Lighting Co.: 

Benefit association, 433 

Increase of capital stock, ifi?, 200 

Charlotte (N. C.) Electric Railway, Light & 

Power Co.: 

Benefit association, 433 

Transfer of property, 11 70 

Chartered cars: 

Central New York and Atlantic Coast 

roads, *^6g 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Ry., 619 

Tnter-Urha-i Railway of Des Moines, 620 

Kansas City-Western Ry., 620 

New England roads, '552 

Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, 593 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 620 

Chicago : 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.: 

Annual report, 1292 
Milk traffic, 622 
Newspaper trains, 622 



[Vol. XXXVI. 

Chicago : 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. : (Cont.) 

Prepayment cars, * 1 5 5 
Purchase and improvements, 380 
Waiting station, Wheaton, 111., "626 

Board of Supervising Engineers: 

Powers, 218 

Secord renort of, 650, 655, 904, 911, 
951, 1026 
Chicago Lny Ky.: 

Car design, Report of supervising 
engineers, '904 

Car house construction, *95i 

Contract with city, 218 

Dividend. 1251 

Feeder calculations, *I026 

Newspaper advertising, 1038 
Chicaeo City & Connecting Rys. : 

Dividend, 54 

Increase in capital stock, 1253 
Chicago Consolidated Traction Co.: 

Bord deposits, 1044 

Ordinarce passed, 887, 924 

Reorganization, 162, 199 

Sale, 890, 10c;, 1170 

Sir't against Chicago Rys., 342 

Valuation of property by Arnold and 
Weston, 309, 374, 11 1 1 

Yerkes suit, 926, 969 
Chicago Rys.: 

Car design, Report of supervising en- 
gineers, *904 

Car house construction, 951 

Consolidation of, with Chicago Con- 
solidated Traction Co., 53, 238, 
1212, 1253 

Contract with city, 218 

Feeder calculations, *i026 

Increase in earnings, 415 

Receiver c hip. 482 

Rehabilitation expenditures, 446 

Reorganization, 12c, 

Tantalum lamps Tests of, *ii89 
Consolidation of elevated lines proposed, 

53, ifii, 239 

Flevatf d loon congestion. Report on, 56 

Franchisee [Ossoski], 999 

Loading speed of prepayment cars, 100 

Northwestern Elevated R. R., Annual re- 
port, 530 

Relations b»t"'een city railways and the 

public [ Weston 1, 1148 

Serv : ce improvements [Davidson], 1238 

Subways : 

Plans, nfi 

Traction fund for, 89 
Supervision a"d control of street rail- 

wavs rO=" ; o'-,l<il, 218 

Terminal electrification, 1291 

Ties, Chemical treatment, report of super- 
vising enrireers. om 

Track construction [Kelker], 740 

Welded joints. Electric, Statistics, 666 

Chicago to New York trolley trip [Van Valk- 

enhurphl, 470; Comment, 455 
Chicago I ake Shore & South Bend Ry. (See 

M'V'uVan City, Ind.) 
Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R., Financial 

Matters, 343 
Chicasro & Southern Traction Co.: 
— ■ — Receiver.*:, 800 
— — Suit of W S. Reed, 342 
Chippewa Vallev Railway, T ifht & Power Co. 

(See Fau Claire, Wis.) 
Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Cincinnati Traction Co., Note issue, 162 

No-seat-no-fare ordinance, Report against, 

Ohio Electric Ry., Passenger stations, 

„ . * 8 74 

— ■ — Ohio Traction Co., Dividend, 672 
Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Co., Hearing 

on sleain-electric interchange, 1155 
Circulars. (See Letters, Circular) 
Cities : 

Growth of, 8} 1 

Planning c't'es and transportation sys- 
tems [Wattman], *5oi, 508; Com- 
ment. 63, 494 

Claim Agents' Association: 

Address of Pre«id°nt Carpenter, 684 

Araneemc-t with Hooper-Holmes Informa- 
tion Bureau, 1 14 

Convention meetings, 686, 736, 765 

Dinner, 684. 706 

Flection of officers, 766 

Fxecutive Committee, 766 

Cleaning cars: 

Difficulty of. ->5o 

Waltham. Mass., 984 

Cleveland. Ohio: 

Cars, Pav-witbin, *954 

Cleveland & Eastern Traction Co., Bond 

isme. 277 
Cleveland Ry.: 

Accounting features of franchise, 
841: Correction of tables, 1194; 
Comment, 867 

Earnings for August and October, 
528, 1076 

Expiration of trial period, 1042 

Report for September, 922 
Cleveland. Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 

Motto. 367 
Eastern Ohio Traction Co.: 

Officers, 200 

Reorganization, 125 
Express husine<=s of the Electric Package 

Agency, '496 

Cleveland. Ohio: (Continued) 

Fire in car at Windermere shops, 504 

Fire protection of car yards, High-pres-. 

sure standpipe system, *663; Com- 
ment, 644 

Lake Shore Electric Ry. : 

Annual report, 858 
New stock issue 531 

Metal tickets [Radcliffe], 815 

■ Service, 1122 

Subway grants, 1041 

Traction situation, =;o, 89, 124, 160, 1168, 

1211, 1251, 1288 
Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R. (See 

Willoughby, Ohio) 
COj recorders, (See Gas, Flue) 
Coal : 

Analyses in power plant tests, 170 

Cost of [Hewitt], 745 

-Handling coal and ashes: 

New York & North Shore Traction 
Co., 1231 

Reading, Pa., '1023 
Volatile matter in coal, Report of Bureau 

of Mines, 987; Comment, 1089 
Coal bins. Submerged: 

Illinois Traction System, 434 

Minneapolis, *i86 

Coasting recorder tests on Interboroueh Rapid 
Transit Rv , New York [Putnam], 
*72; Discussion, 82; Comment, 64 

Coasting recorders (Hedley), *3iq 
Collision prevention. (See Accident claim de- 

Colorado Electric Light, Power & Railway As- 
sociation convention, 657 
Columbus, Ohio: 

— ' — Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry., Re- 
port of receiver, 1125 

Columbus. New Albany & Johnstown Trac- 
tion Co., Sale, 070 

— — Columbus Railway & Light Co., Dividend 
omitted, 672 

Tnterurban terminal. 90 

Scioto Vallev Traction Co., Freight ser- 
vice, *868 


Correspondence between the Mayor 
and the Governor of the State, 
440: Comment, 423 
Decla rst ; on of the ha-ks. 375 
Declared, on. 197; off, 887 
Disorder after strike. 235 
Dvnamiter apprehended, 1123, 1168 
Efforts toward settlement, 273; Com- 
ment, 285 
Police exnens»«, 968 
Results of =trike, 8Q7. 915 
State Board of Arbitration acts, 51, 

Temporary injunction against train- 
men, 402 
Union issue. 352 

Various notes, 208, 303, '326, 375, 
479, 527. 6«q, 8^7 
Columbus, Marion .1- Bucyrus R. R. (See 

Delaware. Ohio) 
Commodities. Increase in prices of, *88 
Commutator slotters: 

(Horton). *659 

— —(Place), *ti 
Commutators, Slotting. 85 ? 

Quest'on box of Engineering Association, 


Concrete mixer. Birmingham. Ala., * 5 1 8 

Congestion. (See Traffic congestion) 

Connecticut Co. (See New Haven, Conn.) 

Connecticut public service commission pro- 
posed [Mellen], 371 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry. (See Green- 
field. Mass.) 

Connellsville. Pa.. West Penn Rys., Bond is- 
sue, 92, 416 

Constantinople street railways, 1029 

Consulting engineer and the supply man [Rob- 
erts], 226: Comment, 211 

Contractors and manufacturers' agents. An 
eneineer's suggestion to [Roberts], 
226: Comment, 211 


Power, for electric railways, 353 

Suggested blanks for [Roberts], 226 

Centrol C^ee Mu , ''il"-unit Control) 
Controller handle, Wedge type (E. S. S. Co.), 

Controllers (Dick-Kerr), '854 
Copenhagen : 

Municipal operation of railways, 195 

Rail corrugation in. 435 

Cornell Univers'tv, Department of research 
proposed by President Schurman, 1013 
Corning, John W. : 
Presentation to, 853 

Resignation as secretary of Engineering 

Association. 824 
Corrugation. (See Rails, Corrugation) 
Cost of living, Senate report on, 101 

Automatic. Recommendations of Central 

Electric Railway Association, 331 

Discussion by Central Electric Railway 

Association, 403 

Illinois Traction System locomotive, '648 

Courtesy in travel, 1087 

Crane, Locomotive, for track maintenance, 
Newark [Schreiber], '727 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Crossings, Railroad: 

Overhead, Joint meeting in New York, 

1 1 86 

Protecting prepayment cars on, 153 

Question box of Engineering Association, 


Report of National Association of Rail- 
way Commissioners, 11 14 

Crossings of streets, Proper design, [Watt- 
man], "503 

Crossings of transmission lines, Specifications 
for, Report of joint committee, 792; 
Discussion, 771 

Culverts, Corrugated, Grand Junction, Colo., 

*8 3 3 

Current clocks. (See Current recorders) 
Current recorders: 

Coasting tests on Atlantic City & Shore 

R. R. [Hopkins], 79; Discussion, 82 

Coasting tests on Manhattan Ry., New 

York [Putnam], '72; Discussion, 82; 
Coinmei t, 64; (Hedley), 399 

Comments, 64 

Europe [Battes], 507; [Bouton], 510; Dis- 
cussion, 509 
Curtain roller, All-metal (Curtain Supply Co.), 



Dallas, Tex., Texas Traction Co., Circular on 

courtesy and loyalty. 927 
Dartmouth & Westport Street Ry. (See New 

Bedford, Mass.) 
Davenport, la., Tri-City Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 969 

— —Bond issue, 416 
Dayton, Ohio: 

Car house, Reinforced concrete [Lathrop], 

* 1 264 

rFranchise renewal ordinance, 529 

Dayton & Troy Electric Ry.: 

Newspaper advertisement, *s8i 

Train operation, *397 

Decatur, 111.: 

Decatur Railway & Light Co.: 

Small prepayment cars, '148 
Switch throwing device, *ii8 

Repair shops of Illinois Traction System, 

Definitions : 

Straight and swing runs, 823 

Third ra ; l, 769. 818 

Delaware Ohio, Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus 
R. R., Receivership matters, 1215, 

Delay records: 

Hudson tunnel trains, 998 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry., 985 

Value of, 979 

Democratic government, Weaknesses in, 285 
Denison (Tex.) & Sherman Ry., Manage- 
ment, 239 

Dennison, Ohio, United Electric Co., Sale, 343 
Denver City Tramway: 

Anti-pccident notice, 1294 

Bulletin, 1224 

Payment of bonds, 672 

Denver & Inter-Mountain R. R., New control 

and officers, 54 
Depreciation. (See Accounting) 
Des Moines (la.) City Ry., Franchise case, 

Detroit, Mich.: 

Detroit United Ry.: 

Fare question, 1076 
Instruction car, *i2og 
Milk and cream transportation 
[Parker], 1237; Comments, 1225 
Rail grinder, 729 
Sale of bonds, 672 
Traffic department organization, 576 
Traffic promotion [Keys], 689 
Track construction [Kerwin], 741 
Valuations of, 258, 294; Statement 
bv Mr. Rifenberick, 207; 
[Barcroft], C304; [Arnold], 
C372; Comment, 425 
Notes, 89, 122, 159, 198, 237, 

4'3, 445. 5-^8 
Report of the Committee of Fifty, 
hi, 142 

Tunnel, First train through, 236 

Ventilator ordinance invalid [Brooks], 


Dispatcher control over feeder circuits pro- 
posed [Adams], C519 

Dispatcher's Signals. (See Signals) 

Dispatching trains by telephone, New Hamp- 
shire Electric Rys., 1248 

Dixon, 111., Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Elec- 
tric Ry., Officers, 859 

Double-truck vs. single-truck cars, Albany de- 
cision, 1283 

Draft, Forced, in connection with boiler ca- 
pacity and economy, Report of com- 
mittee, 784; Discussion, 767 

Drill used as a boring mill, Charleston, S. C, 

Dubuque, la.. Park Theater performances, 189 
Duluth (Minn.) Street Ry.. Bond issue, 239 
Duluth- (Minn.) Superior Traction Co., 449 
Durham (N. C.) Traction Co., System, '44 

July — December, 1910.] 



(See Cleveland, 
(See Pottsville, 

Co., Bond issue, 

East Liverpool, Ohio, Steubenville & East 

Liverpool Ry. & Light Co., Block 

signals, *667 
East St. Louis (111.) & Suburban Ry., Fare 

case affecting, 23 
Eastern Ohio Traction Co 


Eastern Pennsylvania Rys 

Easton, Pa.: 

Northampton Traction 


Pennsylvania-New Jersey Rys, 

tion, 416 

Eau Claire, Wis., Chippewa Valley Railway, 
Light & Power Co., Bond issue, 1044 

Economy in use of current. (See Current 

Edgewater, N. J., New Jersey & Hudson River 

Railway & Ferry Co.: 
Bond sale, 672 

Sauvage brake slack adjusters, *476 

Edwards Hotel & City R. R. (See Jackson, 

Ejectments, Practice of different companies 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Ry., Increase of capi 

tal stock, 54, 449 
Electric Package Agency. (See Cleveland, Ex 

press business) 
Electric Railway Dictionary, Report of com 

mittee on, 772 
Electric railway industry, Status of [Arnold] 

J 79 

Electric Railway Journal : 

Convention issue, 539 

Index of articles in, 1261 

Electrical shock treatment [Moorhead], 366 
Electrolysis decision at Peoria, 111., 916 
Electro-pneumatic control. (See Multiple-unit 

Ejlevator, Grain, Illinois Traction System, 

Elizabeth & Trenton R. R. (See Trenton, 
N. J.) 

Emergency crews of Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Co., *289 

Emergency repair wagons: 

Automobile, Brooklyn, "395 

Gas-electric, New York, *igi 

Gasoline vs. other, Question Box of Engi- 
neering Association, 848 


Accidents, Classification. New York, 9 

Air brake instruction, Portland, 183 

Arbitration of wages: 

Albany, 56, 381, 492, 417 

Connecticut Co., 162, 416, 449, 492 

Massachusetts, 161, 240, 311 

Assignment to runs, Report on, 823 

Athletic club of San Francjsco, *398 

Baltimore. Car-house quarters, *42g 

Benefit Associations: 

Allentown, Pa., 1294 

Columbus, Ohio, 327 

San Francisco, *3g8 

Southern cities, 433 

Birmingham, England, 876 

Bonus systems, 170 

Cash bonuses, Capital Traction Co., Wash- 
ington, D. C, 200 

Club rooms, Chicago, 953 

Courtesy, Circular of Texas Traction Co., 


Department of trainmen, Indiana, 972 

Don'ts for conductors and motormen, 532 

Encouraging invention and inspection, 1263 

Extra list. Wages for, 1 

Instruction in use of current, 64, 507, 510, 

lOSS, 1217 

— —-Instructions to freight agents, Scioto Val- 
ley Traction Co., 870 

Instruction of student conductors, Brook- 
lyn, 360 

Instruction book for motormen of Syra- 
cuse Rapid Transit Co., *n88 

Instruction cars: 

Boston & Northern St. Ry., ^252 
Detroit Urited Rv., *i20o 

"Loyal men." Philadelphia arbitration, 992 

Maga'ines, Employees', 1224 

Meetings of Boston Elevated Ry., 364 

Motormen, Economy in use of current, 

64. 507. 5'0, 1055 

Prizes to section men. Ft. Wayne & Wa- 
bash Valley Traction Co., 1217 

Selection of transportation employees, 934 

Seniority system. 170 

Service and discipline regulations in 

Brooklyn, 1128 

Suggestions from conductors, 1261 

Training of transportation employees 

[Strong], 1 1 53 ; [Collins], 1159; Dis- 
cusion, 1 1 64 

Training of transportation employees, Re- 
port of Transportation and Traffic As- 
sociation, 846; Discussion, 804; Com- 
ment, 801 

Uniforms, Summer, 63 


Increase in New York State "up to 

the Legislature," 387 
Mobile, Ala., 433 

Employees : 

Wages: (Continued) 

Report of Senate Committee, 101 
Statistics in New York State [Blake], 


Employers' Liability Law, New York State, 


Engine and generator capacity in direct-con- 
nected units, Relation between, 830 
Engine room illumination, 65 
Engines, Gas and oil, in Europe, 510 
England : 

Cardiff properties, Depreciation of, 409 

Municipal Tramways Association, Annual 

conference, 876 

Surface contact system in, 507, 933 

Through tickets, Revenue from, 402 

Europe : 

Electric railway operating conditions, 350 

Standing rule for cars, 456 

Track construction in parked streets 

[Wattman], *Soi 

Evansville (Ind.) & Southern Indiana Trac- 
tion Co., Poultry car, 56 

Excursion cars. (See Cha-tered cars) 

Excursions and special parties: 

Central New York lines, 569 

Missisippi Valley railways, *6i6 

Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, 592 

Pacific Coast roads, 634 

Express companies, Operations of, on electric 
railways. 657 

Extensions of railways: 

— — Right of city council to order, Wisconsin 

decision, 1039 
Unprofitable suburban, 208 

Ear East, Electric railway possibilities, 1283 
Fare boxes: 

Combined box, register and turnstile 

(Langslow), *52i 

Defects of, 11 

Development of, 1181 

Legal requirements about depositing fares, 

3Si „,. . 

Portable, Use in Winnipeg, 69 

Prepayment cars [Boylan], 819; Discus- 
sion, 808 

Prepayment cars (R. R. & F. B. Co.), 

_*44i ■ 

Registering (Johnson), '523 

Swinging, '148 

Fare collection : 

Prepayment cars [Boylan], 819; Discus- 
sion. 80R 
Winnipeg, Man., 69 

Fare register and turnstile (Langslow), '521 
Fare registers compared with cash-fare re- 
ceipts, 515 


Abington, Mass., Hearing, 915, 1216 

Belleville, 111., Suit involving fare reduc- 
tion. 23 

City lines. Status [Arnold], 179 

Coney Island fare case and the theory of 

street railway rate regulation [Ford], 

752; Discussion, 712 
Conference of carriers with New York 

Public Service Commission, 41, 187 
Increase in fares: 

Manitowoc, Wis., 93 

New York City, Steam roads, 1, 
[Rlakel, 23; 38. 484, 673, 971. 

T060, IOOT, IIIO, I270 

Interference with collection of double 

fares on Tacoma line enjoined, 279 

Lawrence, Mass., case, Company sustained, 


f enox, Mass., Decision, 1046 

Newburvport, Hearin? by Massachusetts 

Railroad Commission, 906 
No-seat-no-fare ordinance, Syracuse, N. Y., 

312 317 

Oregon fare case decision, 57 

Pnri«, r->^ 

Penn. R. R.. Revision of commutation 

rates to New York City, 58, 971 

-Problem of the five-cent fare [Blake], 23; 

Discussion. 39 

Rate r eg , * T itin'\ f »*orv of. as develoned in 

the Coney Island fare case [Ford], 
752: Discussion, 712 

Reduction : 

Maryland Commission denies, 959 
Rochester & Suburban Ry.. 163 
Sunday excursions. 133 
Syracuse. Lake Shore & Northern 
R. R.. 1007 

Report of National Association of Rail- 
way Commissioners on rates and rate 
making. 1114; Discussion, 1192 

Report of New York State Street Railway 

Association, 1149; Discussion. 1161 

Report of Transportation & Traffic Asso- 
ciation, 689 

Revere Beach decision. 1171, 1254 

South Framingham, Mass., Hearing on 

fare reduction, 11c, 971 

■ — —Tariff construction. Circular letter sent 
out bv New York State Street Rail- 
way Association, 187 

Ten cities, 112 

Through fares, Albany decision, 424 

Troy-Albany fare decision, 278, 424 

Wisconsin rate situation. Discussion at 

convention of Wisconsin Electrical 

Association, 86 

Farm produce traffic, 1225 

Farming special run by New England Invest- 
ment & Security Co., "553 

Farmington, Mo., St. Francois County Ry., 
Sale, 380 

Federal Light & Traction Co. (See New 
York City) 

Feeder calculations for the Chicago street rail- 
ways, *J026 

Feeder design, Worcester, Mass., Flexibility 
in system, 195 

Feeder installation of Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Co., *393 

Fenders : 

Massachusetts regulations, 927 

Nelson, Description of, 1076 

Nelson recommended, in Portland. Ore., 

891, 1047 1076 

Trenton, N. J., ordinance, 928 

Financial : 

Cost of commodities [Blakel, 25; 88, 101 

Cost of electric railways [Potter], 84 

Cost of high-tension insulators [Austin], 


Cost of service, Detroit, 142 

Cost of track repairs, 730 

Costs of Boston metropolitan electrifica- 
tion district, 1033 

Franchises in Paris, 505 

Inducements to capital fifty years ago, 

„ 1 137 

Operating records of Pittsburgh Rys., 265 

-Operations of Cleveland railway system, 

842, 1194; Comment, 867 
Power generating costs in Lynchburg and 

Roanoke, Va., 365 

Reorganization of securities and value, 494 

— —Rhode Island and Connecticut companies 

compared, 980 
Fire insurance: 

American Electric Railway Association, 

Meeting and report of committee, 500, 

New York State Street Railway Associa- 
tion, Action of, 1 165 

Philadelphia premiums, 227 

Fire protection: 
Car houses: 

Cleveland, '504 

Dayton, Ohio, *I267 

Question Box of Engineering Asso- 
ciation, 848 

Second Avenue R. R., New York, '902 
Car yards of Cleveland Railway Co., 

High-pressure standpipe system, '663; 

Comment, 644 

Repair shops, Waltham, Mass., 982 

Sprinkler equipment, Baltimore, '428 

Flaming arc lamps for outdoor lighting, 409 
Floats, Trolley: 

Grand Rapids Ry., '373 

Manila, '195 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R. (See 

Gloversville, N. Y.) 
Ft. Dodg» (la ), Des Moines & Southern R. R., 

Possible electrification, 1192 
Fort Smith, Ark., Folding step, '1244 
Fort Wayne, Ind., Poles, Reinforced-concrete, 


Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co.: 

Accident near Kingsland, Ind., 493, 511 

Letter to Indiana Railroad Commission 

concerning operation of road, 1239 

Prizes to section men, 121 7 

Substation, steel portable, *522 

Fort Worth, Texas, Northern Texas Traction 

Co., Turtle-back, prepayment cars, 


r ranee. Electrification by the Midi Ry.. 833 

Awarding, Proper method of [Calhoun], 


Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Tax case, 


Chicago [Weston], 1 148 

Chicago and other cities [Ossoski], 1000 

Cleveland Ry., Accounting features, 841; 

Correction of tables, 11 94; Comment, 


Fox River Case, Wisconsin decision. 871 

Pamphlet on proposed franchise, Norfolk, 

.Va., 133 
Paris, 505 

Street rnilvvay [We c ton], 813 

Frankford, Tacony & Holmesburg Ry. (See 

Taconv, Pa.) 
Frederick (Md.) Railway, Stock issue, 1170. 

I2? 4 

Freight and express: 

Accounting units TMaynes], 514 

Boston Elevated Ry., 380 

Cleveland, Operation of the Electric Pack- 
age Agency, "496 

Discussion hy New England Street Rail- 
way Club, T 196 

Express companies operating on electric 

roads, 657 

Form of report, Illinois Traction System, 

t 277 

Illinois Traction System, 620 

Iowa railways, 622 

New England roads. 554 

Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, 598 

Pacific Coast roads, *637 

Report of committee of Transportation 

and Traffic Association, 330, 735; Bis 

cussion, 717 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XXXVI. 

Freight and express: (Continued) • , 

Scioto Valley Traction Co., *868 

Soliciting freight: 

Methods in Ohio, Indiana and Michi- 
gan, 604 

Mississippi Valley roads, 624 

Pacific Coast roads, 641 

Unit way-bill vs. Blanket way-bill, 516 

Freight stations: 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Ry., *6z2 

Cleveland, *497 

Detroit Electric Depot Co., '607 

——Facilitating track movement in, *472 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Muskegon line, *6os 

Illinois Traction System, *625 

Indianapolis Terminal, *6o6 

Jackson, Mich., '604 

Lancaster, Ohio, *86o 

Los Angeles Pacific R. R., *638 

Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, *6o6 

Pacific Electric Ry. '639 

Selkirk, Manitoba, *I5 

South Bend, Ind., '604 

Spokane & Inland Ry., '639, '640 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 

Traction Co., *6oo 
Front-door entrance of cars, Reasons against, 

in Baltimore [House], 1187 
Fuel. (See Coal) 
Fuel bin. (See Coal bin) 
Funeral cars. (See Cars, Funeral) 
Furnace, Mechanical stoker. (Under-Feed), 


Gage for mounting wheels, '779 

Gage of track on curves, Rules for determin- 
ing, 724; Discussion, 739 

Gainesville (Ga.) Railway & Power Co., Ma- 
chinery purchase, 890 

Gait (Ont.), Preston & Hespeler Street Ry., 
Electric freight locomotive, ^1284 

Gary (Ind.) & Interurban Ry., Bond issue, 

54, 1079 

Gas, Flue, Analysis of, Report of committee, 

785; Discussion, 767 
Gasoline cars: 

Jacksonville, Ore., *i2i 

Lambert friction drive, *666 

Pennsylvania R. R., out of Indianapolis, 


Gasoline-electric car, Point Shirley, Mass., 

Gate, Platform, Richmond, Va., *375 

Gear cases: 

Sand in, 249 

Welded steel, Development [Renshaw], 


Gears : 

Design and manufacture [Williams], 30; 

Discussion, 42 
Vibration of, 779 

Wear of railway motor gears [Williams]. 

*no3; Discussion, 1147 
(See also Pinions) 

Generator and engine capacity in direct-con- 
nected units, Relation between, 830 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co. (See Atlanta, 

Germany, Accidents in, 517 
Glasgow : 

Depreciation, Treatment of, 362 

Glasgow. Tramways, Annual report, 228 

Gloversville, N. Y., Fonda, Johnstown St 
Gloversville R. R. : 

Advertising contract, 565 

Bond issue, 277 

Dividend, 125 

Goldschmidt Thermit Co.. Changes, 662 
Grade crossings. (See Crossings, Railroad) 
Grand Junction (Colo.) & Grand River Valley 

Ry. System, *832 
Grand Rapids, Mich.: 

Grand Rapids Ry., Float, '373 

United Light & Rys. Co., Organization, 

55. 9 2 6 

Grand Trunk Ry., Electrification in Montreal, 

1 1 23 

Green Bay (Wis.) Traction Co., Sale of re- 
duced-rate tickets, 1274 

Greenfield, Mass.: 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry. : 

Snow removal conditions, 485 
Stock issue, 125, 482 

Railway power supply by central station, 

1 144 

Greenville (S. C.) Traction Co., Controlling 

interest, 449 
Grips, Wire or cable (Perfection), '1119 
Groton & Stonington Street Ry. (See New 

London, Conn.) 
Guard for paving, Steel, Waco, Texas, '907 
Guard rail point block, New York State Rys., 


Guard rails, Cast manganese, Wear of, '729 

New Hampshire Electric 


Harrisburg, Pa.: . 
Central Pennsylvania Traction Co., Re- 
port, 277 „ , '., 
Night service, Experimental, 127, 163 

Hartford (Conn.) & Springfield Street Ry., 
Dividend, 970 

Haverhill, Mass., 

Dividend, 200 

Train dispatching by telephone, 1248 

Headlight doors, Assembling glass in, '1040 

Headlight holder, standard, ^470 

Headway for cars in congested streets, 80 

Heaters, Car, Pressed steel (Cooper), *ii9 

Heating car houses, Chicago, 952 

Heating cars: 

Developments in [Williams], *nos; Dis- 
cussion, 1 146 

Laws of various cities [Williams], 1105 

Heavy electric traction: 

Austrian lines electrified, 293 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R., *io66 

Berne Congress discussion, 877 

Boston & Albany R. R., 961 

Boston metropolitan district, 1031; Com- 
ment, 1 014, 1054 

Canadian Pacific Ry., 300 

Costs of electrification [Potter], 84; 

[Westinghouse] 12 

Detroit River tunnel opening, 236 

Discussion at London Mechanical Engi- 
neers' meeting, 12, 84, 298 

Electrification standards [Westinghouse], 

12, 1167; Comment, 4 

European progress, 286 

Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R., 

Possibilities, 1192 

Future of [Davis], 468 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., 306 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., Plans, 463 

Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal Station 

in New York, Opening, 237, 373, 44c 
Comment, 349 

Report of Engineering Association com- 
mittee, *8i7: Discussion, 769, 851 

Standard system proposed by George 

Westinehonse, 12; Comment, 4 

Systems [Potter], 84 

(See also Locomotives, Electric) 

, Helsingborg, Rail corrugation in, 435 

High-tension direct current railways: 

Future of [Davisl, 468 

Johnstown, Pa., *354 

Precautions with high-voltage lines, 208 

Twelve-hundred volt lines of Milwaukee 

Electric Railway & Light Co., 

[Hewitt]. *io2 
High voltages, Precautions in the use of, 


Hill, James J., Degree awarded to, by Yale 

University, 2 
Hired power: 

Greenfield, Mass., 1144 

Segregation of railway and lighting ex- 
pense, 898 

Montreal Street Ry., 995, 1054 

Rails [Entwistle], 464 

Returns on capital 50 years ago, 1137 

Hoboken, N. J., Performance of electric 

locomotive, 121 
Hoists, Electric portable (Rochester), *i2i 
Holyoke, Mas?.. Thermit rail welding, 1120, 

rPellissier], *I245 
Hooper-Holmes Information Bureau, 114, 765 
Hoosac tunnel: 

Accident, 249 

Equipment orders, 773 

(See also New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford R. R., Electrification) 

Hoosick Falls (N. Y.) R. R., Issue of stock, 
1 1 70 

Hornell (N. Y.) & Bath Interurban Ry., Bond 

issue, 162 

Hornell (N. Y.) Traction Co., a consolidation, 

Hudson, 9 N? Y., Albany Southern R. R. : 

Bond issue, 1253 

Double-tracking, *4ii 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. (See New York 

Hudson River & Eastern Traction Co. (See 

Ossining, N. Y.) 
Hungary, Statistics of electric railways, 225 



manufacture, Durham (N. C.) Traction 
Co., 46 . . 

Illinois Railroad and Warehouse Commission, 
Conference to discuss operating meth- 
ods. 1201, 1242; Comment, 1262 
Illinois Traction System. (See Champaign, 

Illinois Valley Gas & Electric Co. (See 

Streator, 111.) 
Illuminating Engineering Society, Meeting, 

Indiana Railroad Commission Conferences with 
officials of interurban railways, 1201, 
1230; Comment 1262 

Indiana Union Traction Co. (See Anderson, 

Indianapolis. Ind.: 

Freight houses. Facilitating traffic move- 
ment in, *472 

Gasoline cars. 928 

Indianapolis & Cir 


ncinnati Traction Co.:_ 
;r to Indiana Railroad Commis- 
sion regarding operation of road, 


1 239 

Organization, n 26 
Sale, 92, 343, 672, 890, 926, 1079 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Indianapolis, Ind.: (Continued) 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western 

Traction Co.: 
Earnings, 1170 

Prizes for attractive substation 

grounds, *463 
Sale, 277 

September report, 970 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co. 

(See Louisville, Ky.) 
Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo Elec- 
tric Ry. (See New Castle, Ind.) 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co.: 
Dividend, 483 
Freight congestion, 1216 
Letter to Indiana Railroad Commis- 
sion concerning operation of road, 

Power plant at Indianapolis, '1281 
Traffic at the Indianapolis Traction & Ter- 
minal Station, 1008 
Injury by electricity. (See Accidents) 
Inspection, Encouraging extraordinary, 1263 
Inspection of transportation, Telephone system 

in Atlanta, Ga., 1001 
Instruction. (See Employees) 
Insulating material, _ "Bakelite," 1075 
Insulation measuring instrument, Megger, 


Insulators : 

Design and efficiency of high-tension [Aus- 
tin], '465 
— —Lightning, Ellect of [Austin], 465 

Section (Indianapolis), *i9o 

Southern Cambria Ry., 1200-volt line, 

, *356 

Wood strain, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 


Insulator testing machine, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co., *944 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (See New 

York City) 
Interchange of cars: 

Boston Elevated Ry., 1172 

Joliet &^ Southern Traction Co., Hearing 

at Chicago, 1210 

Massachusetts, Hearing in, 1068 

Steam-electric interchange, Hearing before 

Interstate Commerce Commission, 

1 '55 

Interline passenger service in Ohio and In- 
diana, 597 

International Exhibition of Electricity as Ap- 
plied to Railways, 152 
International Railway Congress, 184 

Austrian electric railways, Report on 

[Hruschka], 293, 301 

Electric traction discussion, 286, 877 

International Street & Interurban. Railway 
Association : 

Convention proceedings, Brussels, 508 

Papers, 434, 501, 504, 507 

Report on rail corrugation, 434 

Social program, 305 

International Traction Co. (See Buffalo, N. 


Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Bonds not subject to jurisdiction of, 1279 

Decisions in classification of accounts. 

Questions and answers, 188 
Development of system of accounts 

[Adams], 195 

Hearing on car interchange, 1155 

Rate hearings, testimony by Mr. Bran- 

deis, 1181 

■ Report of committee on affairs of the Com- 
mission, 809; Discussion, 771 

Steam railroad statistics, 236 

Interurban railways: 

Block signals for, 1014 

Car-mile statistics [Maynes], 514; Discus- 
sion, 515 

Cost of equipment [Potter], 84 

Financial problems and block signals, 866 

Operation, Illinois Railroad & Warehouse 

Commission conferences, 1201, 1242; 

Comment, 1262 
Operation, Indiana conferences between 

railway and state officials, 1201, 1239; 

Comment, 1262 

-Shortening delays in service, 99 

—Statistics, general [Price], 514; [Mc- 

Comb], 515; Discussion, 515 
What they do for the public [M'Gowan]. 


Inventions by employees, Encouraging, 1263 
Inventor's Guild, 1206 

Inventory of Toledo Railways & Light Co., 

968, 990 

Investment, Rate of return on, Wisconsin 
Commission, 404 

Invoices, Data concerning [Stubbs], 742; Dis- 
cussion, 721 

Iron, Non-corrosive, of high magnetic per- 
meability, 662 

Jackson, D. C, Election of, as president of 

A. I. E. E., 2 
Jackson, Miss., Edwards Hotel & City R. R., 

Suit to test Jim Crow law, 381 
Jacksonville (Fla.) Electric Co.: 

Dividend, 126 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, '1247 

July — December, 1910.] 



acksonville, Ore., Gasoline car, *i2i 
amestown, Chautauqua & Lake Erie R. R. 

(See Buffalo, N. Y.) 
anesville (Wis.) Street Ry., Sale, 970 
apan, American equipment in, 271 
im Crow law, Test of, in Jackson, Miss., 

Johnstown, Pa., Southern Cambria 1200-volt 
direct-current railway system, *3S4 

Joliet (111.) & Southern Traction Co., Hearing 
on interchanee traffic, 1210 

Journal bearings. (See Bearings) 

Journals, Desirability of device for checking 
end motion, 849 


Kansas City, Mo.: 

Depreciation charges, 424 

Kansas City Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 858 
Automobile equipment, *i28o 
Earnings, 482 
Syndicate closed, 672 
Kansas Gas, Water, Electric Light & Street 

Railway Association, 658 
Kennett Square, Pa., West Chester, Kennett 
& Wilmington Electric Ry., Reorgan- 
ization, 1215 
Kenosha (Wis.) Electric Ry., 1290 
Key ways, Effect on strength of shafts, 11 17 
Kingston (Ont.), Portsmouth S; Cataraqui Elec- 
tric Ry., Anti-accident notice, 381 


Lafayette, Ind., Terminal station, 198 
Lake Shore Electric Ry. (See Cleveland, 

Lancaster (Pa.) County Railway & Light Co., 

Purchase, 415 
Lansing, Mich., Michigan United Rys. : 

Annual report 1214; Comment, 1179 

Refund by conscience-stricken passenger, 

1 no 

Leechburg, Pa., Pittsburgh & Allegheny Val- 
ley Traction Co., Organization, 277 
Leeds, England, Track layout, *ni9 
Legal : 

Deposit of fare in fare box of pay-as- 

you-enter cars, 351 

Des Moines franchise case, 1290 

Double-truck vs. single-truck cars, 1283 

Peoria electrolysis decision, 916; Com- 
ment, 937 
Portland fare case, 57 

Right of city council to order extensions, 

Wisconsin decision, 1039 

Through fares in Albany, 424 

Legal notes: 

Charters, ordinances and franchises, 156, 

XT 233. 337, 963 

Negligence. Liability for, 15, 231, 337, 

443, 884, 964 
Legislation affecting railways, 52, 299 
Legislation in Europe, 508 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, 

Lenox, Mass., Hearing on fares, 484, 1046 
Letters, Circular: 

Central New York and Atlantic Coast 

roads, "563 

London Underground Rys., '1092 

New England roads, 549 

Ohio, Indiana, Michigan roads, 591 

Lewiston Augusta & Waterville Street Ry., 

Dividend, 126 
Lighting cars: 

-Emergency storage battery, 1142 

Tantalum lamps, tested on Chicago Rys., 


Lighting engine room by electricity, 65 
Lightning arresters: 

Aluminum, for underground cables (G. 

E.), *33S 

Electrolytic (Westinghouse), *882 

Lignite of North Dakota as a fuel for power- 
plant boilers, 1098 

Lille, France, Track construction in parked 
streets [Wattman], *5oi 

Lima (N. Y.) & Iloneoye Electric Light & 
Railroad Co., Transfer of property 
and issue of stock, 126, 380 

Lima, Ohio: 

Waiting station, '874 

Western Ohio Ry., Lease of property, 

126, 162 
Limited service: 

Boston & Worcester Street Ry., 548 

Central New York roads. 57^ 

Earnings of, Cleveland, Painesville & 

Eastern R. R., 948 

Montreal Street Ry.. 573 

Lincoln, Frederick II. , Death of, 154; Reso- 
lutions, 225 

Little Rock (Ark.) Railway & Electric Co., 
Transporting mail carriers, 1216 

Liverpool Corporation Tramways, Annual re- 
port, 476 

Loading speed of prepayment cars, 100 
Locomotives. Electric: 

Raltimore & Ohio R. R., *io66 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., "520 

Data on locomotives of American design, 

fWestinghousel, 13 

Locomotives, Electric: (Continued) 
Design [Storer and Eaton], 76; Discus- 
sion, 81 

Freight, Gait, Preston & Hespeler Ry., 


Grand Junction & Grand River Valley 


Illinois Traction System, 60-ton, *646 

Narrow-gage, geared side-rod, for Aus- 
trian single-phase railway, "301 

Nosing of, 210, 319: [Eaton], *C334 

Panama Canal, for haulage, 1236 

Problems in design, 210, 319; [Eaton] 

_. * c 334 

Single-phase, Berne-Lotschberg Simplon 

Ry., *92o 

Steam turbine locomotive on Caledonian 

Ry., 251 

Switching locomotive performance, Hobo- 
ken, N. J., 121 

London : 

Letters from, 49, 234, 376, 526, 966, 1121 

London County Council Tramways, Or- 
dering and standardization of sup- 
plies, *363 

Traffic conditions [Shaw], 184 

Underground Rys.: 

Advertising for traffic, 1092; Com- 
ment, 1088 
Cars, schedules, tests, power coiv 

sumption, signals, # 2i2 
Dividend, 343 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., Elec- 
trification, 306, 788 

Long Island City, New York & Queens County 

Earnings, 11 25 

Hearing on service, 1155 

Operating statistics, 11 27 

Long Island R. R., Bond issue, 415 

Los Angeles, Cal. : 

Los Angeles-Pacific Co.: 

Commutation rates, 1081 

Dnn'ts for employees, 532 
Los Angeles Ry.: 

Increase of capital stock, 162, 482, 

Mereer, 1044 
Pacifc Electric Ry. : 

Acquired by Southern Pacific, 1079 

Traffic promotion. * 

Report of Board of Public Utilities, 11 16 

Louisville, Ky. : 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co., 

Crossing signs, *j6^ 
Louisville & Eastern R. R.: 

Extension increases land value, 857 

Sale, 1080, 1215 
Lubrication : 

Engineer's valve, Question Box of Engi- 
neering Association, 849 
Gears, 11 03, 1147 

Graphite wood grease (Dixon), 668 

Qil cup (Economy), *87 

Lynchburg. Va.: 

Benefit association, 433 

Maintenance record of cars, 1286 

Park development, "1098 

Power generating costs, 365 


McCall Ferry. Pa., Power station, 880 
McKinley Bridge opening, 317, 344, 529, 873, 

* I 020 

McKinley Syndicate. (See Champaign, 111.) 

Magazine. Company, Value of, 682, 1224 
Magazines, pamphlets, folders, etc., Company, 

558. 5 6r, 587 . 
Mail carriers, Transporting, in Little Rock. 

Ark, 1216 

Maintenance of cars, Waltham. Mass., *g8? 
Maintenance of tracks_ and roadways, Eco- 
nomical [SchreiberJ, *y2y 
Manchurian Electric Ry., Notes, 945 
Manila, Trolley float, ^195 

Manitowoc (Wis.) & Northern Traction Co., 
Fare increase, 93 


Berlin subway system, 366 

Illinois Traction System, 621 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., 172 

Milwaukee. 1200 volt line, 102 

— - — New England roads. 550 

New York & North Shore Traction Co., 


New York subway lines, 412, 967, 1071, 

. 1156 

Pittsburgh, showing _ traffic movement, 

earnings per capita and time zones, 
269, 270, 292 

Readinc, Pa., and territory served from, 


Second Avenue R. R., New York, 900 

Southern Cambria Rv., 354 

Trolley route from Chicago to New York, 


Wilmington (N. C.) Railway System, 


-Winnipeg Electric Ry., 66 

Marker bracket and arm, standard, *47o 
Marseilles, Til., Water-power plant. 1277 
Maryland Public Service Commission, Fare 

reduction denied, ^959 
Massachusetts, Legislation in, 52, 299 
Massachusetts Electric Companies (See Bos- 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Massachusetts Railroad Commission: 

Fender regulations, 927 

Hearing on Abington fare petition, 915 

Hearing on Boston & Eastern, 115 

Hearing on Boston rapid transit extension, 


Hearing on interchange of cars, 1068 

Hearing on Newburyport fares, 906 

Hearing on South Framingham fares, 115 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association, 

December meeting, 1232 
Mattoon (111.) City Ry., Change of name, 449 
Mauch Chunk, Pa., Carbon Transit Co., 

Mortgage, 54 
Meadville (Pa.) & Cambridge Springs Street 

Ry., Deposit of bonds, 277, 310 
Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Co., Statistics, 


Memphis (Tenn.) Street Ry., Suit, 162 
Meridian (Miss.) Light & Railway Co., In- 
crease of stock, 277 
Meters, Steam, Principal types of, 787 
— —(Lea). *374 
Michigan railway statistics, go 

Michigan City, Ind., Chicago, Lake Shore & 

South Bend Ry: 
Development of passenger traffic [Wood- 

ard], *ii09 

Power tests [Davis], 468 

Michigan United Rys. (See Lansing, Mich.) 
Middlesex & Boston St. Ky. (See Newtonville, 

Mass. ) 

Mileage of electric railways in the United 
States, 332, Sup. 

Milford (Mass.) & Uxbridge Street Ry. : 

Bond issue, 343 

Hearing on fares, 115, 971 

Milk transportation [Parker], 1237; Com- 
ment, 1225 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 622 

Millbury, Mass., Power plant, 1280 


Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 

1200-volt d. c. interurban lines 
[Hewitt], *i02 

Socialists on traction situation, 237 

Track work in Public Service Building, 


Traffic conditions, Investigation, Headway 

for cars in congested streets, 80 

Milwaukee X Pox River Valley Ry., Applica- 
tion granted by Wisconsin Railroad 
Commission, 871 

Mineola, N. Y., New York & North Shore 
Traction Co., System [C.ectlius and 
Emerson], *i226 

Minneapolis, Minn.: 

Bonding with oxy-acetylene torch, '369 

Coal bins for j submerged storage, *i86 

Rail corrugations, Removal of, 729 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 171, 199 

Folder, *6n 
Missoula (Mont.) Street Ry., Stock increase, 


Mobile, Ala.: 

Benefit Association, 433 

Traffic notes, '907 

Wheel experience rCoffin], "1235 

Monmouth, III., Rock Island Southern R. R., 

Construction progress. 117 
Monorail line, New York, Accident. *I4S 
Monthly statements (See Accounting) 
Montreal Street Ry. : 

Annual report, 1006 

—Holding company proposed, 672 

-Mutual Benefit Association, Report, 202 

New control. 995, 1054 

Observation car, *574 

Repair shops, *9o8 

Rules governing operation. n 28 

Rumored amalgamation. 416, 482, 970, 

1251, 1292 

Moscow Railway, Statistics of passengers car- 
ried. 688 

Motor armature bearing (Westinghouse), *522 
Motor driving for machine tools. Individual, 


Motormen (See Employees) 
Motors, Electric: 

( Allis-Chalmers). '230, '85s 

Commutating pole. Statistics, 88 

Destinies of 500-volt d. c, 1200-volt d. c. 

and 6.600-volt a. c. motors [Davis], 

468; Discussion, 513 

Interpole (Allis-Chalmers), *2,30 

Maintenance^ of interpole. Question Box 

of Engineerine Association, 849 
Two-motor vs. four-motor car equipments, 


Ventilation, Forced, Long Island R. R. 

[Renshaw], *38 

Mt. Holly. N. L. Burlington County Traction 
Co., Bond issue disapproved by Com- 
mission, 300, 342 

Multinle-unit control: 

Hand-operated : 

Peoria Railway Terminal Co., 1247 


(Westinghouse), 682 

Maintenance of electro-pneumatic type, 

Maintenance _ of equipment, 210 

Municipal operation of railways, Copenhagen, 

Municipalities and street railways [Calhoun], 



[Vol. XXXVI. 


Napa, Cal., San Francisco, Vallejo & Napa 
Valley Ry., Receivership, 1080 

Nashville (Tenn.) Railway & Light Co., Divi- 
dend, 54 

National Association of Railway Commis- 
sioners : 

Annual convention, 1061, 1114, 1192 

-Report of committee on meeting of, 808 

National Civic Federation, Discussion of strike 
prevention, 120s 

National Electric Light Association, Joint 
meeting in New York on overhead 
construction, 1186 

National Society for Promotion of Industrial 
Education, Convention, 1073 

National Stock and Bond Commission. (See 
Railroad Securities Commission) 

Nelsonville, Ohio, Sunday Creek-Hocking Trac- 
tion Co., Bond issue, 1215 

Neurosis, Traumatic, 397 

Nevada (Mo.) Water, Light & Traction Co., 

Incorporation, 92 
New Bedford, Mass.: 

Consolidation of railways, 343 
Dartmouth & Westport Street Ry: 

Consolidation, 926 

Freight and express, 1196 

Retirement of bonds, 200 
New Bedford & Onset Street Ry., Freight 

and express business, 1 196 
Union Street Ry., Proposed consolidation 

with Dartmouth & Westport line, 343, 


New Castle, Ind., Indianapolis, New Castle & 
Toledo Electric Ry., Mortgage fore- 
closure, 926 

New Castle, Pa., Wilmington, New Castle & 
Southern Ry., Sale, 1007, 1126 

New England, Traffic promotion in, *54o 

New England Investment & Security Co. (See 
Springfield, Mass.) 

New England Street Railway Club: 

December meeting, 1272 

— ■ — Freight and express traffic discussed, 1196 

■ November meeting, 1196 

Trolley Information Bureau, *^4i 

New Hampshire Electric Rys. (See Haver- 
hill, Mass.) 

New Haven, Conn.: 

Connecticut Co.: 

Annual report, 671 

Arbitration of wages, 93, 162, 492, 

.416, 449 

Connecticut and Housatonic companies, 

Operating statistics, compared with 
Rhode Island Co.. 980 

Shore Line Electric Ry., Trucks, *883 

New Jersey: 

Public utilities a campaign issue, 919 

Public Utility Commission, 124; Work of 

rMcCarter], 1272 
Standard classification of accounts in, 276, 

330. 957 

Transportation of police officers, 532 

New Jersey & Hudson Riv-r Railway & Ferry 

Co. (See Edgewater, N. J.) 
New London, Conn., Groton & Stonington 

Street Ry., annual report, 239 
New Orleans: 

American Cities Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 415 

Dividend, 1253 
New Orleans Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 1043 
New South Wales, Statistics of railways, 912 
New York Central R. R. : 

Equipment trust certificates subject to ap- 
proval of Commission, 51 

Report on electrification in Boston, 1031; 

Comment, 1014, 1054 

New York City: 

Accidents in May, June and September, 

126, 241, 1007 
American Light & Traction Co.: 

Dividend, 125 

Merger with North American Co., 
41 1 

Central Park, North & East River R. R. : 

Order to exchange transfers, 59, 278, 

971. 1135, 1171, 1270 
Sale, 482 

Commutation rates increased by steam 

roads, 1 [Blake], 23, 38, 484, 673, 
°33i 97 1 , 1060, iogi, irio, 1270 

Famines of companies, 112=; 

Federal Light & Traction Co. : 

Increase of capital stock, 92 
Organization and officers, 277 

Forty-'econd Street, Manhattanville & St. 

Nicholas Avenue Ry., Sale, 54, 343, 
380, 531, 890, 1044 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R.: 

Delays to trains, Statistics, 997 

Earnings, 1125 

Fire in power station, 1223 

Jersey City terminal, Action of 

Mayor, 388 
Operation extended to Thirty-third 

Street, 1045 
Operating statistics, 1127 
Proposal to build and operate the 
triborough subway, *io7i; Com- 
ment, 10S3 
Proposal to construct West Side sub- 

wav. 478 
Registering device, 372 

New York City: 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. : (Continued) 

Report of, 889 
Trucks (Baldwin), *i2o8 
Tunnel extension to Thirty-third 
Street, 962 

Interborough-Metropolitan Co., Retire- 
ment of bonds, 200 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 447 

Coasting recorder tests (Putnam), 
*72; Discussion, 82; Comment, 64 
Coasting register, "399 
Earnings, 1125 

Extensions approved, 121 1 
Third-tracking, 669, 1004 
Financial statement for two years, 

Operating statistics, 11 27 

Proposal to build and operate new 

subway lines, 1156; Comment, 

1136; Endorsed by Commission, 

1224, 1249 
Steinway tunnel to be operated, 1004 
Subway : 

Fans in cars, 308 
Rail wear, 99 

Service, Hearing on, 1152, 1206, 

Service, Relation of braking 
efficiency to headway, 1180 
Traffic record, 1293 
Traffic order suspended, 163, 344 

Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent Co., 

Opinion of Public Service Commis- 
sion, 307 

Metropolitan Securities Co., Settlement of 

suit, 12s 
Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Car, New type of, 961 

Earnings, 1125 

Franchise tax. Collection of, 890 
Litigation, 416 
Operating statistics, 11 27 
Receivers must pay taxes, 239 
Reorganization, 91, 531 
Sale of property, 482, 1044 
Service, 1254 

Settlement of demands, claims and 

contracts, 1007 
Suits discontinued, 200 
Transfer order, 59, 278, 971, 1135, 

1 1 7 1 , 1 270 
Transportation service, Regulation of, 


Unused horse car tracks, Proposal to 
remove, 1003 

New York City Ry., Sale of stocks and 

bonds, 239 

Pelham Park & City Island R. R. mono- 
rail line, Accident, "145 

Pennsylvania Railroad 

Opening of station, 237, 373, 445 
Passenger fares, 38, 933, 971, 1091 

Public Service Commission: 

Budget exhibit, *949 
Correspondence with F. W. Whit- 
ridge, 109 
Seaman, H. 15., resigns as Chief En- 
gineer, 527 

Rapid Transit conditions, 50, 160, 275, 

339. 377. 527, 197, 241, 307, 1042, 
1122, 1289 

Rapid Transit conveniences, A lesson in, 


Rapid transit service, Newspaper discus- 
sions, 1180 

Second Avenue R. R.: 

Issue of receiver's certificates, 672, 

^ 92 ^ • • 

Operating statistics, 903 

Rehabilitation, *goo 

Subways, New: 

Bids for construction with municipal 

funds, 412, 967, 1003 
Discussion at public engineering 
meeting. 878. 91s; Comment, 865 
No bids, with private capital. 922 
Peters, Ralph, on New York's transit 

needs, 856 
Proposals bv Hudson & Manhattan 
R. R., 478, *io7i; Comment, 936, 

Proposal by Interborough Rapid 
Transit Co., 122, *n.s6; Com- 
ment, 1 136; Endorsed by Com- 
mission, 1221, 1249 

T ue c , ClaFses of rT rippl. 844 

Third Avenue Bridge Co., Opinion of 

Commission on application of, 339 

Third Avenue R R.: 

Certificates paid off, 92 
Depreciation tables, 263 
Famines. 112=; 
Operating statistics, 1127 
Receiver's correspondence with 
Public Service Commission, 
Volume III., 109 
Reorganization plans, 126, 161, 239, 
262, 494, 909, 961, 1040, 1137, 
1 1 70 

Reorganization, F'inal decision, 1207 

Sale of securities, 416, 483 

Storape battery cars, *I47 
Thirty-third Street. Broadway and Sixth 

Avenue. A focus of transportation 

systems, 10 13 

Twenty-eighth & Twenty-ninth Streets 

Crosstown R. R. : 

Sale postponed, 891 

Storage battery cars, 1246 

New York City: (Continued) 

Union Ry., Gas-electric emergency wagon, 


New York to Chicago trolley trip [Van Val- 

kenburgh], 470; Comment, 435 
New York Electrical Show, 656 
New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R.: 

Commutation rates, Increase ol, 1, LBlake], 

2 3i 484. 673. 1060, 1091, mo, 1270 

tlectrihcation plans, 455, 463 

Power station at New Haven, Proposed, 


Report on electrification in Boston, 1031; 

Comment, 1014, 1054 
Shareholders, 200 

Single-phase service, Record [Westing- 
house], 12 

New York & North Shore Traction Co. (See 

Mineola, N. Y.) 
New York & Queens County Ry. (See Long 

Island City, N. Y.) 
New York State, Traffic promotion, in central 

part *555 

New York State Public Service Commission: 

Conference on passenger tariffs, 41, 187 

Policy defined by Carlisle, 42 

Report on Albany cars, 1283 

Troy-Albany fare decision, 278, 424 

New York State Street Railway Association: 

Circular letter on tariff construction, 187 

Convention, Annual, 38 

December meeting, 1160 

Election of officers, 42 

Report of committee on insurance, 1165 

Report of committee on meaning of word 

"center-bearing" in the New York 
State railroad law, 1160; Discussion, 
1 161 

Report of committee on new schedule of 

annual dues, 1 161 
Report of committee on traffic and tariffs, 

1149; Discussion, j 1 6 1 
Shop accounting, Discussion on report of 

committee, 1 161 
New York, Westchester & Boston Ry. : 

Bond issue, 277, 926 

Electrification plans, 463 

Newark, N. J., Public Service Ry.: 
Note issue, 672, 891 

Office building, 10^4, *I233; Comment, 


Purchase of New Jersey & Hudson River 

Railway & Ferry Co., 92 

S'ihv ay o*i er, 1288 

Tickets, Sale discontinued, 859, 1082 

Track department [Sclireiber], '727 

Newport News (Va.) & Old Point Railway 
&• Electric Co.: 

Bond issue, n 70 

Notes retired, 531 

Newspaper trains, Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 

R. R., 622 

Newspapers, Treatment of, by the railway 

manager, 135 
Newton, Mass., Transfer charge of one cent. 


Newtonville, Mass., Middlesex & Boston Street. 

„ R y-; 

Car maintenance, *982 

Norumbega Park, *22i 

Transfer charge sustained, 343 

No-seat. (See Fares) 

Norfolk (Va.) &• Portsmouth Traction Co.,. 
New franchise, 133, 160, 198 

Northampton Traction Co. (See Easton, Pa.) 

Northern Illinois l ight & Traction Co. (See 
Ottawa, 111.) 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (See 
Akron, Ohio) 

[Northern Texas Traction Co. (See Fort 
Worth, Texas) 

Norwalk, Ohio, Sandusky, Mansfield & Nor- 
walk Electric Ry., Mortgage fore- 
closure, 1215 

Oakland, Cal.: 

Oakland & Antioch Ry., Bond issue, 126 

Oakland Traction Co., Proposed purchase 

of rolling stock, 1215 

Southern Pacific Ry., Trucks, *883 

Office building of Public Service Corporation, 

Newark, N. J., *i233; Comment, 

1 223 

Ogden (Utah) Rapid Transit Co., System, 

Ohio Electric Ry. (See Cincinnati, Ohio) 
Ohio Traction Co. (See Cincinnati, Ohio) 
Oil cup (Economy), *87 
Oklahoma Ry. : 

Center- vestibule steel cars, *ii42, 1187 

Combination cars, *i2o 

Single-truck car, *iooi 

Olean, N. Y., Western New York and Penn- 
sylvania Traction Co., Fare complaint, 


Omaha (Neb.) & Council Bluffs Street Ry.,. 

Prepayment cars, *T28$ 
Oregon Electric Ry. (See Portland, Ore.) 
Organization diagrams: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 945 

Second Avenue R. R., New York, 900 

Winnipeg Electric Ry., 66 

Organization of traffic departments: 
Detroit United Ry., *576 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

July — December, 1910.] 



Organization of traffic departments: (Con- 

Mississippi Valley railways, 610 

New York State Kailways, 555 

Ossining, N. Y., Hudson River & Eastern 
Traction Co., Bond issue, 890 

Ottawa, 111., Northern Illinois Light & Trac- 
tion Co., Officers, 1254 

Overhead appliances. (See Insulators, etc.) 
■Overhead construction: 

Brookiyn Rapid Transit Co., '136 

Crossings, Joint committee meeting in 

New York, 11 86 

— — Detroit, Appraisal by Barcroft, 295 

European practice, 509 

Maintenance records, Brooklyn, *I39 

Southern Cambria Ry., "356 

Owosso (Mich.) & Corunna Electric Co., Sale, 

Oxy-acetylene torch for rail bonding, Minne- 
apolis, *36g 

Pacific Electric Ry. (See Los Angeles, Cal.) 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. (See San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.) 

Paint, Weight of, on cars, 423; [Adams], 768. 


Painting cars: 

Experiences with steel cars [Marshall], 

912, 1074 

Question Box of Engineering Associa- 

' tion, 849 

Panama Canal, Electric locomotive for haul- 
age, 1236 


Fares, Low, 505 

New franchise conditions, 505 

Park accounting [Schmock], 22 
Parked streets. (See Reservations) 
Parks and pleasure resorts: 

Durham (N. C.) Traction Co., "44 

Excursion traffic to, Discussion by Trans- 
portation and Traffic Association, 688 

Lynchburg, Va., Attracting business, *iog8 

Norumbega, Auburndale, Mass., Theater, 


The?t' rs: 

Norumbega Park, *22i 

Union Park, Dubuque, la., 189 

Trains, Miniature electric, Hershey, Pa., 


Wrightsville Beach, N. C, *458 

Passenger counts, Report on, 822; Discussion, 

Paving : 

Aebetli macadam, Montreux, 504, 510 

Detroit, Appraisal by Barcroft, 297 

Maintenance [Schreiberl, 730 

Most desirable type, Question Box of En- 
gineering Association, 848 

Paving guard laid against T-rail, Waco, Texas, 

Pay-day economies, 830 
Pay rolls: 

Accounting to public service commissions, 


Data concerning [Stubbs], 742; Discus- 
sion, 721 

Peak load. (See Power station practice) 
Pelham Park & City Island R. R. (See New 
Yo'k City) 

Pennsylvania-New Jersey Rys. (See Easton, 

Pennsylvania R. R. : 

Commutation rates to New York terminal. 

38, 971, 1061 

Fares, extra, in river tunnel, 933 

Terminal station, New York, Opening, 

237, 373. 445: Comment, 349 

■Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, An- 
nual meeting, 1 167 

Peoria (111.) electrolysis decision, 916; Com- 
ment. 937 

Peoria Railway Terminal Co., Hand-operated 

unit switch control, 1247 
Philadelphia : 
American Rys.: 

Annual report, 530 

Readjustment, 890 
Anti-friction bei-ings, car tests [Stit- 

zer], *322: Comment, 318, 408 

Arbitration on "loyal men,' 992 

Brake c hoe tests, 431 

Cars, Pay-within, New seating plan, *474 

Elevated railway, Hearing on proposed, 


Interstate Rys., Stock issue proposed, 

415, 026, I044_ 1079, 1 126, I2q3 

Investigation by Ford, Bacon & Davis, 


Philadelphia & Suburban Elevated R. R., 

Plans for development, 413 

— : — Philadelphia & West Chester Traction Co., 
Fare complaint, 55, 163 

Philadelphia & Western Ry., Mortgage, 


Railways Company General, Dividend, 1126 

Rapid Transit Co,: 

Accidents, Reduction of, 261 
Annual report, 480; Comment, 645 
Fire insurance, 227 
Increase in indebtedness, 277 
Meeting of directors, 449 


Rapid Transit Co.: (Continued) 

Roadway department instructions, 

„ 185 

Stotesbury, E. T., considered a3 
director, his plans, etc., 890, 925, 
970, 1005, 1044, 1170, 1214, 1253 

Southwestern Street Ry., Sale, 55 

Strike, Opinion on the [Pratt], 359 

Subway plans, 237 

Welding, Electric, in repair shops, 477 


Breakages of railway motor [Fowler], 


Design and manufacture [Williams], 30; 

Discussion, 42 

Standard taper for, 779 

Wear of teeth [Williams], "1103; Discus- 
sion, 1 1 47 

(See also G=ars) 

Pipe wrench (Wright), *iooi 

Pit construction: 

Baltimore. Flush-aisle pit, '428 

Bangor, Me., '460 

Dayton. O! in. *i267 

Salt Lake City, "1141 

Second Avenue R. R., New York, '903 

Pittsuurgh, Pa.: 

Cars, Center-vestibule steel trailers, * 1 1 55 

Cars, Steel prepayment, "834 

Philadelphia Co., Dividend, 55 

Pittsburgh Rys., Recommendations of 

Railroad Commission, 56, 310 
Pittsburg &• East Liberty Passenger Ry., 

Franchise revoked, 235 

Plan for city development, 63, 82 

Report on financial and operating records 

[Arnold], 265, *262, C441 ; [ReedJ, 

C304, C475 

Report on surface transportation [Arnold], 

"150, 179, 182; Comment, 160, 340 
Service, Recommendations of Railroad 

Commission, 56 

Side-rod trucks, *835 

Subway : 

Report [Arnold], 82; Comment, 63 

Tentative ordinance, 275 
West Penn Traction Co.: 

Annual report, 310 

Dividend, 1044 
Pittsburgh & Allegheny Valley Traction Co. 

(See Leeclilmre, Pa.) 
Pittsfield. Mass., Berkshire Street Ry.: 

Hearing on 5-cent fare for Lenox, 484 

Publications, 545 

Point Shirley. Mass., Gasoline-electric car 

with novel control, *88i 
Pole bands, Wrought-iron, Brooklyn, '137 

Cast-steel, Butte, Mont., "193 

— Census of 1909, 1234 

Creosote treatment of pine poles [Ogier], 


Detroit, Appraisal by Barcroft, 195 

Reinforcement of corroded poles, Brook- 
lyn, 137 

Reinforced concrete, at Fort Wayne, Ind., 

and Syracuse, N. Y., 473, 

Police officers, Transportation of, in New Jer- 
sey, 532 

Politics and street railways [Calhoun], 789 
Portland (Me.) Railroad: 

Bond issue, 672 

Power plant improvements, 989 

Repair shop practice, "1056 

Portland, Ore.: 

Air brake instruction, 183 

Fare case decision, 57 

Fenders, Ordinance, 891, 1047, 1076 

Oregon Electric Rv., Parlor cars, *66o 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co., Re- 
demption of stock, 1044, 1170 

— - — School tickets, 1080 

Transfers, New style, 57 

Portsmouth (Ohio) Street Railroad & Light 
Co., Mortgage bonds, uo 

Post cards. New England roads, *549 

Potential regulators. Induction type (Westing- 
house), "408 

Pottsville, Pa., Eastern Pennsylvania Rys., An- 
nual report, 926 

Power, Contracts for sale of, 353 

Power, Hired. (See Hired power) 

Power consumption: 

London Underground Rys., 214, 216 

Saving by use of coasting clocks [Put- 
nam], *72\ Comment, 64; Discussion, 


(See also Current recorders) 

Power distribution. Report of committee on, 
792; Discussion, 770; Comment, 760 

Power economy in railway operation. Use of 
anti-friction journal bearings. Results 
[Hopkins], 79: Discussion, 82; [Stit- 
zer], *322; Comment, 318, 408 

Power generation: 

Costs in Lynchburg and Roanoke, Va., 


-Report of committee, 784; Discussion, 715, 


Power losses at track switches, 286 
Power station accounts [Hewitt], 745 
Power station practice: 

Boiler room expansion, 171 

Coal bins, Submerged, Minneapolis, *i86 

Engine-room illumination, 65 

Heavy loads, advantages of operating at, 


Peak loads, Economical methods of carry- 
ing, 788; Comment, 866 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Power station practice: (Continued) 

Smoke flue damper signal, Minneapolis, 


Power station records: 

Hyde Park Electric Light Co., 873 

Segregation of railway and lighting load 

expenses, 898 
Power stations: 

Detroit, Appraisal by Barcroft, 295 

Durham (N. C.) Traction Co., *44 

Indianapolis, Ind., *i28i 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., "175 

Location of, centers of power distribu- 
tion, 388 
Millbury, Mass., 1280 

Mineral Point, Pa., Southern Cambria 

Ry- *355 

New York & North Shore Traction Co., 


Parksville, Polk County, Tenn., 306 

Portland, Me., 989 

Question Box of Engineering Association, 


Reading, Pa., *ioi6: Comment, 1015 

Worcester, Mass., Turbine plant, 406 

(See also Water Power Stations) 

Power, Transit & Light Co. (See Bakers- 
field, Cal ) 

Prices of commodities, 1905-1910, 25, 88, 101 
Providence, R. I., Rhode Island Co.: 
Annual report, 671 

Operations of, compared with Connecticut 

companies, 980 
Signs, 533 

Warren & Bristol Ry., Train staff, 1271 

Public service commissions: 

Chicago plan [Ossoski], 218 

Connecticut, Proposed commission [Mel- 

len], 371 

Delays in enforcing orders, Report of 

National Association of Railway Com- 
missioners, 1 1 1 4 

Los Angeles, Organization, 11 16 

Merit as a requirement for commission 

service, 1064, 1090 

Powers, duties and work of state com 

missions, Report of National Associa- 
tion of Railway Commissioners, 1064 

Scope of |McCarter], 1272; Comment. 

1262: 1278 

Views of newly elected governors on 


Wisconsin law questioned, 1230 

Public service companies and policies [McCar 

terj, 1272; Comment. 1262 
Public side of street railroading [Calhoun] 

781; Comment. 934: IMcCarter), 1272 
Public's relations to city railways [Weston] 

1 148 

Norfolk pamphlet on franchises, 131 

Relations of electric railways with news- 
papers, 135 

(See also Advertising; Traffic promotion) 

Purifier, Air (Spencer), "46 

Quakertown (Pa.) Traction Co., Protective 
commitee, 970 

Question Box of the Engineering Associa- 
tion, 123, 847 

Rail bonding car, Albany Southern R. R. 

*4I I 

Rail bonding with oxy-acetylene torch in Min- 
neapolis, *-6g 
Rail cleaning [Schorling], 511 
Rail corrugation. (See Rails) 
Rail grinders: 

Detroit, 729 

Minneapolis, 729, *730 

(Nichols) Use of, by various roads, 1120 

(Stow) in Syracuse, N. Y., '1040 

Rail joints: 

Cast welded: 

Detroit [Rifenherickl, 743 
Minneapolis | Wilson 1, 740 

Desirable type, Question Box of Engineer- 
ing Association, 848 

Discussion by Way Committee, 223 

European practice [Bussel, 504 

Ideal practical joint [ Rifenberick], 743 

(Lorain), Exhibit of old, 771 

Opposite vs. staggered, 726 

Report of Way Committee, 724, [French], 

1150; Discussion, 740, [Schreiberj, 
1152; Comment, 704, 1135 

— ! — Theory [Lange], * 7 1 8 

Thermit [Lange], "718 

Clark type TCIark], 740 

Holyoke, Mass., 11 20; [Pellissier], 

Japan, *5i8 
New system, 750 
Statistics, *504 

Welded, Electric, in Chicago, 666 

Rail sections. Report of Standards Committee, 

Railroad Securities Commission: 

Appointment, 414 

Hearings in New York City, 1241, 1262, 

November meeting in Washington, D. L, ( 




[Vol. XXXVI. 


Center-bearing, Meaning of word, in New 

York State railroad law, 1160; Dis- 
cussion, 1 1 6 1 

Corrugation [Andrews], 370 

Europe 510 

Removing, Methods and costs, 729 
Report of International Street Rail- 
way Association [Busse], *434; 
Discussion, 510 

Corrugation grinder (Nichols), 1120 

Deflection of, in concrete construction, 

Chicago, 655 

Girder, Specifications, Report of Way 

Committee, 722, [French], 1150; Dis- 
cussion [Schreiber], 1151 

History of street railway rails [Entwisle], 


Open-hearth steel, Specifications, Report 

of Way Committee, 722, [French], 
1150; Discussion, 737, [Schreiber], 

Report of Way Committee, 724, [French], 

1 150; Discussion, 740, [Schreiber], 
1 152; Comment, 704, 1135 

Specifications, Discussion at committee 

meeting of Engineering Association, 
223; Comment, 211 

Standards of German Association, 504, 

_ 5io 

Structure of corrugated, '435 

T-rails, High, specification, 722, [French], 

1 150; Discussion, 738, [Schreiber], 
1 1 5 1 ; Comment. 1 135 

T-rail, Steel guard for paving, *oo7 

Wear of, in Tremont St. Subway, Bos- 
ton, 456 

—Wear of, in New York Subway, 99 

Railway Business Association, Annual meet- 
ing, 1102; Comment, 1088 
Railway crossings. (See Crossings) 
Railway Signal Association, Report on auto- 
matic stops and cab signals, 958 
Rates. (See Fares) 

Reading. Pa. : 

Near-side stops, 1203 

Power Station, *ioi6; Comment, 1015 

Recorders, Steam and water consumption 

(Lea), *374 

Other tvpes 787 

(See also Current recorders) 

Records, Detail; their use and value [Neal], 

794; Discussion, 763 
Refrigerator train, Irland Empire System, 


Register rod and bell cord bracket in cars, 

Richmond, Va., "187 
Registering device at entrance of McAdoo tun- 

nels, 372 

Regulators, Potential. (See Potential regu- 

Reinoehl, C. W., Death of, 684 
Relay for induction reeulators. Dry type 
(Westinghouse), "1075 

Repair shop practice: 
Bangor, Me., *46o 

Drill used as a boring mill, Charleston, 

S. C, '1040 

Forms used. Richmord, Va., 988 

Handling work economically in crowded 

quarters, 5 

Individual motor driving for machine 

tools, 319 

Jig for holding machine screws, *228 

Minor shop economies. 375 

Ordering and standardization of supplies, 

London County Council Tramways, 


Orderly arrangement of equipment, 1179 

Portland, Me., *io;;6 

Power distribution, 831 

St. Catherine's, Ont.. *6.S9 

Storeroom location, 899 

Systematizing car overhauling, 169 

Welding, 899 

Welding, Electric, Philadelphia, 477 

Repair shops: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., '938 

Decatur, 111., "368 

Granite City, Illinois Traction System, 


Montreal, *goS 

New York. Second Avenue R. R., '902 

Portland. Me., *io56 

Utah Light &• Railway Co., '1138 

Waltham, Mass., *o$2 

Winnipeg Electric Ry., *69 

Repair wagons. (See Emergency repair 

Reservations, Track construction in: 

Coney Island &• Brooklyn R. R., 149 

Discussion iWattman], *Soi 

Winnipeg. '67 

Reserve fund. Pan's franchise, 505 
Retriever. (See Trolley retriever) 
Revere Beach, Mass., Reduction in fare to, 

denied, 1171 
Rhode Island Co. (See Providence, R. I.) 
Rhode Island street railway statistics, 475 
Richmond, Va. : 
Platform gate, *375 

Register rod and bell cord bracket in cars, 


Shop records, 988 

Rio de Janeiro Tramway, Light & Power Co., 

Earr ings, 482 
Roadway practice. (See Track construction) 

Roanoke, Va., Power generating costs, 365 
Rochester, N. Y. : 
Dasher signs, '567 

New York State Rys., Track standards, 

* 1 099 

Organization of traffic department, 556 

Rochester & Suburban Ry., Fare reduc- 
tion, 163 

Rock Island Southern R. R. (See Monmouth, 

Rogue River Valley Ry. (See Jacksonville, 

Roller bearings. (See Bearings) 

Roofing, Car, Treated canvas, 664 

Routing of cars, Principles of [Arnold], 150 

Rowdyism in cars, 207 

Rules for city railways, Committee meeting 
and report of Transportation and 
Traffic Association, 146, 329, 772; 
Discussion, 764; Comment, 759 

Rules for interurban railways: 

National Association of Railway Commis- 
sioners, Discussion by, 1061 

New York State Street Railway Associa- 
tion, Discussion at, 39 

Report of committee of Transportation 

and Traffic Association, 330, 734; 
Discussion, 716, [Drown], C1074; 
Comment, 867, 1053 

Revision by Committee of Transportation 

and Traffic Association, 17; Comment, 

Rules for student conductors, Brooklyn, 360 


Safety appliances, Report of National Asso- 
ciation of Railway Commissioners, 
1061. (See also Signals) 

St. Albans (Vt.) Street Ry., Reorganization, 

St. Catharines, Ont., Shop devices, "659 

St. Francois County Ry. (See Farmington, 

St. Louis, Mo.: 

Freight terminal of Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, *6_>9 

McKinley Bridge, Opening, 317, 344, 529, 

•873, *I029 

Terminal express station, Illinois Trac- 
tion System, *462 

United Rys.: 

Dividend, 483 
Transfer station, '649 

St. Louis Car Co.: 

Beggs, J. I., 331 

Reorganization, 960 

Salt Lake City. Utah Light & Railway Co.: 

Cars, Semi-convertible, *i284 

Shops, "1138 

San Francisco, Cal.: 

Franchise grants in [Calhoun], 789 

Geary Street Line, 237, 276, 446, 528 

Municipal railway bonds declared legal, 

~ 90 

Ocean Shore Ry., Receivership and sale, 

.55, 239, 277. 380, 449, 531, 970, 1126 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co., Asbestos-wood 

switchboards, '409 

Railroad Athletic Club, Activities of, 


United Railways Investment Co., Notes 

paid, 310 

San Francisco. & Napa Valley Ry. 

(See Napa, Col.) 
Sand dryer (Pangborn), *66i 
Sand house. Salt Lake City, *ii4i 
Sander, Triple drum (Fay & Egan), *9ip 
Sandusky, Mansfield & Norwalk Electric Ry. 

(See Norwalk, Ohio) 
Sanford, Me., Atlantic Shore Line Ry. : 

Reorganization, 482 

Sale, 969, 1007, 1 1 70 


Pattern shop band (Fay & Egan), *522 

Self-feed ripsaw (Fay & Egan), *n8 

Swing saw (Fay & Egan), '1247 


Changing running speeds for different 

periods of the day, 2 
Committee meeting and report of Trans- 
portation & Traffic Association, 255, 
330, *82i; Comment, 802 

Dependence on braking efficiency, 11 80 

Schenectady (N. Y.) Ry., Fare complaint, 164 
School tickets, Attempts to limit use of, 980 
Portland, Ore.. 1080 

Scioto Valley Traction Co. (See Columbus, 

Scranton (Pa.) Ry., Bond issue, 926, 1170 
Scrap materials: 

Handling of Discussion, New York State 

Street Railway Association, 1161 
Report on system for handling. Engineer- 
ing Association, 748 
Screws, Machine, Device for holding, *228 
Seaman, Henry B., resigns as chief engineer 

of Public Service Commission, 527 
Seating arrangement of prepayment cars, 898 
Seating capacity. Rush-hour, of Pittsburgh 
Railways, '152 


Collapsible (Wing and Hempy), 409 

Distance between [Roberts], 768 

Seattle, Wash.: 

Seattle Electric Co., Campaign for acci- 
dent prevention, 93, 241 
Seattle-Everett Interurban Ry., System, 

Securities Commission. (See Railroad Se- 
curities Commission) 
Sedalia (Mo.) Light & Traction Co., 126 

Deposit of bonds, 482 

Shaper, Triple-geared (Steptoe), '920 
Sheboygan (Wis.) Light, Power & Railway Co., 

Stock issue, 531 
Sheboygan (Wis.) Railway & Electric Co., Bond 
issue, 673 

Sherbrooke (Que.; Railway & Power Co., Bond 

Sale. 1080 
Shop accounting. (See Accounting) 
Shopwork. (See Repair shop practice) 
Side-rod trucks. (See Trucks) 

Automatic (Nachod), '667 

Automatic stops and cab signals. Report 

of Railway Signal Association, 958 
Bell signal, with power-operated doors 

(Carey), *228 
Bell signals for city and interurban cars, 


Block signal box, Selective telephone and 

semaphore system (Baird), "229 

Block signals: 

Illinois Traction System, 948, '1070 
Interurban roads, Classes of appa- 
ratus available, 1014 
Report of Railway Signal Association, 

Single-track line of Washington 
Water Power Co., *n82 

Discussion by Indiana Commission, 1201 

Discussion by National Association of 

Railway Commissioners, io6t 
Dispatchers', on Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, 948, 1059, 1 120 
Joint committee of Transportation & Traf- 
fic and Engineering Associations, 1087 

London Underground Rys., *2i3 

Spacing signal, Boston Elevated Ry., 


Train staff, Warren & Bii=tol Ry., 1271 

Train stops on single-track line of Wash- 
ington Water Power Co., "1182 


Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., *396 

Care in selecting, 830 

Crossing, on Indianapolis & Louisville 

Trac. Co., *36s 

Crossing, Suggestions for, 257 

Dasher, "567, '568 

Destination and route, Providence, R. I., 


Illuminated, at steam railroad stations, 

Suggested, 86s 

New England roads, 548 

Ohio, Indiana and Michigan roads, '586 

— Roadway, Need of, 134 

Route signs, Zurich, 473 

Standard track signs, New York State 

Rys., *io99 

Terminal signs, Report of committee, '839 

Single-phase railways: 

Advantages [Westinghouse], *I2 

France, the Midi Ry., 833 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., 


N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. extensions, 463 

Single-truck vs. double-truck cars, Albany de- 
cision, 1283 

Sioux Falls (S. Dak.) Traction System Mag- 
azine "On the Cars," 682 
Skylights, Car house, Chicago, 952 
Smoke flue damper, Semaphore signal for, 

Minneapolis, 325 
Snow fence, New York State Rys., *noo 
Snow-fighting equipments, Auxiliary, 1224 
Snow plow, Toronto & York Radial. Ry., *IM9 
Snow plow and express car combined (Rus- 
sell), *3o6 

Snow removal, Greenfield, Mass., Company 
complaints, 485 

South Bend, Ind., Chicago, South Bend & 
Northern Indiana Ry., Improved 
truck brake rigging, '1148 

Southern Cambria Ry. (See Johnstown, Pa.) 

Southern Pacific Ry., Electric lines in Ber- 
keley, Cal., 670 

Special cars. (See Chartered cars) 

Special work: 

Discussion by Way Committee, 225 

Longest piece in England, *iiig 

Most desirable type, Question Box of 

Engineering Association, 848 

See also Switches and Track) 


Difficulties in drawing up, 350 

Overhead crossings, Committee report, 


Overhead materials, Brooklyn, 941 

Rails, Way Committee, 722, 737 


Dependence on braking efficiency, 1180 

Relation to stops [Wattman], "502 

Spikes, Holding power of, Chicago tests, 656 
Spokane, Wash., Washington Water Power 
Co., Block signals and train stops. 


Spokane & Inland Ry.: 

Advertisement, '634 

Bridge, *i28i 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

July — December, 1910.] 

Springfield, Mass.: 

New England Investment & Security Co.: 

Arbitration of wage question, 94, 163, 
240, 311 

Farn.ii g .special, '553 

Freight and express business, 1196 

Publicity work, 542 

Timetable folder, 545 
Springfield Street Ry., Consolidation, 200, 

1 1 26 

Springfield, Ohio, Waiting station, '874 
Springs, Specifications of London County 

Council Tramways, 364 
Sprinklers. (See Fire protection) 
Standardization : 

Brake shoes in England, *n 

Electrification of railways [Westinghouse], 

12, 1167 

Report of Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, 403, *47o 

Report of Engineering Association, 836 

Standing room in cars of United States and 
in Europe, 456 

Staten Island, N. Y., Transfers on, 242 


Accidents on electric railways, 1045 

Accidents, traffic and delays, Metropolitan 

Street Ry., New York, 8 

Austria-Hungary, 293 

Brooklyn Bridge traffic, 344 

Canadian electric railways, 1 1 

Capitalization, Cars and milease of elec- 
tric railways in the United States, 
332, Sup. 

Car-mile statistics for interurban lines 

LMaynec], 514; Discussion, 515 

Cost of materials [Blake], 25, 88 

Detroit United Ry., 112 

Electric railways in ten cities, 112 

English municipal tramways, 876 

English tramway for comparative weeks, 

German accidents, 517 

Hungarian railways, 225 

Interurban railways [Price], 514; [Mc- 

Comb], 515; Discussion, 515 

Michigan railways, 90 

Montreal Street Ry., 997, 1054 

Municipal lighting stations in United 

States, 72 

New York City, Exhibit of Public Service 

Commission, *949 

Operating of three Chicago railways, 652 

Pittsburgh Rys., 265 

— —Power consumption, London Underground 
Rys., 214, 216 
Prices of commodities, 25, 88, 101 
Report of National Association of Rail- 
way Commissioners, 11 16 

Rhode Island street railways, 475 

Steam railroads, 236 

Vienna municipal railways, 227 

Wheel guard installations in Brooklyn, 

1 10 1 

Steam railways: 

Commutation rate increases, New York 

City, 1, 38, 484. 673, 97i> [Blake], 
23; Hearing, 1060, 1051, 1110, 1270 
Electrification. (See Heavy electric trac- 
Statistics, 236 
Step, Car, Folding, Fort Smith, Ark., '1244 
Step holder for open cars (Edwards), "155 
Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Electric Ry. (See 
Dixon, 111.) 

Stockyards of Des Moines Interurban Ry., 


Stoker, Mechanical (Under-Feed), ^524 
Stone & Webster, Student course for em- 
ployees, 923 


European practice on city cars, 350 

Near-side, Reading, Pa., 1293 

Relation to speed [Wattman,] *502 

Storage batteries: 

Detroit, appraisal by Barcroft, 295 

Maintenance, for multiple unit control, 


Storerooms, Location and control of, 899 
Stores accounting. (See Accounting) 
Straight run, Definition of, 823 
Strap, Lineman's, Combined safety and slack 

(Klein), *662 
Streator, 111 Illinois Valley Gas & Electric 


Bond issue, 125 

Sale of stock, 54 

Street barrier, New York State Rys., *noo 
Strike prevention discussed by National Civic 
Federation, 1205 


Columbus, Ohio. (See Columbus, Ohio) 

— Philadelphia strike, Defense of [Pratt], 


Union labor and the Columbus strike, 352 

Winnipeg, 1250 

Substations : 

Attractive, Prizes for, Raucks, Ind., "463 

Chicago, Notes, 653 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., "173, "174 

Milwaukee 1200-volt line [Hewett], "104 

Portable, Reading, Pa., *io25 

Roslyn, N. Y., *I232 

Steel portable, Ft. Wayne, Wabash Valley 

Traction Co., *522 

Welland, Ont., "474 

Winnipeg Electric Ry., *7o, 72 

Winnipeg & Selkirk Ry., "15, *i6 


Suburban Electric Railway Magazine of 

America, 334 
Subways. (See Names of cities) 
Sunday Creek-Hocking Traction Co. (See Nel- 

sonville. Ohio) 
Sunday excursions at reduced rates, 133 
Superintendent of the day in Boston [Dana], 
.. *'°95 

Supplies, Ordering and standardization of, 
London County Council Tramways, 
*3 6 3 

Supply man and the purchaser [Roberts], 226; 

Comment, 21 1 
Surface contact system in England, 507, 933 
Swing run, Definition of, 823 
Switch box for street lights, Brooklyn, *396 
Switch targets ard lights in Michigan, Order 

regarding, 891, 972 
Switch throwing device at Decatur, 111., *n8 
Switch tongues, Manganese steel, Chicago 

tests, '656 

Switchboards : 

Asbestos-wood (Johns-Manville), "409 

Liability to accidents during construc- 
tion, 389 

Automatic, Public Service Ry., Newark, 


Car lighting, Barrier type (H. & H.), 

* I0 75 

Proposed standard, of different radii, 


Tadpole tongue (Lorain), 741 

(See also Special Work) 


Annual report of Zurich municipal rail- 
ways, 473 

Electrification of Rhatisch Ry. proposed, 


Symbols, Standard, suggested for use of way 

department, 731 
Syracuse, N. Y.: 

Cars, Pay-as-you-enter, "119 

Increase of capital stock, 1254 

Instruction book, *n88 

No-seat-no-fare ordinance, 312, 317 

Poles, Re'nforcd concrete, 473 

Rail grinder (Stow), '1040 

Traffic to be studied, 1200 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern R. R. : 

Fast track laying, "1072 

Reduction of fare, 1007 


Tacoma (Wash.) Railway & Power Co., Inter- 
ference with collection of double fares, 


Tacony (Pa.) Frankford, Tacony & Holmes- 
burg Ry., Incorporation, 277 

Tampa, Fla., Tnmp?-Sulphur Springs Traction 
Co., New Control. 92 

Tank Water. Dayton car house, *T26o 

Tantalum lamps. (See Lighting cars) 

Tariff. (See Fares) 

Taxes : 

New York State [Blake], 27 

Ohio, Tav c'eftiors in 1280 

Report of National Association of Rail- 
way Commissioners, 1062; Discussion, 
1 192 

Status of [Arnold], iro 

Taxes and licenses [Tripp], 844 

Telephone and semaphore signal system, Selec- 
tive (Baird), *22Q 
Telephone train dispatching. (See Dispatching 

Terminal stations: 
Columbus, Ohio, 90 

Cost of passing passengers through, 1091 

Lafayette, Ind.. 198 

Pennsylvania R. R., New York City, 

Opening-, 373; Comment, 349 

Report of Encineering Committee, 836 

St. Louis express terminal, Illinois Trac- 
tion System, *462 

Urban and interurban terminals [Schreiber 

and Lowl, '837; Discussion, 852 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 
Co. (See Indianapolis, Ind.) 

Texas Traction Co. (See Dallas, Tex.) 

Theater traffic. Handling economically 1225 

Theaters. (See Parks and pleasure resorts) 

Thermometer for fire protection system (Elec- 
trical Automatic), "274. 

Third rail: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., *39o 

Definition of committee criticised, 769, 


Third-rail conductors, Standard location for, 
Report of committee, *8i7; Discus- 
sion, 769, 851 

Through routes and joint rates: 

Chicago problems, 651 

England, Revenue, 402 

England, through-running agreement, Re- 
port, 154 

New York City, 59, 278, 971, 1135, 1171, 

127. j 


Compared with fare registers [Wright], 


Complimentary, 2^0 

—Metal, Use of [Radcliffe], 815 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 


Tickets: (Continued) 

< Reduced-rate, Sale of, Green Bay Traction 

Co., 1274 

School, Attempts to limit use of, 980 

School, Sale of, in Portland, Ore., 1080 

(See also Transfers) 

Tie plates, Use on pine ties, Question Box of 

Engineering Association, 847 
Tie plates for screw spikes (Otis), *i246 
Tie rods, Tests of, Chicago, 655 

Chemical treatment, Report of Supervis- 
ing Engineers, Chicago, yii 

Life of in Europe, 508 

Maintenance [Schreiber], 730 

Reinforced concrete, Berlin, ^43 

Spacing, Chicago, 655 

Tiffin (Ohio), Fostoria & Eastern Electric 
Ry., New control, 126 

Timber preservation LKuehn], 1107; Discus- 
sion, 1 146 

Asphalt oil (Indian Refining Co.), 1002 

Cost of [Schreiber], 730 

Holding power of spikes in treated ties, 

Chicago tests, 656 
Timetables and folders: 

Atlantic Coast States, 557 

Central New York roads, * 5 5 7 

Construction of, Report of committee, 

*82i; Discussion, 804; Comment, 802 

Illinois roads, *6ii 

Illinois Traction System, *6i6 

Indiana roads, 578 

Iowa roads, *6i2 

Michigan roads, 579 

Missifippi Valley roads, 611 

New England roads, 546 

Ohio roads, 579 

Pacific Electric Ry., 631 

Tag with timetables printed, Cleveland, 

Painesville & Eastern R. R., *947 
Tire-setting machine, Hydraulic, Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit Co., "942 
Toilet fittings, Brass and iron, 852 
Toledo, Ohio: 

Franchise matters, 924 

Toledo Railways & Light Co.: 

Appraisal of property, 968, 990 
Franchise matters, 51, 90, 159, 236, 

276, 1000, 1251, 1287 
Inventoiy, by Ford, Bacon & Davis, 

Traction situation, Mayor's letter to rail- 
way company, 1038 
Toronto, Can.: 

Cars, Convertible, *iii8 

Riot against street railway company, 1205 

Street Railway Commission, 857 

Subway svstem. Report on, 414 

Toronto Ry., Proposed sale to city, 924 

Toronto & York Racial Ry . S""w plow, *iiI9 
Tower wagon, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 


(See also Emergency Repair Wagons) 

Track construction: 

— Benefits of track improvements, 1136 

Chicago, Study of deflection and materi- 
als, 655 

Cost of, in 10 cities, 112 

Department instructions, Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit Co.. 185 

Detroit, Appraisal by Barcroft, 295 

European improvements [Busse], '504; 

Discussion, 510 

Ferro-titanium rails in Buffalo, 405 

Maintenance cost [Schreiberl, 728 

Milwaukee Public Service Building, Special 

work, *4?6 

New York State Rys., *I099 

Ouestion Box of Engineering Association, 


Reinforced-concrete foundations, Berlin, 


Reservations. (See Reservations, Track 

construction in) 
Special work. Cost of, 728; Discussion, 


Standardization, in paved streets [Tilton], 

32; Discussion, 41 

Standards recommended, 728 

Steel guard for paving against T-rail, "907 

Switch tongues, Manganese steel. Tests 

in Chicago, *6s6 

Winnipeg, Man., *66 

Work cars, Value of, qg 

— ■ — (Se» ?lso Special Work and Rails) 
Track drill. Motor, for bonding (American 

Steel &■ Wire). *ii2o 
Track laving. Fast. Syracuse, Lake Shore & 

Northern R. R.. "1072 
Track scrapers in Europe, 511 
Trackless trolleys: 

California, near Los Angeles, *436, '648 

European systems, 14, 20?, 318 

Traffic, Headway for cars. Minimum, in con- 
gested streets, So 
Traffic circulars. (See Letters, Circular) 
Traffic congestion: 
Cities [Arnold], 170 

Legislation in Washington, D. C, 100 

Remedy. Pittsburgh conditions, 64 

Traffic counts, Metropolitan Street Ry., New 
York, 8 

Traffic curves, 'Mobile, Ala., '907 
Traffic promotion: 

Central New York and Atlantic Coast 

states, *55 5 



[Vol. XXXVI. 

Traffic promotion: (Continued) 

Central States, Advertising methods, 802 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. K. 

[Schmock], *946 

Detroit United Rys. [Keys], 689 

Development of traffic [Woodward], 

'1109; Discussion, 1 147 
Discussion by Transportation & Traffic 

Association, 687 

Indiana, 575 

Michigan, 575 

— — Mississippi \ alley roads, "6io 

New England, '540 

Ohio, 575 

Pacific Coast roads, "630 

Stimulating long distance travel [Van 

Valkenburgh | 993 

(See also Advertising) 

Train resistance, with plain and ball bearings 

[Hopkins], 79 
Train Staff. (See Signals) 

Train stop tests on London Underground Rys., 

~ . 2I 4 

Train stops. (See Signals) 

Trains, Miniature electric, for parks, *854 

Transfer punching machine (Southworth), 

Transfer table, Second Avenue R. R., New 

York, *903 
Transfer station. (See Waiting stations) 


Abuses in different cities discussed, 765 


Changes in rules and regulations, 483 
Hearing, 918, 960, 1037, 1102; Com- 
ment, 897 
System, '994 

Charge of one cent, Newton, Mass., 286 

Committee meeting and report of Trans- 
portation and Traffic Association, 256, 
780; Discussion, 764 
Forms, 781 

Giving of transfers on a common route, 


Laws, and suggested changes [Hoffman], 

782; Discussion, 764 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry„ Charge 

sustained, 343 

New York City, Order to exchange trans- 
fers, 59, 278, 1135, 1 171 

New York State, Charges, Recommenda- 
tion of arbitrators in Albany case, 387 

New York State, Statistics, 1072 

Penalties for frauds on Metropolitan 

Street Ry., 10 

Portland, Ore., 57 

Rule book in Utica, N. Y., 401 

Staten Island, 242 

Transformer installation, 1180 

Transformers, Manhole (Westinghouse), 229 

Transmission lines: 

Crossings, Specifications for, Joint Com- 
mittee report. 792; Discussion, 771 

Grand Junction & Grand River Valley 

Ry.. *8 3 3 

Insulator tests [Austin], 465 

Precautions in regard to, 134 

Milwaukee rjoo-volt line, *io7 

Question Box of Engineering Association. 

Transportation methods, Scientific principles, 


Trenton, N. J.: 

■ Elizabeth & Trenton R. R., Incorporation, 


Fender ordinance, 928 

Trespassing, Report of National Association 
of Railway Commissioners, 1115 

Tri-City Railway & Light Co. (See Daven- 
port, la.) 

Trip from Chicago to New York on electric 
cars [Van Valkenburgh], *47o; Com- 
ment, 455 
Trolley guards, Indiana inquiry, J047 
Trolley overhead appliances, Brooklyn, '138 
Trolley poles, Seamless cold-drawn steel, '1285 
Trolley retriever (Trolley Supply), *230 
Trolley wheel pressure in Europe, 509 
Trolley wheels (Standard Brass Foundry), 

Trolley wire: 

Grooved, Report of Standards Committee, 


Specifications, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 


Wear of, Brooklyn records, 139 

Trolley wire hangers. Specifications, Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Co., 945 


(Baldwin), for Hudson & Manhattan 

Rpilroad *i2o8 
(Baldwin), for street and for electrified 

steam railway service, *883 
(Barber), *524 

Compensating bolster (Blackpool & Fleet- 
wood), *9i9 
Radial, in Europe, Discussion, 509 
Side-rod, Pittsburgh, *8.3S 

Turbines, Steam: 

(De Laval), for both high and low-pres- 
sure service, '407 

Low-pressure, Results with, 786 

Small turbine. Use of the, 250 

Turner, Me., Auburn & Turner R. R., New 
control, 239 

Turnstile and fare register (I.angslow), *52i 

Twelve hundred-volt railways. (See High-ten- 
sion, direct-current railways) 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (See Minne- 


Uniforms, Summer, 63 

United Electric Co. (See Dennison, Ohio) 
United Light & Railway. (See Grand Rapids, 

United Rys. (See St. Louis) 
United Railways & Electric Co. (See Balti- 
more ) 

United Railways Investment Co. (See San 

United Traction Co. (See Albany, N. Y.) 
University, The, and business, 2 
Utah Light & Railway Co. (See Salt Lake 

Utica, N. Y., Transfer rule book, 401 

Valuations. (See Appraisals) 

Vancouver, B. C, British Columbia Electric 

Earnings, 310 

Profit-sharing plan discontinued, 485 

Souvenir publication, 840 

Ventilation of cars: 

Chicago, Report of Supervising Engineers, 


Developments in [Williams], '1105; Dis- 
cussion, 1 1 46 

Ventilator ordinance in Detroit invalid 
[Brooks], C402 

Vienna, Annual report of municipal railways, 


Waco, Texas: 

Guard for paving, "907 

One-man prepayment car [Boughton], 


Wages. (See Employees) 

Wagons. (See Emergency repair wagons; 

Tower wagon) 
Waiting stations: 

Aurora, Elein & Chicago R. R., '626 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R., *625 

Combination station and residence, Cleve- 
land, Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 

• Tllin i ? Traction Svstem, *625, *I276 

Indianapolis Terminal. *6o8 

Los Angeles Pacific Co., *642 

Milwaukee, Track arrangement, *437 

Muncie. Ind., *6o3 

Ohio Electric Ry., *874 

Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, *6o6 

St I ouis, United Rys., Transfer station, 

*6 4 9 

Scioto Valley Traction Co., '869 

Selkirk, Manitoba, *is 

Spokane & Inland Ry., '639 

Steam railroad. Opportunities for better 

street railway service, 865 

Willoughby, Ohio, *946 

Winnipeg, Passenger and freight station, 


Wakeman, James M., Poem to, 774 
Washington, D. C. : 

Capital Traction Co., Cash bonuses for 

employees, 200 
Cars, Pay : within, *I002; Report on, 1047 

■ Legislation, too 

Powers of District Commissioners de- 
fined, I2qo - 

• President Taft's reference to public 

utilities, 1212 

Washington, Alexandria & Mt. Vernon Ry., 
Consolidation, 891 

Washington Baltimore & Annapolis Electric 

Deposit of securities, 859 

Reorganization, 970, 1044, 1078, 1254 

Sinele-ph^e on [Davis], 468 

Washington, Berwyn & Laurel Electric Ry., 
Receivership and sale, 126, 673. 9-0 

Washington Water Power Co. (See Spokane, 

Water-power stations: 

— — McCalls Fe'-ry, Pa., 880 

Marseilles. Til.. T277 

Winnipeg Electric Ry., *7i • 

Water powers, Conservation of [Stillwell], 
Comment, 3 

Watertown, N. Y., Black River Traction Co., 
Service recommendations. 93 

Wattmeters, Use of, in Europe [Battes], 507; 
[Boutonl, 510: Discussion, 509 

Wausau (Wis.) Street R. R. Net rate of re- 
turn as compiled by State Railroad 
Commission, 404 

Waverly. N. Y.. Elmira, Corning & Waverly 
R. R . Bond issue. 12"? 

Way bills. (See Accounting: Freight and ex- 

Welding, Electric: 

Chicago rail joints. Statistics, 666 

Garwood system, without resistance losses, 


Welding, Electric: (Continued) 

Repair shops, Philadelphia, 477 

Thermit. (See Rail joints, 'thermit) 

Welland, Ont., Substation of Niagara, St. 

Catharines & Toronto Ry., '474 
West Chester, Kennett K: Wilmington Electric 

Ry. (See Kennett Square, Pa.) 
West Penn Rys. (See Connellsville, Pa., and 

Pittsburgh, Pa.) 
Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction 

Co. (See Olean, N. Y.) 
Western Ohio Ry. (See Lima, Ohio) 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Annual 

report, 54 
Wheel flanges: 

■ Sharp, Cause, Question Box of Engineer- 
ing Association, 850 
Wear variations. Mobile, Ala. [Coffin], 


Wheel guard installations, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co., * 1 10 1 
Wheel guards, Chicago, 905 

(See also Fenders) 

Wheel practice, Bangor, Me., 461 
Wheel tire heater (Ilorton), "659 

Cast iron, Life, Question Box of En- 
gineering Asociation, 850 

Chicago, Report of Supervising Engineers, 


Cost of steel and chilled cast-iron wheels 

[Coffin], 1236 

Development, in the manufacture of 

Schoen solid forged and rolled steel 
wheels [YarnellJ, *28 

Improvements [Coffin], *i_235 

One-wear and two-wear, Life of, 768 

Pressures for pressirg. Question Box of 

Engineering Association, 849 

Report of committee, 778; Discussion, 768 

Rolled steel, Report of Standards Commit- 
tee, 836 

Standards proposed for rolled-steel wheels, 


Steel and iron. Relative life, Question 

Box of Engineering Association, 850 

Steel-tired (McConway & Torley), 751, 

Wichita, Kan.: 

Moonlight trail cars, *477 

Pay-as-vou-enter cars, 336 

Wichita Falls, Tex., Cars, Pay-as-you-enter, 
* 4 8 

Willoughby, Ohio, Cleveland, Painesville k 

Eastern R. R:. 
A dvertising methods and traffic 

[Schmock], '946 
Bridge, "517 

Park accounting [Schmockl, 22 

Wilmington (Del.) & Philadelphia Traction 


Directors, 277 

Properties absorbed hv, 125 

Wilmington (N. C.) Railway System, '458 
Wilmington, New Castle & Southern Ry. (See 

New Castle, Pa.) 
Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Ry.: 

Strike, 1250 

System, *66 

Winnipeg. Selkirk & Lake Winnipeg Ry., 

System, *is 

Winona Lake, Ind.. Winona Interurban Ry., 
Letter to Indiana Railroad Commis- 
sion concerning operation of road, 


Asbestos insulated rectangular, 668 

Specifications, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 

940, 941, 943 
Wire grip (Perfection"), *im 
Wire table. Report of Standards Committee, 


Wisconsin Electrical Association Convention, 


Wisconsin Railroad Commiss'on: 

Fox River Franchise case decision, 871 

Rate of return of Wausau Street R. R., 

Decision, 404 
Right of City Council to order extensions, 

1039 " Ti^." 
Sale of reduced-rate tickets by Green Bay 

Tr-ction Co.. 1274 
Wisconsin Traction, Light .Heat & Power Co. 

(See Appleton, Wis.) 
Wood preservation. (See Timber preservation) 
Worcester (Mass.) ron-«l"'ited Street Ry. : 

Feeder system, Flexibility in, 195 

Mortgage, 310 

Power station at Millbury, Mass., 1280 

Turbine, 406 , 

Wrought-iron bars. Report of Standards Com- 
mittee, 836 

Yards, Fire protection, High-pressure stand- 
pipe system, Cleveland, '663; Comment, 
644 . . , 

Yonkers (N. Y.) Railroad, Issue of receiver t 

certificates, 673, 891 

Zurich : 

Annual report of municipal tramways, 473 

Seating capacity of cars, 456 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

July — December, 1910.] 




Ackerman, E. O., Chairman. Report of com- 
mittee 011 way matters, 722 

Adams, L. R. A possible means for preventing 
accidents, csig 

Andrews, J. H. M. Notes on rail corruga- 
tion, 370 

Arnold, li. J. Pittsburgh report, C441 

Valuations of the Detroit United Railway, 


Austin, A. O. Design and efficiency of high- 
tension insulators, '465 

Barcroft, F. T. The Detroit appraisal, C304 
Battes, M. Wattmeters ana other current re- 
corders for cars, 507 
Blake, H. W. Problem of the five-cent fare, 23 
Bolen, N. W., Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on construction of schedules and 
timetables, *82i 
Boughton, J. H. One-man prepayment car, 


Boylan, M. R. Collecting and auditing re- 
ceipts of prepayment cars, 819 

Boylan, M. R., Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on transfers and transfer informa- 
tion, 780 

Boylan, M. R., H. H. Adams and F. B. Lash- 
er. Report on cost accounting, 747 

Brooks. F. W. Ventilator ordinance in De- 
troit, C402 

Brown, J. VV. Standard code of interurban 
rules, C1074 

Calhoun, Patrick. The public side of street 
railroading, 789 

Campbell. 1. M., Chairman. Report of com- 
mittee on traffic and tariffs, 1149 

Carpenter, E. C. Address by, 684 

Coen, F. W., Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on passenger traffic, 689 

Coffin, S. M. Improvement in street car 
wheels, *I2,35 

Collins, W. H. Training of transportation em- 
ployees, 1 1 59 

Collins, W. H., Chairman. Report of the com- 
mittee on the meaning of the word 
"center-bearing" in the New York 
State railroad law, 11 60 

Crafts, P. P., Chairman, Report of commit- 
tee on express and freight traffic, 735 

Crecelius, L. P., and R. W. Emerson. The 
New York & North Shore Traction 

Co., *I226 

Dana, Edward. Development of the office of 
superintendent of the day, Boston Ele- 
vated Railwav Company, *io95 

Danforth, R. E., Chairman. Report of the 
committee on city rules, 772 

Davies, H J., Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on insurance, 794 

Davis, W. R. Destinies of 500-volt d. c, 1200- 
volt d. c. and 6600-volt a. c. motors, 

Decker, M. S. Address, 1065 
Doyle, J. S., Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on heavy electric traction, *8i7 

Eaton, G. M. Nosing of electric locomotives, 

Emerson, R. W. (See Crecelius, L. P.) 

Emmons, C. D., Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on interurban rules, 734 

Entwisle, E. P. History of street railway 
rails, *464 

Ford, F. R. Theory of street railway rate 
regulation as developed in the Coney 
Island fare case, 752 

Forse. W. H.. Jr. Address by, IT98 

Fowler, G. L. Breakages of railway motor 
pinions, *3^7 

French, M. J. Synopsis of report of commit- 
tee on way matters of American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association 
for 1909-1910, 1150 

Grimes, E. B. A welcome to the railway men, 



Harries, G. H., Chairman. Report of com- 
mittee on Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission affairs, 809 

Harris, R. W. Minimum headway for cars in 
congested streets. 80 

Harvie, W. J. Address by, 733 

Discussion of the report of the commit- 
tee on equipment, 1158 

Hewett, J. R. i2m-volt d. c. interurban lines 
of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Co., *I02 

Hewitt, Charles. Report on operating expense 
accounts for railwa- - power plants, 745 

Hixson, L. T. Freight and express account- 
ing, 749 

Hoffman, L. S. Transfer laws and suggested 
changes, 782 

Hopkins, C. J. Economy of car operation, 79 

Hopkins, W. B. Advantages of storage bat- 
tery cars, C1207 

Hovey, A. F., Vice-chairman. Report of com- 
mittee on power distribution, 792 

Johnson, F. W. The claim department, 431 

Keys, T. F. The creation of passenger traf- 
fic, 689 

Kuehn, A. L. Wood preservation, 1107 

Lange, R. F. Theory of rail joints, *7i8 

Lathrop, T, C. Pe'nforred concrete car house, 
Dnvton, Ohio. *I264 

Lindall, John. Report on operating expense 
accounts for maintenance shops, 744 

Lindall. John, Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on equipment. *77? 

Low, F. p. (See Sclireiber, Martin) 


McCarter. T. N. The electric railway situa- 
tion, 1272 

M'Gowan, J. A. Whit interurban railways 

do for the public, 820 
McWhorter, A. D.. _ Co-Chairman. Report of 

joint committee on shop accounting. 


Marshall, William. Protection of metal equip- 
ment, 912 


Nagle, G. O., Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on training of transportation em- 
ployees, 846 

Neal, J. TT. Detail records; their use and 
value, 794 

Neereamer. A. L. Purpose and work of the 
Central Electric Traffic Association, 

Norris. TT. H., Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on education, 812 

O'Callaghan. Edmond. Relations of the claim 
and other departments of a street 
railway, 18s 

Ossoski, Sidney. Pnsis of valuation in case 
of municipal purchase of street rail- 
ways, 999 

Chicago plan of street railway supervision 

and control, 218 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Parker, G. W. Transportation of milk and 
cream, 1237 

Pellissier, G. E. Welding entire rail sections 

at Holyoke, Mass., *i245 
Putnam, H. St. Clair. Coasting tests on the 

Manhattan Railway, New York, *72 

Radcliffe, G. L. Use of metal tickets, 815 
Reed, J. H. The Arnold Pittsburgh report, 
C304. C475 

Renshaw, Clarence. Recent developments in 

multiple-unit control and other electric 

railway apparatus, "35 
Rifenberick, R. B. Rail joints, 743 
Roberts, E. P. An engineer's suggestion to 

contractors and manufacturers' agents, 


Schmock, E. L. Advertising methods and traf- 
fic of the Cleveland, Painesville & 
Eastern R. R., '946 

Park accounting, 22 

Schreiber, Martin. Discussion on report of 
the committee on way matters of the 
American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion for 1909-1910, 1 151 

Schreiber, Martin, Chairman. Report of the 
committee on buildings and struc- 
tures, 836 

Schreiber, Martin, and F. F. Low. Urban and 

interurban terminals, *837 
Shaw, J. F. Address bv, 703, 707 
Sprague, F. J. The New York subway situ- 
ation, 878 

Stitzer, A. B. Car tests in Philadelphia with 
anti-friction bearings, *322 

Storer, N. W., and G. M. Eaton. Design of 
the electric locomotive, 76 

Stott, H. G., Vice-chairman. Report of com- 
mittee on power generation, 784 

Strong. E. E. Training of transportation em- 
ployees, 1 1 S3 

Stubbs. N. E. Collection of data concerning 
payrolls and invoices, 742 

Swift, H. S. Address by, 732 

Tilton, B E. Standardization of track con- 
struction in paved streets, 32 
Todd, R. L, Address by, 685 
Tripp, G. E. Taxes and licenses, 844 

Van Valkenburgh, E. C. From Chicago to 
New York on electric cars, *47.i 

Suggestions on stimulating long distance 

travel, 993 


Wattman, M. City design and transportation, 


Westinghouse, George. Railway electrification, 

1 2 

Weston, C. V. Street railway franchise, 813 
Williams, H. S. Recent developments in car 

heating and ventilation, 110.; 
Williams, T. W. Railway motor gears and 

pinions, 30 

Wear of railway motor gear and pinion 

teeth — causes and suggested means of 
relief, t 1 03 

Winsor, Paul, Chairman. Report of commit- 
tee on standards, 836 

Woodard. W. O. The development of pas- 
senger traffic. *iiog 

Wright, W. B. Uniform comparative monthly 
statements, 21 

Yarnell, V. S. Latest development in car 
wheels for electric railways, 28 

Young, P. S., Co-Chairman. Report of joint 
committee on shop accounting, 744 


Adams, A. L., 486 
Adamson, J. L., 1082 
Alberger, William R., 34s 
Ale, George, 128 
Allen, Frank, 1256 
Allen, H. C, 243 
Alexander, J. P., 243, 382 
Andrews, J. H. M„ 345, 928 
Andrews, John W., 382 
Askin, H., 345, 382 
Atkins, E. O., 860 

Bachman, David L, 860 
Badger, J. S., 937 
Bailey, Theodore P., 345 
Banehenn, Louis P., 243 
Baymiller, H. A., 1008 
Beatty, Robert D„ 128 
Becht, A. J., 1 130 
Bellamy. L. C. F., 280 
Belden, F. A., 533, 1048 
Bemis, A. M., 11 30 
Benedict, H. A., 1171. 12 18 

Betts, Philander, 203 
Bliss, J. H., 382 
Bowie, George W., 1082 
Bradley. L. C, 128 
Bretz, C. L., 281 
Brockway, E. L., 675 
Brooks, Charles A., 418 
Brown, D. H., 1048 
Brown, James IL, 57 
Brown, J. W., 243 
Brown, T. O., 893 

Brush, Matthew C, 675 
Burns, J. M., 1295 
Bushnell, F. A., 533 
Butterworth. William, 1256 

Carroll, Edward, 1256 
Carson, W. A., 95 
Cashin, T. A., 12S6 
Clark, D. B., 533. 674 
Clark, E. H„ 243, 34s 
Clark. E. P.. =17 



[Vol. XXXVI. 

Clark, J. P., 202 

Clark, Robert J., 973 

Clark, Roy, .182 

Clifford, G. H., 533 

Conger, Kenyon B., 1008, 1082 

Coffey, M. A., 202 

Coffin, Leslie R., 928 

Coleman, William M., 280 

Coolidge, C. A., 165, 450 

Colony, C. S., 280 

Cooper, H. S., 94 

Cowles, Tames E., 973 

Cox, L., 1 1 74 

Craven, Alfred, 973 

Crosby, O. T., 128 

Crouse, H. P., 1218 

Crume, R. A., 97.3 

Crumley. T. R., 674 

Curtis, C. W., 1218 

Dodge, G. H., 1048 
Drown, H. V., *8g3 
Duncan, John D. E., 165 
Durbin, C. K., 312 
Durbin, Fletcher M., 1218 
Durfee, W. T., 1048 
Dustin, Guy K., 533 

Ecker, E. Chester, 312 

Edgar, H. T., 534, 675 

Edinger, Roy, 1174 

Edmund, Arthur Robert, 1009 

Erickson, C. J., 533 

Evans, W. H., 419 

Everdell, Jr., William, 973, 1008 

Faber, George F., 34s 
Fabien, V. F., 345 
Fallon, Nugent, 486 
Faut, D. A., 1256 
Fife. Charles E., 243 
Firth, H. W., 486 
Fitz. Miss Grace E., 1082 
Fischer, L. E., 1048 
Fishback, John L., 533 
Fisher, Fred E., 450 
Fisher, Walter L., 165 
Flett, George, 281, 312 
Forbes, W. C, 533, 893 
Ford, Charles W., 1082, 1174 
Ford. E. K., 674 
Ford, George L., 533 
Forse, Jr., William H., *86i 
Foster, Horatio A., 34s 
Furth, Jacob, 418 

Garrick, K. K., 57 
Gatchell, F. D., 1219 
Gates, Andrew F'., 533 
Gibson, J. E., s8, 1218 
Gill, James J., 128 
Gladfelter. Charles F., 1256 
Glynn, A. T., 1008 
Goepper, Edward, 11 30 
Goodrich, C. G., 94 
Gorman, J. M., 280 
Gould, A. R., 281 
Grabuen, Nelson, 203 
Graves, C. M., 674 
Griggs, Julian, 280 

Hahn, D. S., 5.13 
Haisch, J. J., 382 
Haller, W. A., 1130 
Halverson, Frank C, 312 
Handy, William W., 860 
Harvey, G. A., 486 
Harvey, J. II., 1174 
Harvie, W. J., *8g,3 
Hasbrouck, Henry C> 674 
Havens, Frank C, 1256 
Heindle, William A., 243 
Hemming, R. M., 11 74 
Hendricks, Wayne, 243 
Hewitt, J. W., 345 
Heyvvood, James, 243 
Hibner, Aldis E., 418 
Higgins, Richard T., 674 
Hile, C. H., 486 
Hilliard, J. O., 486 
Hitchcock. W. H., 450, 534 
Hollis, Robert, 128 
Hooper, J. J., 1256 
Home, H. J., 1174 
Hullin, N. J., 382, 451 
Hunnewell, F. S., 860 
Hurley, Peter E., 973 
Hurt, H. N., 202 

Irwin, Joseph I., 313 

Johnson, C. A., 1256 
Johnson, E. C, 280 
Johnson, J. J., 345 

Kartholm, A. A., 1295 
Katterheinrich, A., 57 
Kearney, P. J., 860 
Kehoe, M. J., 94 
Kelly, A. C, 1008 
Kibbe, A. S., *ii3c 
Kincheloe, Jr., P. P., 860 
Kirkpatrick, R. K., 450 
Knapp, Martin A., 1218 
Knight, Peter O., 94 

Laas, F. W., 973 
Lathrop, Allison P., 202 
Leaning, E. W., 1295 
Leary, J. H., 243, 1008 
Leisenring, John, 1130 
Lieber, L. O.. 1218, 1295 
Lincoln, Frederick H., 128 
Linn, Jr., Arthur L., *i2i8 
Litchfield. N., *8g3 
Loftus, F. T., 345 
Lott, Frank M., 382 
Lowry, Horace, 12 18 

McCarty, Allen, 486 
McChord, C. C, 1295 
McCrery, T. P., 1008 
McCulloch, Capt. Robert, 312 
McDaniel, William, 418 
McKenna, M. D., 1256 
McKinley, W. B., *io 4 8 
McLean, J. L., 1218 
McLimont, A. W., 128 
McNulty, H. B.. 128 
McNulty, H. L., 533 
Maize, Frank P., *!2i8 
Manning, H. P., 312 

Mantz, George W., 534 
Martindale, J. J., 860 
Massee, T. D., 1256 
Mather, E. H., 928 
Matthews, David E., 674 
Maxwell, Fred J., 382 
Mellen, Charles S., 486 
Merrill, G. W., 312 
Merwin, B. E., 281 
Messmer, J. F., 1256 
Meyer, Prof. B. H., 1218, 1295 
Meyers, William J., 382 
Millican, G. R., 312 
Millspaugh, J. L., 418 
Mitchell, Louis A., 1256 
Moffat, Fred, 57 
Moffatt, George E., 486 
Moore, John P., 450 
Munro, W. H., 1082 
Myers, A. R., 1174 
Myers, W. C, 674 

Neff, Frank L., 1218 
'Nichols, H. B., 202, 280 
Norris, Alan P., 1256, 1295 

O'Connell, J. F.. 674 
Ogden, Monroe G., 1256 
O'Hara, Joseph, 382 
Olds, E. W., 280, 1048 
Otis, A. H., 128 

Page, H. C, *8 9 .3 
Pardee, J. H., *s8, 1218 
Parker. Walter G., 1082 
Pelz, Carl E., 533 
Phelps, Jr., Charles E., 1008 
Pheneciee, C. R., 243 
Phillipp, C. D., 165, 243 
Pierce, D. T., 418 
Pilcher, N. C, 243, 312 
Potter, E. E., 675 
Potter, George G., 1008 
Protzeller, H. W., 280 
Pumfrey, Thomas, 312 
Purington, A. J., 674 

Ralls, M. S., 345 
Randall, Fred C, 345 
Reardon, J. F., 419 
Reed, George F., 928 
Reed, Mortimer P., 128, *i6s 
Reel, C. Gordon, *s8 
Relf, H. K., 860 
Remelius, Charles, 1136 
Rennick, Alexander, 280 
Reynolds, S. W., 674 
Reynolds, W. R., 128 
Rosen, W. A., 450 
Ryan, C. N., 165 
Richards, Henry M., 450 
Richardson, George P., 1174 
Ricker, C. W., 1295 
Rider, J. H., 280 
Riley, George, Sr., 313 
Roberts, O., 1256 
Robinson, Sir T. Clifton, 451 
Robinson, M. O., 486 
Rollins, E. E., 202 
Rose, C. E., 1256 

Rose, D. B., 418 
Rossiter, E. V. W., 1295 
Rothery, J. C, 418 
Rounds, G. W., 674, 861 

Savery, William H., 1082 
Schramm, B. J., 533 
Scott, John M., 1218 
Shane, Alexander, *486 
Shannon, E. P., 860, 450 
Shipherd, L. C, 1256 
Silverthorn, William H., 345 
Silvus, Walter, 243 
Simmons, S. E., 94 
Slinghuff, Eugene, 533 
Sloan, M. S., 382 
Smaw, W. II., 1218, 1295 
Smith, James McM., 860 
Smith, R. A., 893 
Smith, R. R., 973 
Smith, W. G., 57 
Spalding, William, 928 
Sparks, W. C, 1295 
Spring, Col. E. C, 928 
Spruill, E. D., 1256 
Stadelman, W. A., 128 
Stebbins, Theodore, 418 
Steel. E. T., 674 
Stewart, Joseph B., 674 
Strong, S. R., 312 
Sturtevant, W. I., *94 
Summers, F. W., 860 
Swain, Prof. George F., 486 
Swain, J. G,. 94 
Sweeney, Alfred J., 1082 
Sykes, Charles L., 450 

Taylor. C. G., 534 
Taylor, R. C, 418, 450, 1048 
Techilner, M., 973 
Thomas, George V., 1256 
Thomas, W. G., 1218 
Thompson, John C, 1174 
Tompkins, J. W., 1256 
Treat, Dean, 312 
Turner, T. F., 312 

Vance, H. J., 382 
Van Keuren, T. F., 1218 
Vogt, F. P., 486 
Vosburg, L. F., 418 

Wager, S. D., 128 
Wagoner, James A., 1256 
Walker, William, 57, 382 
Warner, Gen. Adoniran, 313 
Watkins, Samuel S.. 1174 
Webster, F. W., 128 
Weld, F. M., 860 
Westinghouse, George, 928 
Weston, Walter L., 94 
Wickersham, L. B., 450 
Williams, Ferdinand, 973 
Wishart, W. C, 382 
Wishon, A. G., 128 
Winkle, A. J., 382 
Witt, C. M., g 4 
Wolf, Clarence, 860 
Wolfe, Arthur T., 202 
Woodward, L, E., 94 
Wright, W. B., 243 


Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Vol. XXXVI. 


No. 1 


McGraw Publishing Company 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 
Tames H. McGraw, President. 
Hugh M. Wilson, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President. 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Trg 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: 

Henry W. Blake, Ed 
L. E. Gould, Western 
Associate Editors 
Rodney Hitt, Frederic Nicholas, 
News Editors: 
G. J. MacMurray, Frank J. Arm" 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. ... Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 
For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere: United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per 
year. Single copies, 10 cents. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our 
European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 


Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 1910, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal, 8500 copies 
are printed. 



The Increase in Commutation Fares near New York 1 

Fixed Wages for Men on the Extra List i- 

Changing the Running Speeds for Different Periods of the Day 2 

Instructing the Jury in Accident Cases 2 

The University and Business 2 

Conservation of Water Powers 3 

Revision of the Interurban Rules 3 

A Standard System of Electric Traction 4 

Handling Shopwork Economically in Crowded Quarters 5 

Regulation of Transportation Service by the Metropolitan Street 

Railway 6 

Electric Railways of Canada 11 

Brake Shoe Standardization in England ii 

George Westinghouse on Railway Electrification 12 

Trackless Trolleys Abroad 14 

Winnipeg, Selkirk & Lake Winnipeg Interurban Railway 15 

Cleveland Meeting of Committee on Interurban Rules 17 

Meeting of Central Electric Accounting Conference 20 

Uniform Comparative Monthly Statements 21 

Park Accounting 22 

Fare Case Affecting East St. Louis & Suburban Railway 23 

The Problem of the Five-Cent Fare 23 

The Latest Development in Car Wheels for Electric Railways 28 

Railway Motor Gears and Pinions 30 

Standardization of Track Construction in Paved Streets 32 

Recent Developments in Multiple Unit Control and Other Electric 

Railway Apparatus 35 

Meeting of New York State Association 38 

Air Purification System for Compressors and Other Motors 46 

Installation of Improved Cable Clamps in New York 46 

Pay-As-You Enter Trailers for Wichita Falls Traction Company 47 

London Letter 49 

News of Electric Railways 50 

Financial and Corporate 52 

Traffic and Transportation! 55 

Personal Mention 57 

Construction News 58 

Manufactures and Supplies 60 

Table of Traction Earnings 62 

The Increase in Commutation Fares Near New York 

The increase in commutation fares, announced by practically 
all of the steam railroads entering New York, has aroused 
comparatively little opposition from patrons. Several "indig- 
nation" meetings have been held in Connecticut and a few in 
New Jersey, but they seem to have been engineered more for 
olitical effect than for any other purpose. The opportunity of 
ampioning the cause of the public was too good to be allowed 
lapse entirely. Complaints were far more generally ex- 
essed on one of the lines whose service broke down during a 
Severe winter several years ago than on the same road now 
in anticipation of the increase in rates. People generally rec- 
ognize the fact that all the expenses of the railroad companies 
have increased. Advances in the wages paid employees have re- 
ceived publicity in the daily papers and the fact that materials 
of every kind have increased in cost is part of the persona! 
knowledge and experience of every patron of the railroads. In 
an editorial commenting on the situation recently, the New 
York World referred to the steam railroads as being the only 
public utility in the vicinity of New York which had found it 
necessary to increase rates. A more correct statement would 
have been that it was the only public utility which had done so. 
But the need is equally great, if not greater, with the electric 
roads and we believe that if any practicable method should 
be devised to increase moderately the present rates of fares 
on city roads, the action would be accepted with much less 
opposition than many anticipate. 

Fixed Wages for Men on the Extra List. 

Two methods for paying trainmen on the extra list are in 
vogue. One is to pay extra conductors and motormen only 
for the time they are actually in service ; the other is to 
give them a fixed minimum daily or weekly wage in accord- 
ance with the principle that "He also serves who only stands 
and waits." On first thought, it might appear that while the 
latter practice is more just to the men, the former has the 
merit of being less costly. This is not necessarily true in all 
cases. Several large city companies which have tried both 
methods have found that the average wages of the extras 
are no greater in one case than in the other. One railway 
company in the East pays each of its intermittent platform 
employees $10.50 a week, without regard to the time they work. 
Another has fixed a minimum rate of $1.50 a day for any 
period up to six hours with pay at the regular hourly rates for 
all work exceeding six hours. The benefit of this policy has 
made itself felt, not so much in a reduction of the payroll, as 
in the greater reliability of the extra men. The best recruits 
are among the first to desert if they find that they have no 
assurance of a living wage while waiting for a regular posi- 
tion. It is only natural, therefore, that they should look for 
steady work somewhere else. Transportation superintendents 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

who know how much it costs to break in platform men will 
appreciate that the fixed payment policy is worth trying from 
this standpoint alone, even if it should result in a slightly 
bigger payroll. 

Changing the Running Speeds for Different Periods of the 

Judging from talks with traffic managers and schedule ma- 
kers, it seems that many of them do not give enough thought 
to the economies which are possible by changing the running 
speeds at certain intervals throughout the day. It goes with- 
out saying that during business hours, the car schedule speed 
is limited by slow-downs and blockades resulting from vehicu- 
lar traffic. However, this hindrance practically is eliminated 
at night. For this reason, a car well-loaded with a crowd com- 
ing from the theaters can be operated and its patrons dis- 
tributed over a given route in much better time than other- 
wise, even if the total number of passenger stops is the same 
as during the day. The late rider is especially appreciative of 
high speed during the wee, sma' hours. From the standpoint of 
the railway company, a raising of the schedule speed by say 
10 per cent to 20 per cent means a corresponding reduction in 
night equipment and crews. This consideration appears too 
obvious for comment. Nevertheless, it is a fact that there 
are plenty of places where an inflexible time card needlessly is 
in force throughout the day and night. On such lines, one 
may frequently see the motormen amuse themselves by run- 
ning ahead of their schedules and then crawling for a stretch 
merely to kill time. No particular complications are involved 
in the operation of a variable schedule system. On one large 
railway, for example, each route is divided into time-point sec- 
tions and the individual motormen simply are instructed that 
after a given hour and minute they must raise their average 
speed to get over the given divisions in certain stated periods 
of time. 

Instructing the Jury in Accident Cases 

The use of models of electric railway equipment in the court 
room is often helpful to a company in a closely contested ac- 
cident case. Out of this method of handling complex situations 
involving considerable sums of money has grown the plan of 
bringing into court the actual parts of the car equipment which 
are involved in the dispute between the plaintiff and the de- 
fendant. This practice has, of course, been followed for hun- 
dreds of years in criminal cases, but its adaptability to electric 
railway damage suits is of comparatively recent origin. In a 
recent case where a large number of passengers brought suit 
in connection with the derailment of a double-truck car on ac- 
count of a broken axle the company took the truck parts most 
intimately concerned into the court room and thus the jury was 
enabled to study the situation at first hand, with the benefit of 
thorough non-technical discussion of the conditions by expert 
metallurgical engineers summoned by the company as witnesses. 
The company contended that the accident was unavoidable and 
of the kind which could not be foreseen, and while the experts 
for the plaintiffs had the opportunity to examine the broken 
parts at length, the weight of evidence supported the com- 
pany's position. The trouble and expense to which the com- 
pany went in carrying a set of wheels, axle, and gearing into 
the court room, showed the jury that it had nothing to conceal, 
and enabled the jurymen to grasp the conditions under discus- 
sion far more easily than would have been possible by the use 

of photographs and drawings alone. A similar course in con- 
nection with controller flashing suits, circuit breaker accidents, 
and the like, has given good results in the conduct of damage 
cases. The company always has to meet severe conditions of 
inquiry in cases where the causes of the accident are at all ob- 
scure, and when it is possible to'bring the whole matter within 
a few feet or inches of the jury, the opportunities for proper 
instruction are greatly enhanced and *a doubtful case often can 
be won. 


This is the month of college commencements, as well as of 
the annual meetings of engineering organizations, which are 
as truly national universities devoted to higher branches of 
technical education and study as the undergraduate institu- 
tions are of the lower branches. It is interesting and instruc- 
tive therefore to notice that the relations between the uni- 
versity and the extension of university work as represented 
both in engineering and industrial lines are growing closer 
yearly. This is as it should be, because if a university is most 
fully to live up to its opportunities — we might almost say to its 
real purposes of being — it should grow with the community 
which it is aiming to serve. To do this, it should direct its 
energies so as best to fit its students after graduation to solve 
those problems which the outside world most needs to have 
answered and should be so closely in touch with these outside 
events as to modify its curriculum of undergraduate instruc- 
tion from time to time so as to accomplish this most desir- 
able result. 

Two incidents during the latter part of the past month ex- 
emplify the closer connection between the college and business, 
the scholar and the man of affairs, to which we have been re- 
ferring. One was the inauguration as president of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers of the professor of elec- 
trical engineering at one of our leading technical schools. The 
other was the award to James J. Hill by Yale University of 
the degree of LL.D. We do not mean that either incident was 
without precedent. Other professors have filled the same office 
as that to which Prof. Jackson was elected, but none perhaps 
had devoted his activities to so great an extent purely to the 
purposes of education. In a similar way, the degree to Mr. Hill 
was not the first of its kind at Yale. Indeed, in his case, the 
incident was noteworthy, not because it was unusual, but be- 
cause it followed similar bestowals of the same degree during 
the last few years to Mr. Mellen and Mr. Morgan, in both 
cases for distinguished achievements in railroad organization. 
The repetition this year indicates that the policy of the uni- 
versity is to include among those to whom its highest honors 
are awarded the creators of industries as well as those who 
have distinguished themselves in scholarship or have achieved 
success in political life. We do not propose to draw com- 
parisons between the intellectual effort required in these differ- 
ent kinds of human endeavor or between the benefits con- 
ferrd by them upon humanity. But if college honors are to 
retain the respect which is and should be held for them, they 
will recognize genius equally whether directed toward the de- 
sign of machinery, which adds materially to a nation's com- 
fort, to the creation of a railway system or an industry 
which increases its wealth, or to the production of treatises 
which widen its knowledge. 



It is a striking evidence of the interest now felt in the policy 
of conservation of water powers pursued by the Government 
that the subject should have been made by Mr. Stillwell the 
topic of his presidential address at the annual convention of 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Foresighted 
engineers have long realized the important part which water 
powers will play in the generation of power in the future, as 
the supply of coal decreases and its cost increases. A very 
large proportion of water powers which have not yet been util- 
ized are, however, either located upon government lands or 
are dependent wholly or in part upon the run-off from govern- 
ment lands ; therefore the policy adopted by the government in 
permitting utilization of these powers is of practically con- 
trolling force so far as future hydroelectric development in 
this country is concerned. 

While Mr. Stillwell believes that the presence of forest cover 
on a watershed regulates the rate of run-off to an extent which, 
in many cases materially affects the value of a water power, he 
dissents from the theory enunciated by the late chief forester 
that forests are the principal and determining factor in the 
vah:e of such a plant. It was upon this latter assumption that 
the present rates charged for water power rights on streams 
dependent upon government forest reserves were established. 
These rates are based on the kilowatt-hour. They vary with 
the proportion of the water supply which comes from reserved 
and unreserved lands, but the maximum is 2 cents per 1000 kw- 
hours for the first year, increasing to 32^ cents for the 
fiftieth, that is, the last year of the permit issued by the gov- 

To this rate Mr. Stillwell files exception, not because it is 
excessive for a fully developed enterprise, but because it pen- 
alizes the builders of efficient plants and the owner who sells 
his power at a low rate, because it makes no allowance, like 
the corresponding Italian law, for long distance transmission 
losses, and because it is imposed regardless of the actual con- 
dition of the forestation upon which it is based. He also 
charges the form of permit with being unnecessarily rigorous, 
in that it prevents the owner of one water-power plant com- 
bining with others, often a step toward general economy ; be- 
cause it requires continuous operation up to a specified per- 
centage of the full hydraulic capacity of the works, and be- 
cause the permit is revokable at the discretion of the govern- 
ment. A better plan, according to Mr. Stillwell, providing a 
tax upon natural resources to be used in conserving and de- 
veloping these resources is desirable, would be to impose a tax 
on all sources of power found upon public lands such as coal 
lands, which are now sold by the government at the equivalent 
of a tax of 0.5 cent per thousand kw-hours, instead of for an 
average rental of 20.86 cents per thousand kw-hours as in the 
case of water power ; the income thus derived to be devoted 
to conservation purposes as with water power rentals. Mr. 
Stillwell also believes that the charge for water-power should 
be based upon the power appropriated and the effective head 
resulting from the topography of the government lands con- 
cerned or that, as commercial conditions of cost and develop- 
ment differ so widely, that the government lease different 
powers to the highest bidders. 

The relation between electric railway operation and water- 
power service can no longer be considered remote. To cite a 
single instance, although the most conspicuous one, Niagara 

power is now operating electric lines 150 miles from the Falls, 
and with the development of appliances and insulators which 
are capable of use on voltages up to 100,000 or more, New 
York may be said to be almost as near Niagara electrically as 
was Buffalo 15 years ago. Mr. Stillwell took a most promi- 
nent part in the development of Niagara power and it is ex- 
tremely appropriate that he should now utter a word of cau- 
tion as to the policy to be adopted by the government as to 
future hydroelectric development. 


It is surprising probably to many interurban railway operat- 
ing officers to learn that the committee on interurban rules of 
the Transportation and Traffic Association has decided to 
recommend in its report this year radical changes in the code of 
rules adopted at the Denver convention in order to make them 
conform almost exactly in numbering and wording with the 
American Railway Association code of steam railway rules. 
The 1909 code of interurban rules included the wording or 
intent of many of the steam railway rules, but at the time of 
its adoption there was a decided difference of opinion among 
members of the association and the vote was not unanimous. 
Representatives of a number of interurban electric railways 
which operate with the steam railway rules strongly urged the 
adoption of those rules as a whole instead of the modified rules 
recommended by the committee. Their arguments and 
those which have been presented at a number of recent meetings 
of sectional associations where the subject of interurban rules 
has been discussed seem to have brought the members of this 
year's committee around to the same point of view. The re- 
vised interurban code as approved by the committee will be as 
nearly like the standard steam railway code as most of the 
amplified codes in use by individual steam railway companies. 

The committee had two questions to consider. Can the steam 
railway code of rules be adapted for electric railway operation 
with a few slight modifications? Is it the best code which can 
be prepared? The experience of several interurban roads 
which are using the steam railway code practically without al- 
teration is a good answer in the affirmative to the first ques- 
tion. Argument will develop on the second question. Judging 
from replies received to a circular letter sent out by the com- 
mittee about half of the roads heard from consider the steam 
railway rules preferable to last year's code of interurban rules. 

The steam rules have much to commend in them. They 
are concise, practical and safe to use and have stood the test 
of time under every conceivable condition of steam railway 
operation. They are thoroughly familiar to a large body of 
experienced steam railway trainmen and officers and 
many of these men are being recruited into electric interurban 
service. The 1909 interurban code was faulty in some respects 
and doubtless could have been improved upon with careful 
study. The committee in abandoning many of the rules which 
it formulated last year and confining its efforts to adapting the 
well-tried steam rules to electric railway conditions has 
taken a radical step which no doubt will meet with strong 
opposition from many managers who are satisfied with 
the interurban rules as they stand. At any rate, we believe that 
the proposed revision has not been made merely to satisfy 
the wishes of a few companies which have argued strongly in 
favor of the steam rules. There has been no sectional or par- 
tisan influence exerted by the individual members of the com- 



mittee during the discussions. In considering the comparative 
merits of proposed rules each member has tried not to let his 
decision be swayed by the operating conditions of his own rpad, 
but has drawn upon his general knowledge of operating meth- 
ods throughout the country. 

The revised code will be simple in wording and so should 
meet the criticism made of the 1909 code at the meeting of 
the Iowa Street and Interurban Railway Association that it 
was so voluminous and full of detailed explanations and in- 
structions as almost to imply an insult to the intelligence of 
the average trainman. These explanations and instructions fre- 
quently are necessary, but the bulletin board affords a suitable 
place for posting them and if conditions arise which require 
changes in the rules or putting into effect special rules the 
standard rule book need not be revised. 

On a number of important principles of practice the com- 
mittee has not been able to agree as to the best method. In 
such cases optional rules have been framed and will be included 
in the code as such. Rule 207c, for example, does not permit a 
train to proceed when it arrives at a meeting point and finds 
that the opposing train has not arrived and that communication 
cannot be established with the dispatches. An optional rule, 
207c, provides that the train may proceed if protected by flag. 
Here are two methods of procedure directly opposed to each 
other in principle. One or the other is best practice and the 
rules should outline only best practice. It is perfectly proper 
for the committee to present both rules to the association for 
consideration, but only that rule which in the opinion of the 
majority represents best practice should be allowed to appear in 
the code as finally adopted and issued as the standard of the 

The interest with which the present situation concerning the 
interurban code is followed is indicated by the proceedings this 
week at the meeting of the Street Railway Association of the 
State of New York. Before it was known that the Transpor- 
tation & Traffic Association committee would recommend im- 
portant changes at the next Atlantic City meeting, notice had 
been served that the New York association would be asked to 
approve the Denver code. It appears that the adoption of the 
Denver code by the New York association after the discussion, 
of which an abstract is given in another part of this issue, is 
due to a desire to support the American Association in its en- 
deavor to compile a code that shall best meet the requirements 
of the industry and that if that code shall be changed further 
so as to represent later judgment of the majority than that of 
1909, the subject will be brought again before the New York 
organization. The New York Association has followed with 
approval the last recorded action of the American Association 
on this topic and if, at this time or later, the associations of 
other States or sections will adopt a similar course concerning 
the rules as amended in 1910, a definite step toward uniformity 
of practice will have been taken. 

Copies of the report of the committee this year will be in the 
hands of all members of the association five or six weeks be- 
fore the convention, and the rules should be carefully studied 
in advance of the meeting. Such an important question ought 
not to be disposed of by a vote of only those members who 
may be able to attend the meeting at which the report is 
presented. Every member company is affected and upon each 
company rests a moral obligation to assist in the work of 
standardizing the rules by putting them into use. Each com- 

pany, therefore, should have the right to cast a vote or at least 
to express an opinion for or against their adoption as the 
standard of the association. A letter ballot after the conven- 
tion may not be possible under the constitution of the associa- 
tion, but in its place it might bring out an expression of 
opinion if each company received with the advance copy of the 
committee's report an urgent request from the executive com- 
mittee of the association to send in a letter of approval or 
criticism if no representative can attend the convention and vote 
in person. It would be most unfortunate if the code as revised 
this year should be subjected to the same amount of adverse 
criticism after the convention has adjourned as was the case 
last year. 


The presidential address of George Westinghouse to be read 
next month at the joint meeting of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers and the British Institute of Mechanical 
Engineers in London is an unbiased and non-partisan plea for 
the immediate selection of a standard system of electric trac- 
tion for universal use by all steam railways which in the 
future may convert their lines for electric operation. Enor- 
mous sums of money have already been invested in the electric 
equipment of a few terminal zones and, as Mr. Westinghouse 
points out, the future development of heavy electric traction 
will be the expansion of these terminal zones until they reach 
out and touch each other. When that time comes, if there is 
such a diversity of electric equipment that it will be impossible 
for the motor cars or locomotives of one road to run over the 
tracks of a connecting road, .interchange of traffic" as it is 
carried on to-day will be difficult, if not impossible. The steam 
railroads would long since haye been in bankruptcy or have 
been compelled to increase their rates enormously if inter- 
change arrangements had not been perfected many years ago. 
The financial burdens under which some of the weaker steam 
roads are staggering at the present are due in no small meas- 
ure to the expenditures required to change their track and 
equipment years ago to conform to the standard gage of 4 ft. 
8]/ 2 in. 

All of the steam railroad equipment operated in the United 
States is fitted with interchangeable types of car couplings and 
uniformly operative brake apparatus. For electrically operated 
railways Mr. Westinghouse mentions three additional require- 
ments of interchange. These are a uniform supply of elec-, 
tricity, a uniform type and location of conductors for supply- 
ing electricity to the motors, and uniform control apparatus 
for multiple-unit trains. There is at the present time a wide 
diversity of practice on existing electrified steam roads in all 
three of these particulars. 

It might appear that a consideration of this subject at the 
present time was borrowing trouble because of the comparative- 
ly few installations which already have been made. Neverthe- 
less, within the last two years there have been two striking in- 
stances of the influence which the necessity for interchange- 
ability has had in determining the selection of a system of elec- 
tric traction. In the case of the Pennsylvania tunnels in New 
York City, while there were perhaps other reasons for the 
adoption of 600-volt direct current, the principal reason was 
the necessity for accommodating the suburban trains operating 
in the Long Island Railroad electric zone which had already 

July 2, 1910.] 


Tjeen equipped with this system. Had any other system been 
selected the only alternatives would have been to have segre- 
gated the trackage over which the Long Island trains could 
enter the terminal or to replace the entire electric equipment 
of the Long Island Railroad. The decision of the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad to defer electrification of its terminal zone in 
Chicago was based largely on the difficulties which might be 
encountered in future interchange of traffic if the other rail- 
roads entering Chicago should adopt some other system differ- 
-ent from that which the Illinois Central might install. 

There are at the present time four systems in use in the 
United States and only two are interchangeable with any of 
the others. The 1200-volt, direct-current system can be oper- 
ated in connection with a 600-volt, direct-current system and a 
single-phase system can be operated in connection with a 600- 
volt, direct-current system, but expensive complications of 
apparatus are involved in either case. Mr. Westinghouse says 
that the great difficulty in the electrification of steam railways 
is no longer an engineering problem, but is a broad question of 
financial and general policy. It is true that the engineering 
details of each of the four systems referred to have been per- 
fected to a high degree, but unfortunately it is also true that 
the foremost electrical engineers are not agreed among them- 
selves as to which system possesses the greatest advantages 
for universal application. Until the engineers reach an under- 
standing on this point it will not be possible to develop the 
broader financial and general policies involved. 


The difficulties of economical maintenance of rolling stock 
are seriously increased by very limited shop capacity. The 
problem of making the most of restricted quarters is one which 
many master mechanics have been obliged to face, for it is sel- 
dom feasible to establish a new shop until the inconvenience 
of the old installation has made itself felt for a considerable 
period. Much can be done to improve old shops, however, by 
re-arranging machinery so as to avoid as far as possible inter- 
ference with the main aisles of travel, by installing direct- 
connected motors in place of belt and shaft drives on various 
high-powered tools which may be in use a considerable portion 
of the time and by re-locating in some instances the stock room 
and quarters of the head of the department. 

In the railway repair shop the sequence of operations found 
in" ordinary manufacturing plants is conspicuous by its ab- 
sence. While certain repair and maintenance work like the 
lining of bearings, straightening of shafts, winding of arma- 
ture and fields into stock forms, undercutting of commutators, 
smoothing commutator surfaces, wheel grinding and trolley 
wheel turning is repetitive in character there are numerous 
other tasks in the shop which are seldom done precisely alike 
twice, and cannot be foreseen by either the operating or 
maintenance department in relation to any specific day or hour. 
Such work requires for its execution space which is variable 
in extent, hence is apt to interfere more or less with routine 

Usually in a crowded shop, materials and supplies tend to ac- 
cumulate around the machine tools, benches and sometimes the 
aisles. The working force requisition more material than is im- 
mediately necessary from the stock room and store it close by 

their tools, to save the trouble of more frequent trips through 
the shop. There is a temptation to load the telpher system 
close to its full capacity in delivering a set of spare parts to a 
lathe, drill or grinder, but in crowded quarters this practice 
leads to obstruction of aisles and spaces between tools and 
benches, thus hindering the general transit of materials and 
men through the shop. It is a better plan in a small shop, 
which is congested with work, to depend more upon the stock 
room and to avoid the accumulation of sub-storage in the vicin- 
ity of the tools. The distances to be traversed in small shops 
are so short that a clear and systematic arrangement of equip- 
ment spacing is preferable to any attempt to save time by as- 
sembling too many parts outside the stock room. In this con- 
nection a centralized location of the stock room is in general 
excellent practice ; but if it means the sacrifice of machine capa- 
city through restricted space and poor natural lighting it may 
be a better plan to locate the stock room at or near the end 
of the main repair division. With a well equipped telpher sys- 
tem and a first-class interior telephone installation, the imme- 
diate location of the stock room in a small shop becomes less 

There is considerable room for improvement in the driving 
of tools by motors in small, crowded shops, which have long 
since outgrown the limitations of group driving by a single 
motor of antiquated design. The saving in power through di- 
rect connection must be experienced to be fully appreciated, but 
more than this is the clearing of the shop from cumbersome 
hangers, belts and shafting, and the possibility of forcing the 
output of individual machines according to the character of 
work under the tool. A valuable feature of the individual 
drive which has been applied in not a few shops of the Ion?, 
rambling shape, is the facility with which a large tool handling 
a single class of service may be isolated from the rest of the 
equipment and operated in a compartment sufficiently large for 
the specific service but too small for other machines. The in- 
dividuality of the different jobs in the repair shop greatly fa- 
cilitates such an arrangement. Nothing aids production effi- 
ciency in a crowded shop more than a separation of tools which 
tend to limit each other's capacity, combined with adequate 
facilities for telpher transportation. If it is important to re- 
duce muscular labor to the lowest limit in a spacious shop hav- 
ing a modern arrangement of quarters, it is still more so in 
the congested repair plant where the limitations of area and 
often of height, obstruction of belts, pipes and often columns 
impede rapid preparation of work for machining and intensify 
all the adverse conditions which surround the worker. Sup- 
plies must be kept off the floor in such shops if work is to 
be handled quickly in the long run. The use of higher pow- 
ered lighting with modern scientific reflectors pays a high re- 
turn on its cost in the congested shop. It is often hard to 
know where to keep supplies in limited quarters, but the con- 
struction of a narrow overhead platform or mezzanine floor is 
far preferable to the use of the pits as a general storehouse. 
It should not be overlooked that hand work can be performed 
under less favorable location conditions than machine opera- 
tions, provided the lighting is adequate. The possibilities of 
re-arrangement are generally much wider in scope than often 
appears evident to the man whose horizon is limited by con- 
stant association with quarters and facilities which have gradu- 
ally fallen below the standards of efficient production which 
would be demanded in a new installation of the same area. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 


In the first article on the transportation department of the 
Metropolitan Street Railway, New York, published in last 
week's issue, information was given principally with reference 
to the organization of this department, its emergency service 
and to the employment, instruction and comfort of the em- 
ployees. The present article concludes the entire series on 
this company* with a description of the transportation service. 


It is only within recent years that the extent to which the 
finances of a company may be affected, both negatively and 
positively, by the operation of the transportation department, 
has been fully appreciated, and that the affairs of such a de- 
partment, even more than any other department of a street rail- 
way company, must be subjected to keen scrutiny in every de- 
tail of income and outgo, in order that the net income item of 
the annual balance sheet may be satisfactory to the owners of 
the property. In addition to the net income derived from the 
operation of the property two other factors have also to be 
considered in the preparation of schedules, namely : the ne- 
cessity of arranging the runs so that each man will receive a 
reasonable amount of work, and the regulations of the Pub- 
lic Service Commission which are peculiar to New York State. 
On the Metropolitan system a great deal of attention is given 
to the preparation of the schedules. Observations are made and 
statistics compiled to indicate the volume of riding at various 
times of day on each section of every line. The point of heav- 
iest riding on such sections is determined and tallies are taken 
to indicate the number of cars passing in each direction dur- 
ing each 15 minute interval, their seating capacity, the relation 
of such capacity to the passenger traffic, and the limits of 
the sections where the heaviest riding is to be found. 

Considerations of economy of operation as well as adequacy 
of service require, in the case of the avenue lines traversing 
Manhattan Island in a northerly and southerly direction, that 
there should be a number of intermediate terminals. For in- 
stance, in the case of the Lexington Avenue line the northern 
terminals are at Ninety-ninth Street and Lexington Avenue, 
130th Street and Lexington Avenue and 146th Street and Lenox 
Avenue. The southern terminals are at Twenty-third Street 
and Lexington Avenue, Twenty-second Street and Broadway, 
Houston Street and Broadway, Murray Street and Broadway, 
Bowling Green and South Ferry. In compiling the schedules, 
the volume of traffic between these different terminals at dif- 
ferent hours of the day has to be taken into account, as well 
as the physical capacity of the different sections of the line as 
measured by intersections with other lines, joint routes with 
other lines and vehicular and pedestrian congestion. A certain 
amount of short service between intermediate terminals is both 
necessary and desirable, but a certain amount of surplus or 
tag-end service is also unavoidable as otherwise cars would be 
switched back every few blocks. This would cause delays to 
car movement along the entire line and create undesirable com- 
plications far offsetting the advantages accruing from saving 
in mileage. 


The question of short service is perhaps one of the most im- 
portant phases of car movement which has been thoroughly in- 
vestigated since the appointment of the receivers. As a result, 
a material decrease in operating expenses has been effected 
without sacrificing the facilities afforded the travelling public, 
but on the contrary, improving them. 

These switch-back points were determined upon after a 
series of most exhaustive observations, and have, in some in- 
stances, not only resulted in the improvement of the facilities 
on the line where this policy has been followed, but have bet- 
tered conditions on other lines. For instance, the operation of 
cars from Twenty-third Street north on Lexington Avenue at 
night has not only provided a better service on the northbound 

*See Electric Railway Journal. March 26, Anril 2, April 9, April 
16, April 23, May 7, May 14, May 21, May 28 and June 25, 1910. 

Lexington avenue line, but has reduced the congestion on the 
track between Lexington Avenue and Broadway on Twenty- 
third Street, used jointly by the Lexington Avenue line and 
the Twenty-third Street line, where cars are operated on a 
headway of about 15 seconds during the period of maximum 

The intermediate service on Fourth and Madison Avenues, 
between Thirty-second Street and Fourth Avenue on the south 
and Eighty-sixth Street and Madison Avenue, as well as 116th 
Street and Madison Avenue on the north, has been a distinct 
improvement over the old method of operation. The short 
service in the morning on Sixth Avenue, between Fourth 
Street and Twenty-third Street, a distance of about one mile, 
has been of great benefit in carrying passengers from the 
Eighth Street and Fourteenth Street crosstown lines to the 
stores and factories lying between Fourth Street and Twenty- 
third Street. There is a very heavy volume of riding in this 
particular locality. 

A better theater service on Broadway has been rendered by 
operating a short service from Fifteenth Street and Broadway 
northbound, instead of from a point farther south as heretofore, 
where there was no demand for such frequency of car move- 
ment. On Eighth Avenue the intermediate service between 
116th Street and Fiftieth Street has greatly improved the con- 
ditions along that section of the line over what was the case 
when the cars were operated from Thirteenth Street to 158th 

It must not be misunderstood that the long service between 
the terminals farthest separated is discontinued during the 
period of short service, for such fs not the case, but rather 
the car movement is regulated in accordance with the relative 
demands of traffic along the entire line which fluctuate with the 
season, the opening of new transportation lines and other 

The failure of the Metropolitan receivers to adopt certain 
leases and agreements has involved some changes in operated 
routes, but new service has been inaugurated to afford facilities 
in place of those necessarily abandoned. For instance, the 
Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue line provides accommoda- 
tions to persons who used the line of cars which formerly 
traversed Broadway from 130th Street to Houston Street. 

The analysis of the service as shown by the street observa- 
tions to which reference has been made above has been supple- 
mented by a detailed study of the riding over entire lines dur- 
ing different periods of the day. This information furnishes 
from another viewpoint light on the question as to whether the 
service is being operated economically and efficiently. 

The accompanying statement. Table I, illustrates the prin- 
ciple of such an analysis. A careful study of these analyses 
early in the receivership indicated that during certain periods 
of the day the service was unnecessarily great, as, for example, 
on Sunday morning prior to the church riding. Adjustments 
were accordingly made in the schedules with very satisfactory 

In connection with the more economical regulation of the 
service, as mentioned above, there has come about an improve- 
ment in the receipts per car-mile for individual lines and for 
the system, and these figures in general have shown a gratifying 
and consistent improvement. In other words, this means the 
elimination of unprofitable mileage, which may be summarized 
as follows, as nearly as may be estimated : 

Monthly saving due to the inauguration of short service, 
100,000 car miles. 

Monthly saving through a reduction in unprofitable car 
mileage, i. e., elimination of service not required, 300,000 car 

These figures are based on a comparison with conditions pre- 
vailing prior to the receivership. 

The inauguration of the short service method of operation 
has rendered it possible to distribute the equipment to much 
better advantage than was previously practicable in that one 
car can make several short trips in the time which would be 
consumed in the making of one long trip. 

July 2, 1910.] 




The third method of checking the service consists in a com- 
parison which is made of the car-seat miles from month to 
month. This is of value, particularly in cases where cars of 
more than one type are being operated, as, for instance, long 
closed, short closed, long open and short open cars. Obviously 
the car mileage on a given line for a certain period might be 
precisely the same as for any other period, but the actual serv- 
ice measured in seating capacity might be radically different due 
to the different types of cars operated. 

Not only is the record of revenue car miles closely analyzed, 
but the idle mileage is subjected to the same scrutiny and its 
ratio to the active mileage closely observed, the analysis as in 
the active mileage being made for each operated line of the sys- 
tem and a comparison being made with other periods, such as 
the previous month and the same month for the previous year. 
Every effort has been made to reduce to a minimum the amount 
of idle mileage and cars are housed in those localities which 
will bring about this result, due consideration being given to 
all of the factors entering into this situation, such as special 
track work, interference with the operation of other lines, time 
table requirements, etc., etc. It is estimated that a close study 
of this situation has made possible the saving of from 65.000 
to 80,000 car miles a year. 

A record is also kept of the idle mileage operated in con- 
nection with the running of a disabled car off the road, and 
comparisons with other periods are also drawn for the purpose 
of closely checking up this phase of operation. For the year 
ended Dec. 31, 1909, this disabled car mileage was reduced by 
about 20 per cent from the figure of the previous year. The 
car mileage reports are so arranged as to show the mileage op- 
erated by each of the various types of cars used. 


Notwithstanding an impression which has existed to the con- 
trary, there is competition between the surface car lines and 

the elevated and subway lines, particularly with regard to travel 
between two given points which may be reached in relatively 
the same time by either means of transportation. Of course, 
weather conditions and personal choice enter largely into a 
decision on the part of the passenger, but the Metropolitan 
management has been making a constant effort to build up the 
speed of its lines so far as is consistent with the requirements 
of safety in order that the service may be as attractive as pos- 
sible to the travelling public. Tests have been made on differ- 
ent sections of different lines at different times of the day and 
measures are being adopted to prevent unnecessary loafing or 
dragging of the road, with consequent impairment of the serv- 
ice. The close relation between the speed of the cars on a 
given line and the receipts is too manifest to require discus- 
sion, particularly when the element of competition enters in to 
so great an extent as is the case on Manhattan Island. On 
the other hand, stringent measures are taken to eliminate reck- 
less or careless operation of cars. 


It is of interest to state that the average speed of the electric 
cars on the Metropolitan System is about 7 1-3 m.p.h., and this 
average speed is maintained under the congested conditions 
which prevail practically from one end of a line to the other 
over the whole system. In this respect the surface lines on 
Manhattan Island are operated under conditions differing radi- 
cally from those to be found in any other city in the country. 
In Chicago, in Boston and even in Brooklyn a very large por- 
tion of the routes traversed by the street cars run through ter- 
ritory where there is absolutely no congestion by either vehicles 
or pedestrians. The congested sections are proportionately 
small as compared with the whole territory covered by the 
street car systems in these cities, and in this respect conditions 
on Manhattan Island present a striking contrast. On such 
a line as the Eighth Avenue, for instance, from South 
Ferry to Thirteenth Street there is frequent blocking 

ICE, 161. 


Per cent 









Cents per 

Passgrs. pe: 





to total 




car mile 

car mile 

12.00MN to 

1. 00AM 





1 04.86 





1. 00AM 








































■ 0730 






























1 14.00 















i 0.00 











I 1. 00 










1 1. 00 












1. 00PM 




• 1634 




• 6249 

1 5 

1. 00PM 









• 5519 





1 1 14 

61 64 






i [ 











1 " 

















■ ii75 





1 1 

















.1 1 70 





1 2 










• 5073 

] 2 






.1 190 

448. 88 






1 J. 00 





402. 10 




1 1. 00 












76. 1 27 








1 1 


12.00MN to 

1. 00AM 















• 1590 






























1 14 










• 5613 




















■ 7125 





■ 5 











1 1 











1 r 


1 1. 00 




. 1 760 




■ 6163 

1 5 

1 1 .00 

1 2.00N 


1 171 








1 2.00N 

1. 00PM 




• 1592 






1. 00PM 




















1 i 








• 5i 






























583 00 















l 2 








. 5-6i 



1 3 








• 5' 




1 1.00 





429 56 





1 1 .00 

7 2.00MN 













1 01 ,929 






1 2 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

occasioned by the large number of heavy trucks which 
use the thoroughfares traversed by the Eighth Avenue 
cars. From Thirteenth Street to Fifty-ninth Street, while 
the character of the vehicular traffic is different from that 
south of Thirteenth Street, it is neverthless a source of 
great congestion. From Fifty-ninth Street to noth Street, 
along the western side of Central Park, are to be found 
pleasure vehicles of all descriptions and of great number, be- 
sides the vehicles which use this thoroughfare more than any 
other in the conveying of goods, merchandise, etc., between 
lower Manhattan and Harlem. From noth Street to the ter- 
minus at 158th Street the route lies through one of the most 
congested sections of Harlem, and is furthermore located be- 
neath the elevated railway. The Eighth Avenue line is but 
a i illustration of conditions more or less analogous in char- 
acter which might be cited with reference to the routes 
traversed by cars of other Metropolitan lines. In many in- 


V « >. C 3 

u •n„ -E.S Pom 

•° it t a °^ ° fc «^ e-s 

3 3 >, rv_ G.— >- t- ^ P 

au .5- °S °S > c— S 

S-o £2 £2 <ji>Sa 

Blocking by vehicles 329 3,109 .235 .258 9 

Carelessness of transportation 

dept. employees 123 1,116 .088 .092 9 

Miscellaneous car trouble 161 1,255 -"S - I0 4 8 

Accidents 181 1,206 .129 .100 7 

Plow trouble 87 803 .062 .067 9 

Electrical car trouble other 

than plow trouble 54 388 .039 .032 7 

Electrical transmission trouble. 40 410 .029 .034 10 

Mechanical defects (cars) 90 860 .064 .071 10 

Faulty track 133 1,096 .095 .091 8 

Fires 39 607 .028 .050 16 

Delays caused by outside lines. 68 511 .049 .042 8 

Miscellaneous trouble 65 470 .047 .039 7 

Delays due to outside construc- 
tion work 14 106 .010 .009 8 

Delays due to obstruction in slot. 14 132 .010 .011 9 

Totals 1.398 12,069 1. 000 1. 000 9 

Delays of five minutes or over, 
July, 1909, to April, 1910, in- 

Blocking by vehicles 4.045 36,672 .300 .289 9 

Carelessness of transportation 

dept. employees 1,296 13,480 .096 .106 10 

Miscellaneous car trouble 1,714 13.063 .127 .103 8 

Accidents I.37-? 10, 759 .J02 .085 8 

Plow trouble 871 9.603 .065 .076 11 

Electric car trouble other than 

plow trouble 384 2,807 -028 .022 7 

Electrical transmission trouble. 499 6,395 -°37 .050 13 

Mechanical defect (cars 781 7.464 .058 .059 10 

Faulty track 490 5.^34 -036 .041 11 

Fires 351 6,943 -026 .055 20 

Delays caused by outside lines. 695 5.693 -052 .045 8 

Miscellaneous trouble 753 6,296 .056 .049 8 

Delays due to outside construc- 
tion work no 1,106 .008 .009 10 

Delays due to obstruction in slot. 126 1,390 -009 .011 11 

Totals 13.487 126,905 1. 000 1. 000 9 

stances where the numbers of vehicles are relatively small, the 
swarms of children who utilize the streets for play grounds 
render the conditions of operation extremely difficult, particu- 
larly in the lower section of the Island and along the East Side 
of the city from the Harlem River to the Battery. 

The two most congested lines are probably Broadway below 
Fourteenth Street and Canal Street. On lower Broadway the 
average speed is less than 6 m.p.h. On Canal Street the average 
speed is even lower, being about 5 m.p.h., but of course the 
number of cars on this line is much less than on lower Broad- 


In this connection it is of interest to note that a classification 
is made every month of the delays to the operation of the cars 
and a cumulative statement is prepared giving the same infor- 
mation for a given period to date. In both cases these state- 
ments are compared with the previous year, so far as it is 
practicable to obtain the data for the earlier period from the 
records which were then taken. Table II indicates this infor- 
mation for the month of April, 1910, and for the 10 months 
ended April 30. ioio. As will be seen, this statement relates only 
to delays which are of five minutes' duration or greater. 

The efficient work of the traffic squad of the police depart- 
ment is of material assistance in the maintenance of regulat 

and continuous operation, but the physical difficulties due to 
the narrowness of many of the streets on the lower part of 
Manhattan Island, taken in connection with the extreme con- 
gestion of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, set a certain limi- 
tation beyond which no amount of skillful guidance of traffic 
will increase the volume of traffic movement within a given 
period. Even north of Fourteenth Street much congestion is 
encountered, and in this connection the figures in tables III and 
IV are of interest as showing conditions prevailing at different 

Vehicles and pedestrians taken on Nov. 18, 1908, 7 A. M. — 7 P. M. 
Cars taken on Dec. 8, 1908, and Dec. 10, 1908, 7 A. M. — 7 P. M. 

Street cars Vehicles Pedestrians 

North 1,573 3.442 58,52s 

South 1,611 4,064 57.716 

East 708 569 10,348 

West 727 693 15,608 

Totals 4,619 8,768 142,197 

Note: North and south bound traffic includes both Broadway and Sixth 
Avenue lines. East and west bound traffic, Thirty-fourth Street line only. 

The figures in Table IV indicate the conditions prevailing at 
the above point during the maximum hour as shown by obser- 
vations taken since the first of the year : 


Street cars Vehicles Pedestrians 

North 199 308 3i509 

South 123 338 4.636 

East 81 33 1 3,055 

W es t 94 71 ) 

Totals 497 750 11,200 

Thirty-fourth Street and Broadway is the heaviest transfer 
point in the system as transfers are given betwen three lines. 
The number of passengers who transferred at this location was 
shown by the result of a single day's tally to be 27,833 persons. 
This condition, of course, adds materially to the difficulties of 
rapid operation of cars past this point. 

As in other cities the time of the day has a very important 
influence on the traffic at different localities, but it is doubtful 
whether any other city in the United States can show any such 
figures of theater traffic as those given in Table VI. Tables 
V and VI give the conditions at Forty-second Street and Broad- 
way during a half hour of the rush hour period as compared 
with the half hour after the theaters have closed at night: 

5.15 P. M. AND 5.45 P. M. 

Street cars Vehicles Pedestrians 

North 52 234 4,614 

South 46 155 2,028 

East 38 28 3.825 

West 39 96 1,363 

Totals 175 513 11,830 

TWEEN 11.00 P. M. AND 11.30 P. M. 

Street cars Vehicles Pedestrians 

North 35 211 3.406 

South 30 225 3.683 

East 27 38 4.676 

West 26 18 1,395 

Totals 118 492 13.160 


Weather conditions also play their part in increasing or de- 
creasing traffic. The dense crowd of people which walks to 
and from work south of Forty-second Street is in marked con- 
trast to the number which follows such a course in inclement 
weather. This is well illustrated by a comparison of the busi- 
ness of four avenue lines and two crosstown lines in Table 
VII, which gives the traffic on April 6, 1910, when the weather 
was rainy, and on March 30, 1910, when the weather was fair. 
They relate only to the rush hour period from 5 :oo p. m. to 
7:00 p. m., and show how rain increases the travel. 

These tables are but instances of many analyses which the 
transportation department of the Metropolitan Street Railway 
makes to determine what results will follow the creation of 
certain conditions and how to cope with them. 

July 2, 1910.] 



During the period of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration last 
fall, approximately 11,000,000 persons were carried in eight 
days on the Metropolitan lines without a single fatality. This 
statement is significant of the efficiency of the service rendered. 


For a number of years it has been the experience of the 
Metropolitan management that the expense of the settlement 
of injury and damage claims, suits and judgments, has been 
between 10 per cent and 11 per cent of the annual gross re- 
ceipts from operation. Throughout the period of the receiver- 
ship a systematic campaign has been carried on having for its 
object the reduction of this excessive drain on the finances of 
the property. The following comparative accident statement 
is significant in this connection. The figures for the year 1907 
are those only, which relate to the lines now under the juris- 
diction of the receivers of the Metropolitan system. 

Years ended 
June 30, 1909 June 30, 1907 

Total accidents 14.561 20,553 

Car collisions 242 596 

This means that during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1909, 
the total number of accidents was 30 per cent less than on the 
same lines during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, which 
was the fiscal year immediately preceding the receivership. 
Car collisions alone, which constitute a more serious type of 
accident, have been cut down approximately 60 per cent. 

The accident prevention campaign has been actively con- 
ducted through the co-operation of the legal department and 
the transportation department. The methods so far as they 

Data are also compiled to indicate the location and character 
of the serious accidents which have occurred during the month, 
for the purpose of determining the frequency with which seri- 
ous accidents occur in congested districts as compared with sec- 
tions which are less crowded, and whether there is any rela- 
tion between the character of the accidents and the character 
of the location in which they occur. 


For the purpose of determining the relative seriousness of 
the various accidents under the 30 odd different classifications, 
a record is kept which indicates the number of accidents under 
each such classification on each line in the system during each 
month, the number of such cases upon which payments in the 
nature of claims, suits or judgments, are made, and the total 
amounts of such payments. This record is of a cumulative 
character For instance, a certain number of accidents rar- 
ring in June may not be disposed of until some time after that 
month, but the amount of claims, suits and judgments for each 
class of accident for each line is debited against the month in 
which the accident actually occurred without regard to the date 
of settlement. This information is proving of value as indi- 
cating not only the average cost of each character of accident 
on the whole system, but also because it sets forth the sama 
data with reference to each line and shows to what particular 
phases of the situation special care should be given. 


Records are also kept with reference to the efficiency of cer- 
tain devices. For instance, front fenders are not used on any 
of the cars of the Metropolitan system, all of which are 


Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent 
increase increase increase increase increase increase increase 

cash pass. trans, pass. total pass. cash pass. trans, pass. total pass. total pass. 

North and 

Line Southbound Southbound Southbound Northbound Northbound Northbound southbound 

Lexington Avenue 44-57 8.35 34-43 25.88 ,3.58 17.18 22.97 

Fourth and Madison Avenue 33-6i 21.35 29.74 25.16 21.45 24.05 26.22 

Sixth and Amsterdam Avenues 43-i8 41.68 42.90 45-67 17-31 38.16 40.74 

Eighth Avenue 33-oo 32.56 32.86 11.07 8.67 10.28 18-56 

Totals 38.98 24.77 35-io 25.21 11.20 20.58 26.35 

Increase south bound over north bound 13-77 !3-57 14-52 

East and 

East bound East bound East bound West bound West bound West bound west bound 

Thirty-Fourth Street Crosstown 28.59 40.81 33-56 58.59 36.67 45-52 38.61 

Fourteenth Street Crosstown 43-92 24.69 33 23 40.07 50.99 42.27 35-26 

Totals 37-02 29.68 33-36 48-23 39-22 44-25 36.77 

Increase west bound over east bound 11. 21 9.54 10.89 

relate to the education of the employees have already been re- equipped with automatic wheel guards. Some years ago it be- 

ferred to, but the form in which accident data is assembled is came, apparent that the conditions on Manhattan Island were 

of interest. such as to render it impracticable to attempt to operate cars 

accident records with projecting front fenders. It was next to impossible to 

A monthly report is compiled indicating the number of ac- keep these devices in serviceable condtion, and experience dem- 
cidents occurring on each line, under approximately 30 different onstrated that they were a more potent factor in causing ac- 
classifications, showing a comparison with the figures for the cidents than they were in preventing casualties. The Metro- 
corresponding period of the previous year. politan has been a pioneer among the street railways of Greater 

Another report divides the accidents on each line into three New York in the testing of wheel guards, and during the re- 
general classifications, namely, personal accidents, collisions ceivership particular attention has 1 een given to this feature of 
between cars and wagons, and collisions between cars, indi- car equipment. 

eating the ratio between the number of accidents of each A very careful analysis is made of the relative efficiency of 
class, and the number of passengers carried and car miles op- the different types of wheel guard as measured by the serious- 
erated during the month in question, a comparison being made ness of the accidents in which they are concerned, and the per- 
between the ratios of the month under consideration and those centage of cases in which they operate satisfactorily. Ac- 
applying to the corresponding month of the previous year. cording to the records which have been compiled the automatic 

Similar ratios are also compiled with reference to the fre- wheel guards now used by the Metropolitan are from 60 per 

quency of cases in which pedestrians are struck by the cars cent to 70 per cent more efficient than was the rigid wheel 

of each line. guard which was formerly used, and it is quite apparent that 

Boarding and alighting accidents are made the subject of a these improved devices will in a relatively short time pay for 

special monthly report which shows the total miles operated, themselves, on account of the saving which will thereby be 

and the total number of passengers carried on open cars, effected in the amount which otherwise would have been paid 

closed cars other than prepayment cars, and prepayment cars, out in injury and damage claims, 

on each operated line of the system, the number of accidents . classification as to employees 

in which each type of car was involved and the ratios of The personality of the employees concerned in accidents is 

passengers carried and miles operated, respectively, to boarding also made the subject of investigation. The records of two 

cases and to alighting cases. These figures are tabulated so years pertaining to cases as a result of which the injured party 

as to apply to each line and to each type of car. died or suffered amputation of a limb, are given in Table VTTf. 





Percentage of motor- 
men and conductors to 
total force of motor- 
Period of employment men and conductors 

Less than i year 34 

Less than 2, but more than 1 year. 15 
Less than 3, but more than 2 years 1 1 

Less than 4, but more than 3 years. 7 
Less than 5, but more lhan 4 years. 4 
Five years and over 29 

of total num- 
ber of accidents in 
which men of each 
class were involved 

• 7 

Table VIII, which for the uses of the company was prepared 
in considerable detail but which is primed only in summary, 



ts 120 

r, 100 



K 40 



a. a 

I. t 















i.12 miles 

1 1 1 


.07 miles 

.U5 miles 

1 1 

0126 miles 






, 100 

<u CO 




1. t 

O 1 

2 » 












c 1 

.12 jnilejs 

1.07 miles 

1 1 

6.65 miles 

1 1 r 

0.26 n 








of record. 



Accident records 
of men involved in 
serious cases, per cent. 






General Vecords 
of men involved in 
serious cases, per cent. 


These figures are of interest as indicating one of the many 
points of view from which the accident situation is considered. 


The interpretation which has been given by the courts to the 
transfer statute of the State of New York is such as to render 
the unfair use of the transfer privilege by individuals compara- 
tively easy of accomplishment, and the difficulties in the way of 
obtaining sufficient evidence to secure convictions are so great 
that it is impracticable to put a stop to all abuses. Certain dis- 
honest practices, however, have been ferreted out and the guilty 
parties prosecuted. Notices have been posted in the cars calling 
the attention of the public to the illegality of the wrongful use 
of a transfer, and the backs of transfer tickets have also been 
used to a certain extent for this purpose. Special inspectors 
have been engaged in obtaining evidence against persons guilty 

220 r 




ci 120 



a 100 

I 80 



W 60 

. j 

> P 



5 P 














1.12 miles 

1 1 1 

1.07 mile 

0.66 n 




0.26 milesj 


Headway on Various Sectio 


Metropolitan Street Railway- 
indicates that the new men, who constitute about one-third of 
the entire force, were concerned in about one-half of the 
serious accidents, that the second-year men were concerned in 
slightly more accidents than should have been the case based 
on the number of men of this class to the total number of em- 
ployees, and that the men of more than two years' experience, 
who constitute about one-half of the operating force of motor- 
men and conductors, were concerned in slightly less than 
one-third of the serious accidents. These figures serve to illus- 
trate forcibly the necessity of carefully training the new men. 

As another sidelight on the situation, the serious accidents 
covering a period of two years, were made the basis of an 
inquiry regarding the general character of the records of the 
men therein concerned, both from the standpoint of accident 
records and general records of the men. This analysis resulted 
as shown in Table IX. 

22nd Houston Murray 

Street Street Street 

ns of Broadway, Expressed in Terms of Cars Per Hour 


of transfer imposition, and while, unfortunately, the courts have 
not seen fit to impose penalties commensurate with the gravity 

BETWEEN NOV. 26, 1909, and JUNE 7, 1910. 
Penalty No. of Cases 

$1.00 29 

2.00 1 

3.00 2 

5.00 21 

10.00 2 

One day in prison , 1 

Sentence suspended 32 

Paroled • 4 

Acquitted 3 

Discharged with reprimand 19 

Total 114 

of the offense, there has resulted considerable publicity, and 
apparently there has been a certain amount of reduction in the 
extent of this illegal practice. All phases of this proposition 

July 2, 1910.] 



are being closely followed up by both the transportation depart- 
ment and the legal department. 

A statement of the disposition made of cases in which the de- 
fendant was charged with the illegal use of transfers is given in 
Table X. 

The statement as shown covers a period of approximately 
six months. A number of cases are now awaiting final action. 
In those instances in which the defendants were held for trial 
by the Court of Special Sessions, the defendant was subjected 
to the alternative of procuring bail or being imprisoned await- 
ing trial by the higher court. 


Upon the whole, the operation of the pre-payment cars on the 
Metropolitan lines has been satisfactory, broadly speaking, and 
of such a character as to have justified their introduction in 
New York. They have been thoroughly successful as far as 
operation proper is concerned and very satisfactory to the 
traveling public and to the employees. The air-brake and the 
enclosed vestibule have greatly assisted in producing this result. 
From a financial standpoint the results of pre-payment car 
operation have fallen far short from what was prophesied at 
the time when these cars were introduced. All phases of pre- 
payment car operation, including the non-registration of fares, 
the additional weight of the car, the time consumed in the load- 
ing and unloading of passengers are being carefully watched 
and the present indications are to the effect that the benefit from 
a revenue and financial standpoint is slight. The situation is 
still being studied and some time must necessarily elapse before 
definite conclusions can be reached with reference to the net 
total result of pre-payment car operation. 

Following closely the introduction of the pre-payment car 
in this country came the production of the fare box. Many 
types of these boxes have been tested and examined by the 
Metropolitan management, but in all of them have been found 
defects of such a nature as to preclude the final adoption of 
any box for general use. The management, however, is now 
testing out a fare box which registers the coins received and 
then allows the money to pass into the possession of the conduc- 
tor, thereby doing away with the necessity of the conductor 
carrying a large amount of change beyond which he might be 
reasonably expected to furnish. This fare box has been quite 
successful in its operation and in the opinion of the management 
possesses sufficient merit to warrant its continued use for 
further test. 

The Metropolitan company has in service approximately 550 
pre-payment cars. Of these approximately one-half are cars 
originally constructed for pre-payment operation ; the remainder 
are standard closed cars which have been converted to adapt 
them for pre-payment operation. These converted cars have 
been working satisfactorily up to date, but the period of their 
use has been too limited as yet to warrant the making of any 
definite statement regarding the net financial result of the 


An interesting report on electric railways in Canada for the 
year ended June 30, 1909, by J. L. Payne, Comptroller of Statis- 
tics, has been issued. It gives the total mileage of electric rail- 
ways in 1909 as 988.97 miles. Confusion that has heretofore 
prevailed due to the different methods employed by the railways 
in computing mileage will be removed hereafter by the adoption 
of a uniform basis. The foregoing mileage is the length of first 
main track. The length of second main track in 1909 was 
215.057 miles, and the length of sidings and turn-outs 83.624 
miles. The paid-up capital on June 30, 1909, aggregated $91.- 
604,989, an increase of $4,195,104 over 1908. The gross earnings 
were $14,824,936, showing a gain of $817,887 over the preceding 
year. Passenger earnings amounted to $14,080,755, freight earn- 
ings to $386,092, and mail and express earnings to $54,185. The 
net income was $4,716,308, or the equivalent of 5.13 per cent on 
the electric railway capitalization of $91,604,989. The operating 

expenses were $8,884,690, and include $246,192 of net loss to 
certain railways. The operating expenses were equal to about 
59.93 per cent of the gross earnings, as against 62.08 per cent 
the previous year. The electric railways carried 314,026,671 fare 
passengers, and 81,670,945 transfer passengers. The number of 
employees in 1909 was 10.557, a gain of 603, and the salaries and 
wages paid aggregated $6,761,281, or 77-84 per cent of the total 
operating expenses. The accident statistics show that 68 persons 
were killed, as against 69 in 1908, and 2139 were injured, an in- 
crease of 256. Of those killed, 11 were passengers, 7 were em- 
ployees and 50 were other persons. Of those injured, 1303 were 
passengers, 218 were employees and 618 were other persons. 


At a recent meeting of the British Tramways & Light 
Railways Association, J. A. Panton, superintendent rolling 
stock, Liverpool Overhead Railway, presented a paper on 
"Brake Shoe Standardization." The author drew attention to 
the outlay connected with brake shoes which was 10 per cent 
of the car maintenance. At the present time some 40 per cent 
to 60 per cent of the material received in the brake-shoes was 
sent to the scrap-heap only partly worn. The fault usually lay 
in the length and adjustment of the hangers, and design of 
brake-shoe used, which did not permit it to be worn out. It 
would probably surprise many to know that wheels wore more 

English Standard Brake Shoe 

quickly without brake-shoes than with them. Brake-shoes as- 
sisted in preserving the wheel camber. Although effective, cast- 
iron shoes unfortunately showed two very distinct objections 
and disadvantages for general use — namely, rapid wearing 
qualities and lack of strength against breakage. It was these 
two disadvantages, as experienced in steam railroads, which 
induced the brake-shoe manufacturers to attempt to produce 
shoes possessing the advantages of cast-iron shoes without 
their disadvantages, resulting in the introduction of the various 
types of shoes which had become so generally known during 
the past few years. The plan of the accompanying standard 
brake-head and brake-shoe which the author submitted con- 
templated keying the contacts at the center lug of the brake- 
head, while the ends of the brake-head fitted close to the full 
length and width of the brake-shoe back, the result being a 
great support to the shoe. The raised recess at each side of 
the iron lug, in conjunction with the end abutments, was mere- 
ly to keep the shoe in vertical alignment, and should fit the 
holder and lug so as to prevent any upward or downward 
movement of the shoe, the center lug transmitting the load di- 
rectly to the beam, by virtue of the usual wedge-shaped key. 
Quite a little unnecessary metal had been removed from the 
flange and back of the shoe. The proposed standard shoe 
could safely be worn down to the steel back while the old style 
shoe had to be removed when only half worn to prevent the 
wheel flange from wearing out the brake-head. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. I. 


In an address which George Westinghouse, president of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, will deliver at the 
joint meeting of that society with the British Institute of 
Mechanical Engineers in London on July 26, he presents some 
strong arguments for the immediate standardization of such 
details of electric railway apparatus as will affect future in- 
terchange of equipment. The tendency at the present time 
seems to be toward diversity, rather than standardization. 
Unless a selection of some standard system is made soon 
the extension of the existing diversified systems will con- 
tinue so far as to forever prevent general interchange. In 
the opinion of Mr. Westinghouse, the great difficulty in the 
electrification of steam railways is no longer the engineering 
problem of developing a locomotive and an electrical system 
which will operate trains, but it is a broad question of financial 
and general policy of far-reaching scope. The future electri- 
fication of railways in general will require a combination of 
the highest engineering and commercial skill. 

To insure interchange of traffic the following requirements 
are fundamental for both steam and electrical operation : 

1. Standard gage of track. 

2. Standard types of couplings between cars. 

3. Uniform and interchangeable types of brake apparatus. 

4. Interchangeable heating apparatus. 

5. Uniform system of train signals. 

For electrically operated railways the following additional 
requirements are fundamental : 

(A.) A supply of electricity of uniform voltage and fre- 

(B.) Uniform location of conductors to convey this elec- 
tricity so that without any change an electrically equipped lo- 
comotive or car of any railway can collect its supply of 
current and run on the lines of any other railway. 

(C.) Uniform apparatus for the control of electric motors 
whereby trains of two or more electric locomotives or motor 
cars from different lines can be operated as a unit from one 
locomotive or car. 

Mr. Westinghouse compares the single-phase alternating cur- 
rent system, the three-phase alternating current system and 
the direct-current system from the standpoint of the motors 
and transmission devices. The limitations of speed control of 
the direct-current railway motor with a fairly uniform line 
voltage are contrasted with the constant speed characteristics 
of the three-phase motors which have the advantage, however, 
that they become generators in running down grade and act 
as a perfect brake at the head of the train. The single- 
phase railway motor has speed characteristics very similar 
to those of the d.c. -motor, but the control apparatus employed 
permits of maintaining the desired speed under almost any 
conditions of load and without rheostatic losses. The limit 
of capacity of the motors is determined only by the 
safe temperature rise. With a properly designed single-phase 
control apparatus any desired voltage may be impressed on the 
motors regardless of fluctuations in the line voltage which is 
stepped down in a ratio approximately 30 to 1. The deter- 
mination of the frequency to be used on single-phase railways 
is of great importance. For general use in power transmission 
25 cycles is the standard and this has been adopted by nearly 
all of the single-phase railways now in operation. The Midi 
Railway of France, however, has adopted 15 cycles and this 
lower frequency permits of a marked reduction in the size 
of the motors required for a given output. Nearly all three- 
phase systems, which have been installed, employ 15 cycles. 
The choice of frequency to be used is one of the most involved 
and difficult problems now presented for solution. 

Referring to the transmission of power from the power 
house to the locomotive, Mr. Westinghouse says that the con- 
trolling factor in the cost of electrification in nearly all cases 
is the system of transmitting power and not the cost of the 
locomotives themselves. Current for all existing systems is 
usually generated as high-tension alternating current, so that 

the type and capacity of the power house does not enter 
into the problem. 

In selecting a proper electrical system for railway operation, 
Mr. Westinghouse presents the following outline of elements 
which are of prime importance: 

A. The electric locomotive should be capable of perform- 
ing the same kinds of service which the steam locomotives now 
perform. This will most readily be secured by electric lo- 
comotives which can practically duplicate the steam locomo- 
tives in speed and power characteristics. This includes a wide 
range of performance, embracing through passenger service 
at different schedule speeds; local passenger service; through 
freight service in heavy trains; the handling of local freight 
by short trains; and a variety of switching, terminal and trans- 
fer movements. This, naturally, calls for wide variation in 
tractive effort and in speed, both for the operation of different 
kinds of trains, and, also, for the operation of the same train 
under the varying conditions usually incident to railway ser- 

B. The electric locomotive should be capable of exceeding 
the steam locomotive in its power capacity. It should be made 
to handle heavier trains and loads, to operate at higher speeds, 
and, in general, to exceed the ordinary limits of the steam 
locomotive in these respects. The readiness with which sev- 
eral electric locomotives can be operated as a single unit 
enables any amount of power to be applied to a train. 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad for 12 Months.. 

Miles Number Number 

Total No. Run of Power of Line 

Miles Locomotive per Locomo- House Delays 

Run. Delays, tive Delay. Delays. 


April 146,189 9 16,243 •• 3- 

May 155,551 25 6,222 1 3, 

June 166,759 14 11,911 .. 4 

July 183,434 13 14,110 .. 2 

August 177,714 14 12,694 .. 5 

September 189,656 14 13, 547 ■• 1 

October 174,400 11 15,854 1 -4 

November 173.370 10 17,337 •• 1 

December 167,808 23 7,296 ... 3 


January 163,274 28 5,831 ■■ 2 

February 138,929 12 n>577 •• I 

March 156,901 12 13,075 •• 1 

C. The electric system should adapt itself to requirements 
beyond the ordinary limitations of the steam locomotive in 
small, as well as large, things. It should be adapted for use 
on branch lines, and for light passenger and freight service 
similar to that so profitably conducted by interurban electric 
roads, which in many cases run parallel to steam roads, not 
only taking away the traffic of the steam roads, but building 
up a new and highly profitable traffic, both in passenger and 
in express service. 

D. A universal electric system requires that power should 
be transmitted economically over long distances and supplied 
to the contact conductor. The system should utilize the most 
highly perfected apparatus for the electric transmission of 
energy and its transformation into suitable pressures for use. 

E. The contact conductor in an ideal system should be 
economical to construct, both for the heaviest locomotives, 
where the traffic is dense, and for light service on branch lines. 
It should impose minimum inconvenience to track mainte- 
nance; should give minimum probability of disarrangement in 
case of detailment, or in case of snow and sleet, and should 
in general be so placed and constructed as to give a maximum 
assurance of the continuity of service. 

The future electrification of steam railways, in the opinion 
of Mr. Westinghouse, will be the extension of limited zones, 
until these zones after a time meet each other. If the systems 
employed on different zones, which ultimately may connect, are 
unlike, great inconvenience and expense will arise. It may 
be a matter of little moment at the present time whether dif- 
ferent systems are in use, just as in the early days of rail- 
roading it was of little consequence whether the tracks were 
all of the same or of different gage. 

The complete electrification of a railway will necessitate a 

July 2, 1910.] 



rearrangement of ideas and practices in regard to operation. 
Coaling and water stations will not be needed ; passenger trains 
will be differently composed, some classes being of less weight; 
and they will operate more frequently, thus promoting travel ; 
other trains will be heavier than at present, or will operate at 
higher speeds; and branch lines, by the use of electrically 
equipped motor cars, can be given a through service not now 

The movement of freight will undergo great changes, due 
to the fact that electric locomotives can be constructed with 

engines from the progress already made in the development 
of gas and oil engine power, a still further reduction in cost 
may be expected, which will accelerate the work of electrifying 
existing railways. 

One important aspect of this great question will engage the 
thoughtful consideration of every government, namely, the 
military necessity for uniform railway equipment in time of 

There will be serious difficulties to surmount in the selection 
of a general system. There naturally will be arguments in 


Built by the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. 

Built for 

Electric system 


First placed in service 

No. in service or on order May 1910 

No. motors per locomotive 

Armature diameter, inches 

Core length, including vent open- 
ing, inches 

Weight one motor, pounds 

Weight all motors on locomotive 

Weight all electrical parts 

Weight all mechanical parts 

Weight complete locomotive 

Weight on driving wheels 

Weight complete locomotive for 
A.C operation 

Max. guar't'd speed, miles per hr. 

Feature limiting speed 

Max. tractive effort 

Loco. wt. in excess of 18% adhe- 
sion Max. T.E., A.C. operation. . 

Designed for trailing load, tons. . . 

Balance speed on level with above 

New Haven 

A.C, D.C. 
July 1907 




about 86 


about 75 

Grand Trunk 
St. Clair Tunnel 

Frt, & Pass. 
February 1908 










about 25 


17,000-mile test 





about 80 
connecting rod 




New Haven 

A.C, D.C. 
Frt, & Pass. 
3000-mile test 






J 1500 freight I 
1 800 pass, f 
1.35 freight I 
145 pass. f 

New Haven 

A.C, D.C. 
Frt. & Pass, 






/1500 freight 
1 800 pass. 
135 freight 
\45 pass. 

Built by the General Electric Company 

Built for 

Electric system 


First placed in service 

No. in service or on order May 1910 

No. motors per locomotive 

Armature diameter, inches 

Core length, including vent, open 
ing, inches 

Weight one motor, pounds. ..... 

Weight all motors on locomotive 

Weight all electrical parts 

Weight all mechanical parts 

Weight complete locomotive 

Weight on driving wheels 

Weight complete locomotive for 
A.C. operation 

Max. guar't'd speed, miles per hr. 

Feature limiting speed 

Max. tractive effort 

Loco. wt. in excess of 18% adhe- 
sion Max. T.E., A.C. operation . . 

Designed for trailing load, tons. . . 



Balance speed on level with above 

N. Y. C & H. R. R. 

July 1906 





45 | 

63 ( 

Detroit River 

Frt, & Pass, 
tests completed 






9001 on 
600/2%, grade 
I Freight 20.5 / 
"l Pass. 22 1 

B. & O. R. R. 

Frt. & Pass. 
March 1910 






8501 „?£ , 
500/!'a% grade 

I Freight 26 (. 
I Pass. 30 ( 

Great Northern 

Frt . & Pass. 
Julv 1909 





12, ,000 




500 on 2.2% grade 


23} 6 





t 300 

1 32 

great excess capacity, enabling them to move longer trains at 
schedule speed on rising gradients. 

The large percentage of shunting operations due entirely to 
the use of steam locomotives will no longer be required. 

The railway companies can combine upon some co-operative 
plan for the generation of electricity, thereby effecting large 
savings in capital expenditures; and can utilize their own 
rights of way for the transmission of the current, not only 
for the operation of trains, but for many other useful purposes. 

Notwithstanding the fact that great strides have already been 
made in cheapening the cost of generating electricity by steam 

favor of one or another of the systems now in use and the 
inclination of those who have adopted a particular system 
will be to advocate its general use. There will be enthusiastic 
inventors, and there will be many advocates of the common 
view, namely, that there is room for several systems, and that 
each system will best meet the requirements of a particular 
case. There will be those who give undue weight to some 
feature of minor importance, such as a particular type of 
motor or of locomotive, instead of giving a broad consideration 
to the whole system, and recognizing that, in the general 
problem of railway electrification, facility and economy in 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

transmitting power from the power house to the locomotive 

are of controlling importance. 

w'ere there now only one system to be considered, there 
would be a concentration of the energy of thousands on the 
perfecting and simplifying of the apparatus for that system, 
to the advantage of railway companies and of manufacturers. 

There is pressing need of determining the system which 
admits of the largest extension of railway electrification and 
of a prompt selection of those standards of electrification, 
which will render possible a complete interchange of traffic, 
in order to save expense in the future and to avoid difficul- 
ties and delays certain to arise unless some common under- 
standing is arrived at very shortly. 

In an appendix which forms part of the address, the author 
gives a complete record of locomotive, line and power house 
delays during the 12 months from April, 1909, to March, 1910, 
on the New York, New Haven' & Hartford Railroad. This 
record is given in table on page 12. The commutation 
on the motors with which the New Haven locomotives are 
equipped is excellent, many of the locomotives having made 
over 100,000 miles without turning or sandpapering of the com- 
mutators. The brushes show an average life of 40,000 to 
45,000 miles. Most of the locomotives have now run more 
than 100,000 miles, and the cost of maintenance per mile, and 
the number of miles per failure, are much more favorable 
than with the steam locomotives formerly used. 

The operating record of the St. Clair tunnel locomotives 

of single track. The location of the power station was such 
that substations were required for either direct current or three- 
phase current, but not for single-phase current. 


In a paper on "Railless Traction," presented at the Dublin 
meeting of the British Tramways & Light Railways Association 
on May 12 and 13, Harry England remarked that on the Conti- 
nent there were three systems of railless cars working success- 
fully, both in an engineering and commercial sense. In Italy 
the Filovia system was in operation over a total route mileage 
of more than 60 miles. The trolley, built on the "Cantono" pat- 
ent, consisted of an ordinry trolley pole fixed to the car by a 
trolley base similar to the bases used on single-deck and covered 
cars. The trolley head consisted of a four-wheeled truck, which 
was affixed to the trolley pole by means of a ball and socket 
joint. This allowed the trolley head to move easily and to 
adapt itself to any irregularities in the overhead line. The 
overhead work was similar to that for ordinary rail traction, 
with the difference that there were both positive and negative 
wires. The trolley showed no disposition to leave the wires 
at high speeds, or when the vehicle had to move laterally to pass 
other vehicles traveling in the same direction. In the Mercedes- 
Stoll system, at Vienna, motors of 20 hp each were fitted in the 
hubs of the rear driving wheels, so that the motors formed an 
integral part of the driving wheels themselves, thus doing 

Transmission Line 

Rotary Converters 
Contact Line 

Power Delivered 
to Locomotives 

Transmission Li 

Power Stntion 

Transmission Line 

Fig. 1 

is also briefly referred to in the same appendix. During the 
past 12 months the electric locomotives, which average 25 trips 
of 4 miles each per day, have been responsible for but one delay 
of 8 minutes. 

In a second appendix to the address are given two tables 
of descriptive data of electric locomotives built by the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company and the General 
Electric Company. These two tables are reproduced herewith. 

In a third appendix Mr. Westinghouse compares, by means 
of diagrams, the losses between the generators and the loco- 
motives for a direct-current system, a single-phase system and 
a ihree-phase system based on a class of service where the 
input to the locomotive by the several systems is practically 
the same. This diagram is reproduced in Fig. 1. The total 
height of the different columns in the diagram indicates the 
total power delivered by the power house in the systems desig- 
nated and the loss between the power station and the locomo- 
tive is represented by the upper shaded areas. The loss is 
smallest in the case of a single-phase system without trans- 
formers, which is the method of distribution employed on the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. 

The comparative first costs of a single-phase and a direct- 
current system for a particular case are shown diagramatically 
in Fig. 2. The estimates cover a single-track road 100 miles 
long, operating freight and passenger trains with 20 locomotives. 

Fig. 3 shows the comparative first costs for the three dif- 
ferent systems in a particular case of pusher service on moun- 
tain grades where 12 locomotives are required, the total length 
of the line being 32 miles. In addition to the main line a 
large yard was to be electrified, making a total of 90 miles 

Fig. 2 

away with the necessity for any mechanical transmission. The 
cable was carried through the interior of the axle, and the 
armature of the motor was fixed by means of keys on the axle 
itself, and so acted as the nave of the wheel. The trolley con- 
sisted of a frame or carriage fitted with four wheels, which 
ran on the tops of the wires, the current-collecting device be- 
ing attached to the car by flexible cables. A pendulum weight 
was attached to the center of the trolley carriage to keep the 
carriage balanced and the wheels well pressed down on the 
wires. The conducting cable was wound round a small drum 
mounted upon the chassis, and about 12 yd. of spare cable were 
carried which could be played out to allow the car to run on the 
whole width of the road. In the Max Schiemann system, in- 
stalled at Mulhausen, the trolley was similar to that used on 
tramways, with a pole from 14^2 ft. to 16 ft. in length. It was 
fitted with two sliding contacts, and the car could deviate for 
distances of 10 ft. on either side of the wires. The overhead 
work was similar in all respects to ordinary tramway practice, 
except that two wires were used. It was estimated that a 
trackless trolley system could be fully equipped, provided cur- 
rent was purchased from a supply authority, at about £3,000 
per mile of route, though much would depend upon local con- 
ditions. With overhead line and cables at £1,500 per mile, five 
motor cars at £600 each, five trailer cars at £250 each, land and 
depot, £800, and spare parts, tools, etc., £950, 4 miles of railless 
traction would cost £12,000, as against an expenditure of 
£40,000 for a tramway of a similar length. The author stated 
that the cost of working a railless traction system in Great 
Britain had been estimated at 6.i64d. per car-mile, as against 
6.494d. in the case of a tramway. 

July 2, 1910.] 




The Winnipeg, Selkirk & Lake Winnipeg Railway, operated 
by the Winnipeg Electric Railway Company, is 22 miles long 
connecting the northern terminus of the Main Street lines of 
the Winnipeg Electric Railway with the town of Selkirk, on 
the Red River. The present line is built at one side of a 
highway 132 ft. wide and the franchise rights and track ar- 
rangements contemplate the addition of a second track. This 
22-mile road is notable in that it has no curves or grades of 
sufficient degree to limit the speed of the cars at any point on 
the line. The route follows the course of the Red River from 
Winnipeg to Selkirk, but the tracks conform very closely to a 

Winnipeg & Selkirk — Passenger and Freight Station at 

tangent. The track is of such character and the obstructions 
to fast running are so slight that the local cars on this line, 
some of which haul trailers, are easily able to make the 22 
miles, including all stops, in 45 minutes. The roadway is con- 
structed according to interurban standards accepted in this 
section. On account of the severe winter weather special care 
has been taken to raise the track level above the surrounding 
country, and as there are no cuts on the entire line, the bor- 
rowed excavation has served to make deep ditches parallel with 
the track, which afford excellent drainage. The route lies 
over a broad, level plain with the view unobstructed for miles 
except by infrequent sections of timber. 

A franchise has been obtained and it is proposed in the near 
future to extend this interurban line from Selkirk to Winni- 
peg Beach, about 15 miles north of Selkirk. The company is 
also considering the construction of a line to Victoria Park. 
Winnipeg Beach is a well-patronized summer resort on the 
west side of Lake Winnipeg, which now is served only by a 
steam railway. Victoria Park is said to be an excellent site for 
the development of an attractive pleasure resort, and this also 
is located on Winnipeg Lake, but on the eastern shore. Winni- 
peg Lake is a navigable body of water nearly 500 miles long, 
into the southern end of which the Red River flows to offer a 
route for freight boats into Winnipeg. 

The track of the interurban line is laid with an English rail 
weighing 56 lb. per yard. The rail is supported by cedar and 
tamarack ties, ballasted with white gravel of good quality, ob- 
tained from a large pit owned by the company. Steam rail- 
way special work, with spring switches and frogs, is used. The 
joints are made with six-hole angle bars. A portion of the 
line was first bonded with round wire and bonding caps, but 
these more crude bonds are being replaced with electrically 
welded bonds applied with a special car leased from the 
Electric Railway Improvement Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The southern terminus of the interurban line is at the 
north Main Street car house and division headquarters of the 

Winnipeg Electric Railway system. At this station passengers 
are transferred to the city cars and the interurban cars are 
Y-d. Some of the more important stops along the line of the 
interurban are Middle Church, Parkdale, St. Andrews and 
Lower Fort Gary. The northern terminus, Selkirk, is a town 
of about 3500 inhabitants, which also is served by the Canadian 
Pacific' Railway. 

The interurban company has built an attractive passenger and 
freight station in the center of Selkirk. An illustration of 
this building is presented. At the northern end of the track 
in Selkirk a car house and headquarters for the interurban di- 
vision has beeen erected. Provision is made here for doing 
light car-repair work, but the heavy repairs are made in the 
shops of the Winnipeg Electric Railway. 


Current for the operation of the Selkirk interurban line is 
received from the hydroelectric generating station of the Win- 
nipeg Electric Railway Company. This plant delivers power to 
a receiving station in Winnipeg over a 65-mile transmission 
line. From the receiving station current is transmitted at 
2200 volts to a step-up station located on the interurban line at 
the north city limits of Winnipeg. Here transformers raise 
the potential to 13,000 volts for transmission along the right- 
of-way to converting substations located at Middle Church, 5 
miles north of Winnipeg, and at Lockport, 10 miles farther 

The step-up station near the Winnipeg end is a fireproof 
building of brick and concrete located about 1600 ft. north 
of the south end of the interurban line at which point direct 
current is fed to the interurban trolley wire from a substation 
of the city railway. The transformer station has ground di- 
mensions of 44 ft. x 21 ft. 6 in. The equipment of the step-up 
station includes four air-blast transformers of 300-kw capacity 
each. One transformer is for emergency use. The transform- 
ers are furnished with cooling air by two induction motor- 
driven Buffalo Forge Company fans, which receive air from 
outside the building and discharge it into an air-tight concrete 
basement compartment over which the transformers stand. 

The power supply is received as 2200-volt, three-phase, 60- 
cycle current delivered by weatherproof cables to a hand-throw 
oil switch installed in a brick compartment on the station floor 
near the wire entrance. The switchboard carries a voltmeter 

Winnipeg & Selkirk — Substation at Middle Church 

and three ammeters on the incoming line. From the terminals 
of the power switch a set of bus wires connects with the low- 
tension side of the step-up transformer. The secondary (13,000 
volts) side of the transformers is connected with the transmis- 
sion-line outlets at the track end of the building. The 13,000- 
volt, three-phase transmission circuit is carried on a single arm 
at the top of the trolley pole and a lightning rod is installed 
on every other pole. 


The two substations which supply 650-volt current to the 

1 6 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

middle and northern sections of the Selkirk interurban line are 
similar in design. Each is a fireproof structure of steel, con- 
crete and brick. The building and equipment at Middle Church 
is typical. This building is located on an acre of ground ad- 
jacent to the track roadway. Apartments for the station opera- 
tor and his family are provided by a two-story extension of 
the substation building. The parcel of land about the station 
is used by the operator as a kitchen garden. Current at trans- 
mission voltage is led into the substation through a wire tower 
at the rear of the building. The transmission wires extend 
across the upper part of the tower and out of the opposite side 
and on to the Lockport substation. Provision for disconnecting 
the line on either side of the substation taps is afforded by 
hand-throw switches. Lightning arresters are installed on 
both incoming and outgoing transmission terminals. The high- 
tension connections lead to a set of bus wires to which, in turn, 
two duplicate sets of converting apparatus are connected. Each 
set includes line and machine oil switches, a starting compensa- 
tor and a 300-kw General Electric motor-generator set. The 
motors of these sets operate with current at transmission volt- 
age and are rated at 436 hp. Each has its own exciter with the 
armature carried on an extension of the motor-generator shaft. 
Two starting compensators are provided in this substation, al- 

Winnipeg & Selkirk — Step-Up Transformer Station at North 

though the connections are such that either compensator may be 
used in starting either motor-generator set. 


The rolling stock equipment for the Selkirk interurban line 
now comprises six large double-truck cars, designed and built 
in the shops of the Winnipeg Electric Railway. These cars 
are arranged for operation in trains, having end doors, multiple- 
unit control and M. C. B. couplers. All the equipment is built 
for single-end operation. All the interurban passenger cars 
are of similar type except that two of the six car bodies are 
provided with baggage compartments. Each car body is 55 ft. 
long over vestibules and provides seats for 64 passengers. The 
front vestibule is reserved for the motorman and the control 
and hot-water heater. Hale & Kilburn "walkover" seats witfi 
mahogany arm rests and red plush upholstering are used. The 
interiors are illuminated with a row of 20 16-cp lamps placed 
directly above the bell rope along the center of the upper 
deck. The windows are fitted with pantasote curtains carried 
on Curtain Supply Company fixtures. 

Two methods are provided for heating these cars. During 
the severe winter weather they are heated with Peter Smith 
hot-water heaters and in the milder weather heat is furnished 
by an equipment of Consolidated electric heaters. It is stated 
that both methods of heating are never required at one time, 
but the electric heaters are installed for use in mild weather 
because current is available at practically no additional cost 
from the large water-power generating station. 

Each interurban car is mounted on two trucks of Curtis de- 

sign. Thirty-three-inch wheels, of Midvale and Carnegie manu- 
facture, are used. The axles are S l A in. in diameter, and each' 
car is equipped with four GE-73 motors and type M control. 
Other parts of the equipment are as follows : Washburn 
M. C. B. couplers ; Crouse-Hinds arc headlights ; Knutson trol- 
ley retrievers; Kalamazoo trolley wheels; General Electric 
automatic air brakes ; Peacock hand brakes ; Ohio Brass Sand- 
ers; Ottawa Car Company parcel racks and trimmings. 


The Winnipeg, Selkirk & Lake Winnipeg Railway operates 

Winnipeg & Selkirk — A. C. Boards and Line Switches in 

six trains in each direction daily between Winnipeg and Sel- 
kirk, one of which is a mixed passenger and freight train. 
One train a day is operated in each direction between Middle 
Church and Winnipeg. All of the through trains make the 
run of 22 miles in 45 minutes, except the freight train, which 
requires an hour on its southbound trip and I hour and 20 
minutes on its northbound trip. During the summer the after- 
noon runs require two-car trains, which are made up of one 
motor and one trail car, and which cover the route in the same 
time as single-car trains. The movement of all trains is con- 
trolled by a dispatcher at Selkirk, who transmits his orders 
over a telephone line. 

The financial report of the Winnipeg, Selkirk & Lake Winni- 

Winnipeg & Selkirk — Standard Car 

peg Railway for the year 1909 showed receipts of $67,420 and 
expenses of $31,148, and net earnings for the year of $36,272, 
against which were charges of $20,000 for interest on bonds 
and $2,698 for taxes, etc., leaving a surplus of $13,574- This 
new interurban road was built by company forces under the 
supervision of Wilford Phillips, general manager, and Wilson 
Phillips, superintendent of construction of the Winnipeg Elec- 
tric Railway, to whom acknowledgment is made for the fore- 
going information. 

July 2, 19 10.] 




The committee on interurban rules of the Transportation and 
Traffic Association, as reported in last week's issue of the 
Electric Railway Journal, page 1105, held a second meeting 
at Cleveland, Ohio, on June 22. An account of the first meet- 
ing of the rules committee held at Fort Wayne, Ind., June 7, 
1910, appeared in the Electric Railway Journal for June 11. 
At the Cleveland meeting the committee continued the con- 
sideration of adapting to interurban service the American Rail- 
way Association standard code of train rules and rule numbers, 
beginning with the section on "Movement of Trains." 

Mr. Emmons, the chairman, first announced that additional 
data sheets had been received and that the total mileage of the 
65 roads which had replied to the data sheets sent out by this 
committee was 6396. The vote on the question of whether the 
Transportation and Traffic Association should adopt the steam 
railway code insofar as it was applicable to electric interurban 
service stood 19 for adoption and 23 against adoption. Mr. 
Emmons then read correspondence that he had carried on with 
F. C. Rice, chairman of the committee on transportation of the 
American Railway Association. Following the instructions of 
the Denver meeting of the Transportation and Traffic Associa- 
iton, Mr. Emmons, as chairman of the committee on interurban 
rules, had asked Mr. Rice for a joint meeting with the rules 
committee of the steam railway association for the purpose of 
suggesting any modifications in the steam railroad code which 
would make it more adaptable for both steam and electric opera- 
tion. Mr. Rice thought it was not possible to arrange for a 
joint meeting of the full committees at which sufficient time 
could be given to consideration of all proposed revisions. He, 
therefore, suggested that one representative from the steam and 
electric railway associations meet with some railway commis- 
sioner to discuss the need for changes. The interurban rules 
committee instructed Mr. Emmons to represent it at such a 


Before passing to the rules for movement of trains the com- 
mittee reconsidered Rule 128 of the interurban code which had 
been discussed but not adopted at the Fort Wayne meeting. 
This rule was approved with the substitution of the words 
"proper stop signal" and "proper proceed signal" for "one bell 
and "two bells" to make it conform to Rule 16 defining "Com- 
munication Signals." The rule was numbered 37 and now reads 
as follows : 

"37. Motormen approaching any siding used for meeting- 
point purposes will blow one long blast of whistle when ap- 
proaching same, in all respects, as required when approaching 
a regular station stop. The conductor shall answer such blast 
with the proper stop signal if a train is to be met at such siding, 
or if any order is to be taken at such siding, and with the 
proper proceed signal if the train is to proceed." 

At the Fort Wayne meeting Rules 81 to 86, covering the 
movement of trains were formulated. At the Cleveland meet- 
ing, however, this portion of the work was reviewed and some 
slight changes were made as follows : 

Rule 81 was approved to read as follows: 

"81. (Double, Three or more tracks.) Trains must run with 
the current of traffic, unless otherwise directed by proper 

Rule 82 of the steam code was approved. It follows : 

"82. Time-table schedules, unless fulfilled, are in effect for 12 
hours after their time at each station. 

"Regular trains 12 hours behind either their schedule arriving 
or leaving time at any station lose both right and schedule, and 
can thereafter proceed only as authorized by train order." 

Rule 203 of the interurban code was approved and renum- 
bered 83. 

Tn a discussion of interurban Rule 203, which permits the 
movement of a train, protected by flag, when the dispatcher can- 
not be reached, Mr. Griffin and Mr. Handshy expressed dis- 
approval of this procedure, because they did not believe it wise 

to use any rule whereby trains might approach each other be- 
tween telephone stations. Because of this difference of opinion 
steam code rule 83 was inserted as optional and renumbered 83a. 
This reads : 

"83a. A train must not leave its initial station on any divi- 
sion (or subdivision), or a junction, or pass from double to 
single track, until it has been ascertained whether all trains due, 
which are superior, or of the same class, have arrived or left." 

Interurban Rule 203a, explaining "Protected by Flag," as used 
in interurban Rule 203, was numbered 83b. 

Steam code Rule 87 was approved with the use of a five- 
minute clearance. It reads: 

"87. An inferior train must keep out of the way of opposing 
superior trains and failing to clear the main track by the time 
required by rule must be protected as prescribed by Rule 99. 

"Extra trains must clear the time of regular trains five 
minutes unless otherwise provided, and will be governed by 
train orders with respect to opposing extra trains." 

Steam code Rule 88 was approved with the same number and 
with the addition of the following foot note : "Your committee 
does not recommend the use of superiority by direction in in- 
terurban train service." Rule 88 reads: 

"88. At meeting points between trains of the same class, the 
inferior train must clear the main track before the leaving time 
of the superior train. 

"At meeting points between extra trains, the train in the in- 
ferior time-table direction must take the siding unless otherwise 

"Trains must pull into the siding when practicable; if neces- 
sary to back in, the train must first be protected as prescribed 
by Rule 99, unless otherwise provided." 

Interurban Rule 206 was approved and numbered 88 (op- 
tional) for use when superiority by direction is not used. 

The following rule was approved for No. 88a : 

"88a. (Single track.) At meeting points between trains, 
either by schedule or train order, should the train that is to 
to occupy the main track arrive first, it will be the duty of the 
conductor of such train to promptly set switch for the siding, 
so that the train to be met can take the siding with the least 
possible delay." 

Steam code Rule 89 was adopted with the following note 
which will apply both to Rules 88 and 89. "Your committee rec- 
ommends that where greater clearance is necessary Rule 88 shall 
require a clearance of five minutes and Rule 89 of 10 minutes." 
Rule 89 reads : 

"89. At meeting points between trains of different classes the 
inferior train must take the siding and clear the superior train 
at least five minutes, and must pull into the siding when prac- 
ticable. If necessary to back in, the train must first be pro- 
tected as prescribed by Rule 99, unless otherwise provided." 

Steam code Rule 90 was approved with the same number, with 
a foot note stating that the committee does not recommend 
superiority by direction. Rule 90 reads : 

"90. Trains must stop at schedule meeting stations, if the 
train to be met is of the same class, unless the switch is right 
and the track clear. 

"When the expected train of the same class is not found 
at the schedule meeting station, the superior train must approach 
all sidings prepared to stop, unless the expected train is met. 

"Trains must stop clear of the switch used by the train to be 
met in going on the siding." 

The committee approved the following steam code rules re- 
taining the steam code numbers: 91, 92, 93, 94, 95 (same as in- 
terurban Rule 201), 96 (same as interurban Rule 214), 97, 98 
and 99. The steam code rules which are not duplicates of the 
interurban code rules read as follows : 

"91. Unless some form of block signals is used, trains in 
the same direction must keep at least five minutes apart, except 
in closing up at stations." 

"92. A train must not arrive at a station in advance of its 
schedule arriving time. 

"A train must not leave a station in advance of its schedule 
leaving time." 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

"93. Within yard limits the main track may be used pro- 
tecting against class trains. 

" class and extra trains must move within yard limits 

prepared to stop unless the main track is seen or known to be 

"94. A train which overtakes another train so disabled that 
it cannot proceed will pass it, if practicable, and if necessary 
will assume the schedule and take the train orders of the dis- 
abled train, proceed to the next open telegraph office, and there 

report to the . The disabled train will assume the right 

or schedule and take the train orders of the last train with 
which it has exchanged, and will, when able, proceed to and 
report from the next open telegraph office. 

"When a train, unable to proceed against the right or 
schedule of an opposing train, is overtaken between telegraph 
stations by an inferior train or a train of the same class having 
right or schedule which permits it to proceed, the delayed 
train may, after proper consultation with the following train, 
precede it to the next telegraph station, where it must report to 
. When opposing trains are met under these circum- 
stances, it must be fully explained to them by the leading train 
that the expected train is following." 

"97. Extra trains must not be run without orders from the 

"98. Trains must approach the end of double track, junc- 
tions, railroad crossings at grade, and drawbridges, prepared to 
stop, unless the switches and signals are right and the track is 
clear. Where required by law, trains must stop." 

"99. When a train stops or is delayed, under circumstances 
in which it may be overtaken by another train, the flagman 
must go back immediately with stop signals, a sufficient dis- 
tance to insure full protection. When recalled he may return 
to his train, first placing two torpedoes on the rail when the 
conditions require it. 

"The front of the train must be protected in the same way, 
when necessary, by the ." 

Interurban Rule 218 will be inserted as Rule 99a because no 
similar precautionary rule appears in the steam railway code. 

The committee also approved steam code Rules 100 to 104, 
retaining the same numbers. These read : 

"100. When the flagman goes back to protect the rear of the 

train, the must, in the case of passenger trains, and the 

next brakeman, in the case of other trains, take his place on 
the train. 

"ior. If a train should part while in motion, trainmen must, 
if possible, prevent damage to the detached portions. The 
signals prescribed by Rules 12 (d) and 14 (f) must be given. 

"The detached portions must not be moved or passed until 
the front portion comes back." 

"102. When cars are pushed by an engine (except when 
shifting and making up trains in yards) a flagman must take 
a conspicuous position on the front of the leading car." 

"103. Messages or orders respecting the movement of trains 
or the condition of track or bridges must be in writing." 

"104. Switches must be left in proper position after having 
been used. Conductors are responsible for the position of the 
switches used by them and their trainmen, except where switch 
tenders are stationed. 

"A switch must not be left open for a following train unless 
in charge of a trainman of such train." 

Interurban code Rule 255. defining the responsibility for the 
safety of trains, will be renumbered and used as Rule 105. 

Rule 106 of the steam code was approved with its present 
number. It reads : 

"ro6. In all cases of doubt or uncertainty the safe course 
must be taken and no risks run." 

Additional rules were formulated to follow Rule 106, because 
they are necessary for interurban operating conditions with 
telephone train dispatching. In all cases where the steam code 
uses the word "engine" the revised interurban code will use 
"engine or motor." 

"ules 107 to 114. inclusive, were approved to read as follows: 

"T07. When unable to reach the dispatcher on account of 

defective telephone, all extra trains will lose their rights as 
extra trains and such extra trains whose movement is essential 
to the maintenance of the passenger service will become sec- 
tions of regular scheduled trains as provided in Rule 108, all 
other extras at once clearing main track and remaining clear 
until telephone service is restored." 

"108. When telephone line is out of order, any scheduled 
train, when requested by conductor of any train, may carry 
signals for such, as a section following, without first obtaining 
orders from the — . The conductor of train desiring sig- 
nals displayed shall issue second section order in duplicate, as 
per No. 3, form F, Rule — , to be duly signed by the respective 
conductors. Both copies of order to be turned in by the con- 
ductors of the respective trains. Scheduled train, under such 
arrangement, will immediately display signals, though second 
section must not proceed until it is certain that signals are so 
displayed by the first section." 

"109. Where extra trains are assigned working limits, such 
trains must move within these limits with the current of traffic 
unless train orders otherwise direct." 

"110. Every train must be brought to a full stop before 
crossing the tracks of any railroad at grade, at a distance of not 
less than fifty (50) ft. from the railroad track, except when 
such crossing is provided with interlocking apparatus or other 
system of signals, and must not proceed until proper signal, is 
received from the conductor, and crossing is seen to be clear, 
and no train approaching and about to pass over crossing. The 
conductor shall be responsible for the motorman having in 
front vestibule, for immediate use in case of necessity, a red flag 
by day and a red light by night. This order strictly prohibits 
the motorman from taking a signal or order from any one else 
but his own conductor, and conductors must not permit any one 
else to perform their duties at these crossings unless authority 
has been conferred upon another employee by the — ." 

"111. A train about to enter or leave a siding must approach 
the switch under full control." 

"112. A train meeting another train at a siding open at both 
ends must enter at the nearest end, and under no circumstances 
run by and back in without special orders from the ." 

"113. Tongue switches, wherever located, must be ap- 
proached with train under full control, and must not be run 
over unless the tongue is known to be properly set. Motormen 
and conductors will be held equally responsible for the proper 
setting of switches used by them, and they must take every 
precaution for the protection of their trains, even if not pro- 
vided by the rules." 

"114. All regular trains, or sections of a regular train, when 

becoming minutes late, must report to the dispatcher, and 

will also report for each successive minutes lost. If 

unable to get the dispatcher by company or long-distance tele- 
phone, the train may proceed on its time-card rights until it is 

minutes late, after which it must not proceed except by 

flagging, according to rule 83a. 

Rule 115 will be the same as steam code double-track Rule 
D-153. It reads : 

"115. Trains must use caution in passing a train receiving 
or discharging passengers at a station, and must not pass be- 
tween it and the platform at which the passengers are being 
received or discharged." 

Rule 116 regarding approaching at meeting points was ap- 
proved to read as follows : 

"116. All trains must approach meeting or passing points 
under full control, and must not attempt to pass until switches 
and signals are seen to be right and the train to be met or 
passed is clear of the main track. 


Steam code Rules 201, 202 and 203 were approved with their 
numbers. They read : 

"201. For movements not provided for by timetable, train 
orders will be issued by authority and over the signature of 

the . They must contain neither information nor 

instructions not essential to such movements." 

July 2, 1910.] 



"They must be brief and clear; in the prescribed forms when 
applicable ; and without erasure, alteration or interlineation." 

"202. Each train order must be given in the same words to 
all persons on trains addressed." 

"203. Train orders will be numbered consecutively each day, 
beginning with No. — at midnight." 

Interurban code Rules 252 and 253 were approved and re- 
numbered 204 and 205. 

Steam code Rule 206 was approved with its number. It reads : 

"206. Regular trains will be designated in train orders by 
their numbers, as 'No. 10' or '2d No. 10,' adding engine or 
motor numbers if desired. Extra trains will be designated by 
engine or motor numbers, and the direction as 'Extra 798 
"East" or "West."' Other numbers and time will be stated in 
figures only." 

Interurban code Rule 255 was approved and renumbered 

The committee spent considerable time in formulating rules 
covering instructions for obtaining train orders over telephone 
lines from stations with or without operators. Some members 
favored having the conductor read the order to the dispatcher 
for completion after the order had been taken by the motorman 
and read back for O. K. Other members held that the intro- 
duction of a third party in the handling of the order was too 
great a refinement. Because of the continued difference of 
opinion between the members of the committee the rules which 
will be submitted will include optional rules, so that a choice 
can be made of either method. 

Interurban code Rule 256 with the elimination of the last 
paragraph which reads : "If for any reason the line shall fail 
before the dispatcher completes an order, it is of no effect, and 
must then be treated as though it had not been given," and 
interurban Rule 257 were combined and renumbered 207a. 

Interurban code Rules 256 (Optional), including the last para- 
graph, and Rule 257, were combined and renumbered 207a 
( Optional) . 

The first paragraph of interurban code Rule 258 was ap- 
proved with the following supplement and was numbered 207b. 
The supplement reads : 

"207b. To obtain orders at stations where there are operators 
the operator will call up the dispatcher upon approach of train, 
who will give such orders as are necessary, whereupon the 
operator will write same plainly and without abbreviations on 
a blank provided for that purpose with two carbon copies and 
as many additional carbon copies as may be ordered by the 
dispatcher and when the operator has finished writing the or- 
der he shall repeat it to the train dispatcher, who will O. K. 
same, if correct. The operator shall sign same and repeat his 
signature with the number of the order to the dispatcher, who 
will then give the time at which the order is O. K.'d, which 
shall be entered upon the order by the operator. The operator 
will hand the order to the conductor of the train for whom it 
is intended, who shall sign same with name and train number, 
and read the order in full without abbreviation back to the 
dispatcher. The dispatcher will, if the order is correct, com- 
plete the order by giving his initials and the time of completion 
to the conductor, who will immediately write same on the or- 
der, which will then be in full force and effect. If, for any 
reason, the line should fail before the dispatcher completes the 
order, it is of no effect and must then be treated as if it had 
not been sent." 

The first sentence of interurban Rule 261, with the proper 
references, will be renumbered as Rule 207c. 

The entire interurban Rule 261, inserting the proper refer- 
ence numbers, was approved as 207c (Optional). 

Rule 208b of the steam code was approved and renumbered 
208. It reads : 

"208. A train order to be sent to two or more offices must 
be transmitted simultaneously to as many of them as prac- 

"The several addresses must be in the order of superiority of 
trains and when practicable must include the operator at the 
meeting or waiting point, each office taking its proper address. 

"When not sent simultaneously to all, the order must be sent 
first to the superior train. 

"Copies of the order addressed to the operator at the meeting 
or waiting point must be delivered to all trains affected until 
all have arrived from one direction." 

Rule 262 of the interurban code was approved as Rule 209. 

The committee agreed to leave blank the numbers from 210 
to 213 inclusive, to permit individual properties to insert any 
special rules required. 

Steam code Rules 214, 215 and 216 were approved and the 
numbers retained. They read : 

"214. When a train order has been repeated or 'X' response 
sent, and before 'complete' has been given, the order must be 
treated as a holding order for the train addressed, but must not 
be otherwise acted on until 'complete' has been given. 

"If the line fail before an office has repeated an order or has 
sent the 'X' response, the order at that office is of no effect and 
must be there treated as if it had not been sent." 

"215. The operator who receives and delivers a train order 
must preserve the lowest copy." 

"216. For train orders delivered by the train dispatcher the 
requirements as to the record and delivery are the same as at 
other offices." 

Steam code Rule 217, which is not contained in the interurban 
code, was approved with its number. It reads : 

"217. A train order to be delivered to a train at a point not 
a telegraph station, or at one at which the telegraph office is 
closed, must be addressed to 

'C. & M (at ), care of ,' 

and forwarded and delivered by the conductor or other person 
in whose care it is addressed. When form 31 is used 'com- 
plete' will be given upon the signature of the person by whom 
the order is to be delivered, who must be supplied with copies 
for the conductor and motorman addressed, and a copy upon 
which he shall take their signatures. This copy he must de- 
liver to the first operator accessible, who must preserve it, and 
at once transmit the signatures of the conductor and engineman 
to the train dispatcher. 

"Orders so delivered must be acted on as if 'complete' had 
been given in the usual way. 

"For orders which are sent, in the manner herein provided, 
to a train, the superiority of which is thereby restricted, 'com- 
plete' must not be given to an inferior train until the signatures 
of the conductor and engineman of the superior train have been 
sent to the ." 

Interurban code Rule 265 was approved and renumbered 218. 

Rule 219 was accepted as follows : 

"219. Unless otherwise directed, an operator must not repeat 
a train order for a train, the motor of which has passed his 
train order signal or station, until he has ascertained that the 
conductor and motorman have been notified that he has orders 
for them." 

Steam code Rules 220, 221a, 221b and 222 were approved with 
their numbers. They read : 

"220. Train orders once in effect continue so until fulfilled, 
superseded or annulled. Any part of an order specifying a 
particular movement may be either superseded or annulled. 

"Orders held by or issued for, or any part of an order relating 
to a regular train become void when such train loses both right 
and schedule as prescribed by rules 4 and 82, or is annulled." 

"221a. A fixed signal must be used at each train-order office, 
which shall indicate 'stop' when there is an operator on duty, 
except when changed to 'proceed' to allow a train to pass after 
getting train orders, or for which there are no orders. A train 
must not pass the signal while 'stop' is indicated. The signal 
must be returned to 'stop' as soon as a train has passed. It 
must be fastened at 'proceed' only when no operator is on duty. 

"Operators must have the proper appliances for hand sig- 
naling ready for immediate use if the fixed signal should fail 
to work properly. If a signal is not displayed at a night office 
trains which have not been notified must stop and ascertain the 

cause and report the facts to the from the next open 

telegraph office. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

"Where the semaphore is used the arm indicates 'stop' when 
horizontal and 'proceed' when in an inclined position." 

Note to rule 221a. — The conditions which affect trains at 
stations vary so much that it is recommended each road adopt 
such regulations supplementary to this rule as may best suit its 
own requirements. 

"221b. A fixed signal must be used at each train-order office, 
which shall indicate 'stop' when trains are to be stopped for 
train orders. When there are no orders the signal must in- 
dicate 'proceed.' 

"When an operator receives the signal '31/ or '19,' followed by 
the direction, he must immediately display the 'stop' signal for 
the direction indicated and then reply 'stop displayed,' adding 
the direction ; and until the orders have been delivered or an- 
nulled the signal must not be restored to 'proceed.' While 'stop' 
is indicated trains must not proceed without a clearance card 
(from (A)). 

"Operators must have the proper appliances for hand sig- 
naling ready for immediate use if the fixed signal should fail 
to work properly. If a signal is not displayed at a night office 
trains which have not been notified must stop and ascertain the 

cause and report the facts to the — — from the next open 

telegraph office. 

"Where the semaphore is used the arm indicates 'stop' when 
horizontal and 'proceed' when in an inclined position." 

"Notes to rules 221a and 221b. — The committee has recom- 
mended two forms of Rule 221, leaving it discretionary to adopt 
one or both of these forms according to the circumstances of 
the traffic." 

"222. Operators will promptly record and report to the 

the time of departure of all trains and the direction of 

extra trains. They will record the time of arrival of trains 
and report it when so directed." 

Interurban code Rule 276, indicating signs and abbreviations, 
was approved as No. 223 with the exception of the use of 
"Jet." for junction. 

Interurban code Rule 263 was approved and renumbered 224. 

Interurban code Rule 271 was approved and renumbered 225. 

Interurban code Rule 270 was approved and renumbered 226. 

Interurban code Rule 266 was approved and renumbered 227. 


The committee next discussed the advantages of "run late" 
orders. It was voted to approve the American Railway Asso- 
ciation standard forms of train orders for single and double- 
track operation, with the exception that the words "motor num- 
ber" be indicated in addition to "train number" in the form for 
each order. 

The committee recommended the use of the standard "31" and 
"19" order forms of the American Railway Association and a 
modified form with certain printing on the body of the blank, 
similar to that used by the Indiana Union Traction Company 
It also recommended that the train-order numbers of the Amer- 
ican Railway Association be adopted and that the examples of 
orders quoted be printed in italics, as in the American Railway 
Association standard code of rules. 

The chairman announced that he would have copies of the 
minutes of the Ft. Wayne and Cleveland meetings of the com- 
mittee forwarded as soon as possible to each member so that 
they could carefully reconsider the rules as a whole and desig- 
nate whether another meeting of the committee was needed. 


The committee on way matters of the American Street & 
Interurban Railway Engineering Association is sending out to 
all member-companies a data sheet containing 10 questions 
relating to economical maintenance of track and roadway, car 
clearance and specifications for steel rails. Replies should be 
addressed to E. O. Ackerman, engineer of maintenance of 
way, Columbus Railway & Light Company, Columbus, Ohio, 
who is chairman of the committee. 


The meeting of the Central Electric Accounting Conference, 
held on board the White Star Line steamer Greyhound, en 
route between Toledo and Detroit, on Saturday, June 25, 1910, 
was attended by over two-thirds of the membership of the 
conference, and was one of the most successful meetings that 
the conference has held. O. Burgett, Western Ohio Railway, 
suggested holding the meeting on the steamer. It was an 
unique idea, and resulted not only in a large attendance, but a 
most interesting and profitable meeting. Irwin Fullerton, audi- 
tor, Detroit United Railway, entertained the members of 
the conference during the afternoon and evening. Mrs. Ful- 
lerton was present to entertain the ladies. 

The report of the executive committee indicated that the 
finances of the conference were in excellent condition, and 
recommended for the consideration of the conference the ac- 
ceptance of the invitation extended by C. E. Thompson, audi- 
tor, Chicago & Milwaukee Railway, to hold the September 
meeting in Chicago. A letter from the Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem was read in which an invitation was extended to the 
conference to hold a meeting in St. Louis, upon the completion 
of the company's terminal building. It is possible that the 
spring meeting will be held in St. Louis. It was also recom- 
mended that the proceedings of the meeting be published in 
pamphlet form for distribution among the members, and that 
in the interest of the membership, a competent man be em- 
ployed to prepare a classified list of items chargeable to the 
several operating expense accounts provided in the Interstate 
Commerce Commission classification. 

The recommendations of the executive committee were ap- 
proved and the question of holding the next meeting in Chicago 
is to be submitted to a vote by mail. S. C. Rogers extended 
an invitation to the conference to hold the December meeting 
in Youngstown, Ohio. 

H. S. Swift, president of the American Street and Interurban 
Railway Accountants' Association, was introduced by A. F. 
Elkins, auditor of the Columbus, Marion & Delaware Railway. 
Mr. Swift said in part that the length of life of way, struc- 
tures and equipment and the determination of the proper 
amount to be added above ordinary maintenance to cover 
depreciation were great questions to those companies whose 
franchises were nearing maturity, to others who have been 
over sanguine in the inauguration of charges too low to 
cover cost and to give a reasonable return on their investment, 
and to those who are subject to rate regulation. In the past, 
changes due to obsolescence have been so frequent that the 
owners had not had the chance to wear out their property 
but he hoped that this condition would not continue in the 
future. Consequently, there ought to be available better length 
of service data to give a correct basis for figuring depreciation. 
He said that the American Street & Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation recognized the good work the Central Electric Account- 
ing Conference was doing, and believed that other localities 
should organize similar associations. There were many prob- 
lems which could best be discussed in such meetings, particu- 
larly those arising from interchange of traffic. However, all 
should be members and attend the meetings of the national 
association which needed their help and influence to bring 
about more uniform practice and a more general recognition 
of the value of the services given to the public, and a better 
knowledge of the fact that after proper allowance for de- 
preciation and similar charges is made, the profits on the 
investment are seldom greater than the usual returns in other 
lines of business. However he had great confidence in the 
justice of the public when it is correctly informed, but the 
concentrated effort of all companies would be required to 
remove the false impression formed from past reports on pro- 

The auditors might sometimes be consulted in reference to 
the financial policy of their companies, with good results. As 
a class they were conservative. Certainly the errors of the 

July 2, 1910.] 



past had not, as a rule, been that of conservatism, the audi- 
tors had long advocated those principles of accounting which 
were now recognized by bankers and investors. He thought 
that the auditors often were too modest when they spoke about 
their duties and responsibilities. Perhaps their great failing 
was to assume that their reports and statements showed as 
much to their executive officers as they did to themselves. This 
was not true in some cases and he wished to emphasize the 
importance of discussing such reports with the manager, and 
bringing to his attention the value of details which could be 
easily overlooked. Concluding, President Swift said the audi- 
tors should avoid the false idea that they could best serve their 
companies by endeavoring to do a large amount of clerical 
work. In smaller companies the auditor must necessarily give 
much of his time to the detail work of the office, but it is 
false economy to try to save a clerk's salary if this prevents 
the auditor having sufficient time to familiarize himself with 
the property and to analyze his own figures intelligently. 

At the close of his address a resolution of thanks was given 
to Mr. Swift. 

A paper on "Park Accounting," by E. L. Schmock, assistant 
secretary and treasurer, Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Rail- 
road, was productive of an animated discussion that brought 
out the fact that very few companies interested in parks owned 
and operated the parks themselves. This paper will be found 
on page 20. Some parks were operated by a separate company, 
others were operated under lease. In but few instances were 
parks operated at a profit except such profit as might be de- 
rived from the increased travel attracted by the park. Mr. 
Rogers was asked to outline the organization and plan of park 
accounting in his company, and stated that the Mahoning & 
Shenango Railway & Light Company owns and operates Cas- 
cade Park in New Castle and one of its underlying companies, 
the Youngstown Park & Falls Street Railway, owns and oper- 
ates Idora Park in Youngstown. The company actually oper- 
ates all the refreshment stands and amusement features of the 
parks, except the roller coaster, circle swing and old mill. Each 
park has its own superintendent, who has jurisdiction over 
everything but the receipts, a representative of the treasury 
department collecting all money daily, giving written receipts 
to the persons from whom he receives the money. He also 
attends to the daily collection of cancelled tickets and their 
subsequent destruction. A detailed daily report is prepared, 
duplicate copies of all receipts issued being attached. One 
copy of this report goes to the operating officer and the other 
to the accounting department. There is attached to this report 
also a duplicate deposit slip issued by the bank for the total 
amount of money called for by the report. The representative 
of the treasury department who attends to the daily collection 
of the receipts is the only person who handles the money from 
the time it leaves the park until it is actually deposited in the 
bank. The park revenue and expense accounts, some 30 in 
number, are kept in a loose leaf abstract form with a separate 
sheet for each account. In the general ledger one general 
account with the park is provided to which is credited all 
revenue and charged all operating expenses. Included in the 
operating expenses is every item of expense incident to the 
park management, including a proportion of the salary of the 
treasury and auditing department clerks engaged in the keep- 
ing of park accounts. At the close of the year the net revenue 
derived from the operation of parks is credited under the head 
of miscellaneous income, or if there should be a deficit, this 
under the Interstate Commerce Commission classification is 
charged to account No. 46, advertising. While the direct oper- 
ation of the parks involves many difficulties it has been found 
that the company has been able to give the public better value 
for the money expended than through the medium of lessees or 
concessionaires, and has been able, in addition to the large 
increase in travel, to make a net profit on the operation of the 
parks themselves. To do this it requires people adapted to 
this class of work, but Mr. Rogers' company had been fortu- 
nate in that respect. Tt takes care of the park superintendents 
during the winter season by employing them in other work. 

The paper, "Comparative Statements," by W. B. Wright, 
auditor, Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company, which is 
printed in abstract below, treated of a subject of great 
importance and value at this time. At the close of the 
discussion on this paper a motion was made that the chairman 
appoint a committee of three, of which W. B. Wright should 
be chairman, to look into this matter further, and submit 
forms of comparative statements at the next meeting of the 
conference with the intention of adopting standard forms in 
this connection. The president appointed E. L. Kassemeir and 
S. C. Rogers to serve with Mr. Wright. 

Walter Shroyer, auditor, Indiana Union Traction Company, 
led a discussion on accounting of interline baggage. Two 
points were brought out in the discussion : 

1st. Advisability of adopting an interline baggage check, 
since both local and interline baggage are now handled on the 
same form, providing additional coupons for each road over 
which such baggage is handled, thus conforming with the 
present method of handling interline tickets and way bills. 

2d. Proper method of accounting in connection with the 
checking of interline baggage on Central Electric Traffic Asso- 
ciation mileage. It is not permissible to check baggage inter- 
line on C. E. T. A. mileage at the present time, but it is under- 
stood that the Traffic Association expects to arrange for such 
checking in the near future. 

A. F. Elkins paid a tribute of respect to the memory of 
W. I. McLure, who at the time of his death was auditor of the 
Toledo Urban & Interurban Railway and a member of the 
conference. On motion Mr. Elkins was appointed a committee 
of one to prepare resolutions expressing the sympathy of the 
conference, to be forwarded to the family. 



It may be trite to say that standardization, concentration or 
centralization if you will, is the order of the day; that the 
production of the greatest amount of "useful work," with the 
least expenditure of energy must be the end and aim of those 
directing the expenditures of such energy, whether that energy 
be the electrical output of the power station or the mental 
product of the office. With the coming of fixed system and ac- 
curate records in the production department, and further with 
the strong tendency now manifested by the executive himself 
to come closely in touch with actual operating conditions, in 
stead of reaching his conclusions through reports from his 
operating officers, we find a continued call for better and cleaner 
cut work from the accounting department. The latter in turn 
is asking and getting better office room, better furniture, bet- 
ter mechanical equipment and better men. I believe that these 
conditions will continue until accounting shall have broadened 
and developed into one of the recognized professions, calling 
into its field of effort men of high mental attainment and force 
of character. There are large problems ahead of us that must 
be solved through scientific accountancy. The men who solve 
them must have a training which will make them the equal of 
the engineer in technique and give them the acumen of the 
financier and the finesse of the statesman. 

The original idea of a comparative monthly statement for a 
manufacturing concern seemed to include a comparison of the 
cash receipts, cash disbursements, total shipments, total pay-roll 
and a showing of cash balances on hand; this with a trial bal- 
ance (no balance sheet was ordinarily made) completed the list 
as required by many concerns with high commercial rating. 
From what I have seen of the earlier accounting of our trac- 
tion companies, I should say that a goodly number of them are 
possessed of records of scarcely greater value. For instance, 
I remember one item on the books of a company not now in 
existence, where an accommodation loan was made at the local 

"Abstract of a paper presenter! at the Central Electric Accounting 
Conference, Toledo, Ohio, June 25, 1910 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

b'ank, the bank properly charged and earnings account for the 
day credited; the entry had never been corrected and apparently 
never discovered. A comparative analysis of the earnings ac- 
count, in the hands of a competent executive, would undoubted- 
ly have brought to light what in charity we will call an error. 

Granting the necessity for a uniform system and admitting 
that we now have a standardized classification, imposed by 
government, on which to build our system work, there still re- 
mains one step to be taken — the adoption of a standardized 
statement which shall at fixed times and for definite periods 
compare in an orderly and concise manner the data accumu- 
lated through the working of the standardized methods now in 
use, and which shall in addition show such data deduced there- 
from as may be deemed necessary or desirable. With a view 
to furnishing ground for discussion I will suggest that this 
statement should show first the income account in the most 
condensed form possible, using grand totals only. For in- 
stance, give gross earnings from operation, total operating ex- 
penses, net earnings from operations, miscellaneous income, 
gross income less operating expenses, deductions from income 
(showing taxes separately if desired), net income, etc. In ad- 
dition, as the data mentioned will occupy but small space, there 
might be made an analysis of the earnings from operation 
showing by divisions, the value of various classes of tickets 
sold and items of revenue other than passenger. Following the 
condensed income statement, should appear the usual income 
statement, showing the footings of the various revenue ac- 
counts, the footings of the five divisions of the operating ac- 
counts as shown by the standard classification, and such de- 
tail as to taxes, bond interest and other fixed charges, and de- 
ductions from net income as the conditions peculiar to each 
company may indicate. 

Next to and supporting the income account should be the 
statement of operating expenses, this showing foot?figs for 
each of the five groups, with footings of subdivision's' group 
4, and a grand total of all these footings showing total operat- 
ing expenses. In addition it might be convenient to show on 
this page immediately below the footing of each group its 
"Per Car Mile Cost" and also the percentage of the group 
total to the total operating expenses. This latter percentage is, 
I think, usually computed on gross earnings as a base, but I 
can see no logical connection between gross earnings and these 
operating group totals, while there is an approximately fixed 
ratio between the group totals and the grand total of the oper- 
ating expenses. In comparison with gross earnings, where the 
latter show a sudden increase caused by interesting events in- 
ducing the people to ride freely with little increased cost to 
the operation account, the group per cent will fall. If the lat- 
ter condition is continued for any length of time it would be 
possible for expenditures in one or more of the groups to be 
in reality extravagant while the percentages would appear to 
show by their lessening, that economies were being practiced. 
With the total operating expense as the base, this would not 
be the case, but the nominal ratio once established, any serious 
variation from month to month would be justified to the in- 
specting officer by known traffic conditions. Lacking this, the 
responsible official would be called upon for an explanation. 

Following this should, I think, come the data sheet bearing 
the revenue and traffic statistics. Standardized data should be 
carefully worked out and in the planning should be reduced 
to the fewest possible number of items that will reasonably 
and safely give the necessary information. In cases where ad- 
ditional information is necessary on account of local conditions, 
this may be added by the individual company without prejudice 
to the standard. After the data sheets would logically come 
the statement of expenditures for road and equipment which 
should also conform to the requirements of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission's classification. 

Last should be shown the balance sheet carrying assets and 
liabilities. If desired the general ledger may be so sectionalized 
and the items on the balance sheet so grouped that the latter 
w ill each month show the conditions of capital stock account, 
bonded debt, sinking funds, etc. This would make unneces- 

sary, with the monthly showing, any separate statement or 
schedule carrying this information. In addition to the double 
columns usually carried on the comparative statement, show- 
ing the amounts for each month and for each yearly period. 
I should suggest that the standard form might show two ad- 
ditional columns, one to contain the increases and decreases, 
the other the percentages of same based on the previous year; 
these latter, however, would probably be worked out only for 
the more important items and for the group and total footings. 
With the appliances now available for "mechanical arithmetic" 
the additional time required would be small, even with the 
larger companies. 

As to the method to be followed in getting any proposed 
form of report in concrete shape for consideration, I believe 
that this is a most important subject and feel that it should be 
thoroughly discussed at this or a subsequent meeting — that each 
member should inform himself fully as to the ideas of his 
executive officers and that this conference possibly through its 
officers, should by correspondence or otherwise place itself in 
touch with other like associations and learn their practices and 
wishes. I take this position as it seems to me there is too much 
tendency to standardize locally and sectionally, without due 
reference to conditions beyond the limits of our immediate -in- 
terest, forgetting that our business is a progressive one, that 
our borders are rapidly enlarging, that the stranger of to-day 
may be our neighbor to-morrow, and that shortly his lines may 
become a portion of our own systems. Under such conditions 
standardization in all departments, not sectional, but national, 
is the end for which we should strive. 



The park accounting methods of the Cleveland, Painesville 
& Eastern Railroad probably are different from those of other 
roads, because a small company has been incorporated to 
operate Willoughbeach Park. A separate set of books 
is used by the park company, although they are not as elabo- 
rate as the railroad company's books. On the ledger is kept a 
separate account for the receipts of each of the different 
amusements and concessions. In the operating and mainte- 
nance accounts is kept a separate account from each of the 
amusements and concessions showing labor separate from 
material and supplies. The man in charge of each amusement 
and concession makes out a report each evening covering his 
receipts for the day. This report, together with the cash and 
tickets collected, is turned in to the superintendent of the park. 

There is only one ticket booth in the park; it is in the main 
pavilion. On holidays another ticket booth is opened on the 
grounds. The ticket seller at the main pavilion also acts as 
cashier and makes out a report each evening, showing the 
number of tickets sold, turning in this report with the cash 
to the superintendent. The superintendent then takes each of 
the individual reports and the cashier's report and makes one 
final report for the day's business covering all of the amuse- 
ments and concessions. Each morning the individual reports, 
superintendent's report, tickets and cash collected are sent to 
the general office, where they are checked up by the cashier 
of the railroad company and the money deposited in the bank. 

Owing to the fact that some of the concessions and amuse- 
ments are scattered around the grounds, and the park not being 
large enough to have several ticket sellers stationed around 
the grounds, both tickets and cash are accepted at some of the 
concessions and amusements. 

In the large parks where the business justifies employing 
several ticket sellers, no cash should be taken at the conces- 
sions and amusements. Each amusement and concession should 
be provided with a ticket box (one which cancels the tickets 
being preferred) in which the people can deposit their tickets 

* Abstract of a paper read at a meeting of the Central Electric Account- 
ing Conference, June 25, 1910. 

July 2, 1910.] 



without having the attendant handle them. Some persons in 
authority should at the close of each day's business go around 
and collect these tickets, and in order to get at the receipts 
of each amusement the tickets can be weighed, and the receipts 
approximated in this way. 

The dining-room and confectionery privileges, also the cane- 
rack, doll-rack, etc., in Willoughbeach Park are leased on a 
percentage basis. The superintendent of the park makes a 
settlement with the manager of each of these concessions 
every evening, redeeming the tickets which are taken in, less 
the percentage which belongs to the park. 

The railroad company's linemen take care of the wires, 
lamps, etc., at the park, and occasionally some of the track- 
men are sent to the park to help fix up the grounds, when it is 
necessary. The railroad company bills the park company each 
month for this labor, and any material used. 

In the matter of advertising attractions at the park or any 
special event, the railroad company does this advertising and 
charges one-half of the cost to the park company. This is billed 
to them at the end of the month. At the end of each month a 
statement is made comparing the receipts of each amusement 
and concession with those of the preceding year, and a trial 
balance is also taken showing the condition of the company at 
that time. In order not to make the bookkeeping of the park 
company a burden no attempt is made to get out a detail state- 
ment of operation each month. 


A case involving the rate of fare charged in Belleville, 111., 
by the East St. Louis & Suburban Railway, is now pending in 
the United States Courts. The company seeks to enjoin the city 
of Belleville against the enforcement of an ordinance reducing 
the rates of fare previously collected by the railway in certain 

The company formerly made four fare collections between the 
city of St. Louis (Eads Bridge) and the city of Belleville. Two 
of these collections were within the limits of the two cities as 
they existed at that time and the other two collections were in 
the intervening territory and were equally divided geographic- 
ally. Largely for the purpose of effecting a reduction in the 
rate of fare on the lines of the railway, the city of Belleville 
annexed a strip of territory about 6 miles long by 2000 ft. wide, 
extending from its former city limits to the dividing point of 
the inter-city fare collections and passed an ordinance prohibit- 
ing a charge of more than a 5-cent fare within the city limits 
as extended. By agreement, the railway operated under this 
plan for over a year in order to determine the actual results. 
It was found that the net receipts from operation were from 
$40,000 to $50,000 per annum less than the amount required to 
pay 6 per cent on the actual cash cost of the property regardless 
of the issue of securities and 6 per cent for depreciation and 

The company then entered suit in the United States Court for 
an injunction against the enforcement of the ordinance. It was 
alleged that the ordinance would take the property of the com- 
pany without compensation and also that the ordinance vio- 
lated the contract agreement originally existing between the 
city and the company. The court denied a temporary injunc- 
tion pending the hearing of the case and since Jan. 1, 1907, the 
company has been operating the 17 miles of single track within 
the extended city limits of Belleville at substantially the rate 
of loss mentioned. 

Efforts to secure a compromise of the matter failed and 
testimony was taken recently by a special master. Testimony 
was presented by disinterested accounting and engineering ex- 
perts. The company presented evidence and facts to show that 
insufficient revenue was derived form the 5-cent fare basis to 
meet operating expenses, interest and depreciation on either 
the original cash cost of the construction, etc., or the present 
estimated replacement value of the property. 



During the past two months announcements have been made 
by all of the steam railroad companies entering New York from 
the north and west that they would advance their suburban 
passenger rates. Some of these rates have already gone into 
effect; others were to begin, according to announcement, on July 
1 or earlier, although the request made by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission of the presidents of the railroads in New 
Jersey to delay the establishment of their advances in rates 
until August 1 may postpone action by those roads. 

It is probable that no such general increase of suburban rail- 
road rates or one affecting so many individuals has ever been 
proposed before in this country. Those most severely affected 
by the policy outlined will be the commuters, as the charges 
for commutation tickets have been increased from a few 
per cent to, in at least one case, that of New Haven, practically 
80 per cent. It is difficult, without official data of the number 
of commuters from each station, to determine the total per- 
centage of the increases on the different roads, but in the case 
of one company doing a very large suburban business, the in- 
creased income from the higher fares, based upon the present 
number of commuting passengers, is estimated at about 10 per 
cent, and it is probable that the average of all of the roads 
would not be far from this figure. The effect, if the proposed 
changes are carried out, will undoubtedly be to compel the sub- 
urban steam railroad passenger near New York to pay more for 
his transportation than he has had to do for a long time. 

A significant fact in connection with the increases proposed 
has been that all of the roads have given the same reasons for 
their contemplated advances, namely, that for a long time 
the former rates were inadequate and owing to the advance in 
unit costs which go to make up operating expenses it has be- 
come no longer possible to carry passengers at the low rates 
except at a large loss. This explanation has been given irre- 
spective of the financial condition of the company advancing 
the rates. It applies to the Erie Railroad, which has paid no 
dividend on its common stock and a total of only 8 per cent on 
its second preferred stock since the company was reorganized 
in 1895, and none on either its first preferred or second pref- 
erred since April, 1907 ; to the Delaware, Lackawanna & West- 
ern Railroad, whose stock is quoted at about 550 and which 
pays regular dividends at 20 per cent and declared an extra 
dividend of 50 per cent in July, 1909, and to the Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey which has paid 8 per cent annually since 
1902 and at the two last quarterly meetings declared extra 
dividends of 2 per cent. It applies also to the New York Central 
and Pennsylvania railroads, which are installing magnificent city 
terminals at tremendous expense, and to the West Shore Rail- 
road, whose passengers can reach New York only by ferry 
across the river. 

Changes in policy of this extensive kind possess more than 
ordinary significance and it is interesting to consider more in 
detail some of the reasons which have been advanced for mak- 
ing the changes described. The general passenger agent of the 
Erie Railroad in discussing the matter said : 'When the old 
rates were made, the tracks were laid with 67-lb. rails 
at $15 a ton, now 85-lb. to 100-lb. rails are laid, costing $28 
a ton, with 30 more tons to the mile. Ties were 30 cents, now 
they are 75 cents. Labor was a dollar a day, now it is $1.75 to 
$2. Passenger cars formerly cost $4,700 each ; the 60 coaches 
bought a year or two ago cost $8,800 apiece. Locomotives were 
$8,000, to-day the average price is $15,000. The cost of labor of 
all descriptions has doubled, yet up to a certain point the full 
effect was not had, due to the gradual increase of travel. It may 
be interesting to know that, despite the Erie's relatively heavy 
local passenger business, last year the average number of passen- 
gers per coach was 16 and a fraction, while the seating capacity 
was 52. If all the seats were filled fares could come down. * * * 
Going still further into the question of increasing costs, the 

'Abstract of naper rearl at the annual meeting of the Street Railway 
Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown, N. Y., June .'8, iijio. 

2 4 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

Erie's taxes, a charge against income, have gone up $500,000 
in New Jersey in four years, whether justly or not need not be 
discussed. They have to be paid from the traffic receipts and 
the proper proportion charged to the suburban traffic." 

Gerrit Fort, general passenger agent of the New York Cen- 
tral & Hudson River Railroad says : "The advance in our com- 
mutation fares was made because of a sharp increase in the cost 
of everything that enters into the conduct of our business, not 
only wages, but all kinds of supplies. For example, fuel has 
increased 38 per cent; ties, 76.4 per cent; steel rails, 47.4 per 
cent; angle bars, 52 per cent; gray-iron castings, 46.9 per cent; 
bar iron, 49.9 per cent; cast-iron pipe, 62.8 per cent; track spikes, 
37.3 per cent ; cast-iron wheels, 39.2 per cent ; barbed wire, 47.1 
per cent; bridge timber, 77.3 per cent; car axles, 41.4 per cent; 
locomotive steel forgings, 45.4 per cent; stationery, paper, etc., 
20 per cent; locomotives, 50 per cent; cars, 72 per cent. 

"The general effect of the new tariff is to place our fares on 
a harmonious and consistent basis. This is due to the fact that 
we have adopted a uniform scale in figuring the fares on all 
divisions, the maximum rate per mile being 1 cent, and the mini- 
mum rate 3.85 mills. To nearby points the maximum rate per 
mile obtains, and the rate per mile is gradually diminished until 
the minimum rate is reached at the most remote station in the 
commutation district. The percentage of increase varies from 
nothing to as high as 15 per cent." 

Several of the steam railroad companies have issued leaflets 
giving statistics justifying the proposed increase. 

Coincidently with this increase in passenger rates, which 
has been most marked on the roads centering in New York, 
there has been a general movement on the part of the steam 
railroads, both in the East and the West, toward an increase of 
their freight rates. The action of the Government in con- 
nection with this increase is well known. The reasons given by 
the railroads in their official explanation of these proposed in- 
creases are the same offered by railroads around New York to 
justify the increase in passenger rates; namely, the inadequacy 
of the old rates and increased "living expenses," the complaint 
which is made by a very large body of individuals to-day. 


In some respects the electric railways are in a worse condi- 
tion than steam railroads. They are not only confronted by 
the same economic situation with regard to the higher cost of 
labor and of nearly all of the materials which are used in con- 
struction, operation and maintenance, but for a number of years 
past the city roads have witnessed a steadily decreasing income 
per passenger for the service which they render. Whether they 
can counteract this condition by an increase of unit charges as 
easily as the steam railroads have done or hope to do is an- 
other question. 


The present standard unit fare for city electric railway trans- 
portation has grown to be inadequate principally for the fol- 
lowing reasons : 

1. The increased length of ride which is obtained by the 
passenger for a single fare. 

2. The decreased receipts per passenger owing principally to 
the issue of transfers. 

3. The increased cost of operation per passenger. 

4. The increased cost of raising capital for extensions and 
improvements and for retiring maturing issues of bonds. 


This is shown most clearly by the greatly increased size of 
the systems over which it is possible to ride for a single fare. 
As late as in 1890 there were as many as five separate and in- 
dependent street railway companies in the Albany and Troy dis- 
trict, 12 in the territory comprised in the present borough of 
Brooklyn, 18 in Manhattan and Bronx, 10 in Syracuse and three 
in Utica. The tendency toward the consolidation of all of the 
electric railway companies in one city which was initiated on 
a large scale first in Boston soon extended during the early 
nineties to many other large cities until, in 1900, there were 
few cities in the country in which more than one company was 

giving purely city service. Before these consolidations, passen- 
gers, in most cases, had to pay a separate fare every time they 
changed from one road to another. After the consolidations, 
either by agreement with the municipality, by charter or by 
State statute, a single fare was sufficient to purchase a ride 
from any given point within the city limits to any other 
point on the same system, and as extensions were built still 
longer rides became available. Tables I and II show in 
concrete form both the rapid increase in number of the large 



Miles of Track. 1908. 1902. 1896. 1890. 1884. 

to 10 39 41 51 53 66 

10 to 20 17 24 17 19 - 12 

20 to 30 13 7 12 7 3 

30 to 40 3 6 7 6 

40 to 50 5 2 4 3 1 

So to 60 2 1 

60 tO 70 2 2 . . 2 

70 to 80 I 3 I 2 

80 to 90 3 

90 tO 100 3 I 2 

100 and over 10 6 4 3 

Totals 98 93 98 95 82 

Note: Statistics from New York State reports, years ended June 30. 

roads brought about by these consolidations and the dispro- 
portion between the increase in mileage and number of com- 
panies. The same conditions have prevailed throughout the , 

country, as shown by Table III. These consolidations have 
been accompanied by a large increase in the length of the aver- 
age road, which has grown from 7.4 miles in 1890 to 20.4 miles 
in 1902 and 27 miles in 1907. Coincidently with these consoli- 
dations there has been a large increase in the number of trans- 
fer points. Those in the United States increased between 1902 
and 1907 from 4455 to 7376, or 65.6 per cent, and those in New 
York State increased during the same period from 1 157 to 1942, 
or 67.8 per cent. 


Number Average length 
of companies, of track, milei. 

1894 83 16 

1898 99 20 

1900 102 22 

1902 92 29 

1904 99 31 

1906 105 33 

1908 97 4° 

Note: Statistics from New York State reports, years ended June 30. 



1 902. 






of track. 

of companies. 

of companies. 

of companies. 












30 to 40 . . . 




















100 and over 




Note: Statistics from United States Census reports. 

years ended 

June 30. 


With the 

enlargement of the 

5-cent zones which have fol- 

lowed the 

extensions of roads 

into the suburbs 

the avail- 

able transportation for a single fare has been increased in- 
dependent of the issue of transfers. We can, therefore, 
properly say that in addition to the longer ride which is ob- 
tained by the passenger of to-day, the gross receipts per passen- 
ger have been steadily decreasing as the ratio of transfers 
issued to passengers carried has increased. In New York City 
there has been a slight decrease in the ratio between transfer 
passengers and fare passengers due to the segregation of sev- 
eral of the roads, but as late as 1908 the ratio of transfer pas- 
sengers to fare passengers on the electric railways of New York 
State (exclusive of the subway and Manhattan elevated) was 
38.8 per cent, compared with 33.2 per cent in 1906 and 30.4 per 
cent in 1904. It is interesting to note in this connection that in 

July 2, 1910.] 



1908 if each transfer passenger in New York State had paid 
1 cent for his transfer instead of receiving it without charge, 
the amount paid to the companies for the transfer privilege 
would have been $4,596,800. 


While developments in the art have had a tendency to de- 
crease the operating expenses of those railway companies which 
have been in a position to take advantage of the improvements 
thereby effected the benefits which have resulted from 
them have been more than counterbalanced by the causes which 
have acted to increase expenses. Thus in the five years from 
1902 to 1907 while the earnings from operation of the operating 
Companies in the United States increased 68.9 per cent, and 
the passengers carried increased 63.3 per cent, the operating- 
expenses increased 76.6 per cent. During the same period 
the ratio of operating expenses to earnings from operation 
increased from 57.5 per cent to 60.1 per cent, and the ratio 
of net income to earnings from operation dropped from 12.2 
per cent to 9.4 per cent. 

Four of the principal causes for increased operating expenses 
have been the following: 

1. Increased cost of materials. 

2. Increased cost of labor. 

3. Higher standards of service and of equipment required by 
the public and by the commissions, and 

4. An inclusion in operating expenses of charges for various 
items formerly capitalized. 

Ever since 1897 there has been a continuous general increase 
in the selling prices of both raw and manufactured commodities, 
interrupted only, as all such general advances are, by occa- 
sional reactions which have but emphasized the general upward 
trend of prices. Many explanations have been advanced to 
-account for this general advance and the subject has been care- 
fully studied by the committee of the United States Senate ap- 
pointed to investigate wages and the prices of commodities. 
The majority of this committee has just rendered a report in 
which a number of reasons for the present high prices of labor 
and materials are given, among them : the increased cost of 
production of farm products, by reason of higher land values 
and higher wages ; the shifting of population from food-produc- 
ing to food consuming occupations and localities ; reduced fer- 
tility of land, resulting in lower average production or in in- 
creased expenditures for fertilization; increased banking facili- 
ties in agricultural localities, which have enabled farmers to 
hold their crops and market them at higher average prices; in- 
creased cost of distribution ; industrial combinations ; increased 
money supply, and higher standard of living. Whatever the 
cause, the results have affected electric railway companies in 
common with other consumers. Many statistics have been 
published of the increased cost of raw and manufactured mate- 
rials used in different industries. But the electric railway art 
has changed and is changing so continuously that tabular sta- 
tistics of material used now and 10 or 20 years ago, such as 
■cars, motors and rails, while interesting and instructive, would 
be between apparatus of entirely different characters and capac- 
ities. We could say with perfect propriety, for instance, that 
20 years ago a box horse car with running gear such as was 
then standard for city service in New York could be pur- 
chased for $1,000 and an open car for operation by horses could 
be purchased for $550 or $600, whereas the price of a two-motor 
car with electrical equipment, like that used in city service in 
New York to-day, would be about $5,000, while a four-motor 
car, such as is employed in many cities, would cost consider- 
ably more. Comparisons between other classes of material 
used in electric railway work would also show great differences 
in cost, but great differences as well in the character of equip- 
ment and service rendered. 

With certain possible exceptions relating particularly to por- 
tions of the steam and electrical machinery, it is reasonable to 
assume the cost of the materials used by electric railway com- 
panies has been governed by practically the same law as that 
which has occasioned the general advances in prices of mate- 
rials in other industries. Statistics relating to the cost of 

materials are available through several publications of the 
Bureau of Labor, especially Bulletins 75, 77, 81 and 87. 
The relative prices of commodities as given in Bulletins 75, 77 
and 81 have been widely published, but the latest figures, as 
given in Bulletin 87, have just appeared and are of especial in- 
terest as they show that the tendency to high prices recorded in 
these earlier tabulations still continues. Advance figures from 
Bulletin 87 show, for instance, that the average wholesale price 
during 1909 of all of the materials considered by the bureau 
was 26.5 per cent higher than the average price of the same 
materials during the decade from 1890 to 1899 and was 41 per 
cent higher than in 1897 which was the year of lowest prices 
between 1890 and 1900. 

The prices in these tables are those of a selected series of 
articles, including farm products, food, cloths and cloth- 
ing, fuel and lighting, metals and implements, lumber and 
building materials, drugs and chemicals, house furnishing 
goods and miscellaneous. Of the articles enumerated, those 
most closely related to electric railway industry are metals and 
implements and lumber and building material. Metals and 
implements increased in price in 1909 24.8 per cent over the 
average between 1890 and 1899, and lumber and building mate- 
rial increased 38.4 per cent during the same period. 

There were, of course, fluctuations in the index price of all 
the materials quoted during the decade 1900-1909, and the maxi- 
mum for any one year up to 1907 was reached in that year when 
the increase over the 1890-1899 period was 29.5 per cent. This 
average fell to 22.8 per cent in 1908 and again rose to 26.5 per 
cent for the year 1909. But the 1908 reduction was only tem- 
porary and as Table IV shows, the prices during the first quar- 
ter of this year were considerably higher even than in 1907. 
In other words prices are higher now than for any year during 
the 20 years for which the government has published compara- 
tive figures. 

Bradstreet's "index number of staple articles" shows this same 
general tendency in the increase in the prices of materials. 
This index number is made up by taking the average cost 
during each month of 96 staple articles whose fluctuations in 
price have been found to follow fairly closely commercial 

(Average price for 1890-1899=100.0%.) 

All Lumber and build- Metals and 
Period. commodities, ing materials. implements. 

Average, 1907* 129.5 146.9 143-4 

Average, 1909 126.5 138.4 124.8 

January, 1909 124.0 137-4 126. 1 

February, 1909 124.0 137-8 124.4 

March, 1909 124.5 136. 1 122.6 

April, 1909 124.6 1358 121. 8 

May, 1909 125.4 135-7 I2I-3 

June, 1909 125.5 135-5 121. 6 

July, 1909 126.2 135-3 122.3 

August, 1909 126.4 136.8 '23.5 

September, 1909 128. 1 141-3 125.8 

October, 1909 129.0 140.6 128.1 

November, 1909 130.9 143-5 129.3 

December, 1909 132.2 145.0 130.6 

January, 1910 132.8 '49-3 132.8 

February. 1910 133-0 151. 5 133-° 

March. 1910 133-8 151.3 133-8 

* Highest average yearly prices for all three groups for period 1890-1907. 
Note: Statistics from Reports 81 and 87, Bureau of Labor. 

conditions. These articles represent the following main groups : 
Breadstuffs, live stock, provisions, fruits, hides and leather, 
textiles, metals, coal and coke, oils, naval stores, building 
materials, chemicals and drugs, and miscellaneous. Brad- 
street's index number follows: On Jan. r, 1908, it was 8.2949; 
on July 1, 1908, it was 7.8224; on Jan. 1, 1909, it was 8.2631 ; on 
July 1, 1909, it was 8.4573 ; on Jan. r, 1910, it was 9.2310. 

Undoubtedly, as explained, improvements have been made in 
railway equipment during the past 10 years, and these improve- 
ments have had a tendency to overcome in some departments 
the increased cost of materials used in that department. 
For instance, it is probably true that the increased cost of fuel 
has been largely overcome by improvements in the efficiency of 
power-station equipment for those companies which have been 
in a position to install generating equipment of high efficiency. 
Invention and a better knowledge of the requirements have 
improved railway conditions in other branches, but the fact 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

must not be forgotten that this same march of improvement has 
brought with it an equally rapid rate of depreciation due to the 
obsolescence of the apparatus in use, a fact which has to be 
taken into consideration in determining the value of the benefits 


In 1907 the wages paid employees constituted over three-fifths 
of the entire operating expenses of the electric railways of the 
country, so that any increase in this charge is a more serious 
matter in economical railway operation than probably in any 
other public utility. In this connection some figures on the 
hours and wages of employees in New York State during 1885, 
as shown by the report of the Board of Railroad Commission- 
ers of New York State, may be of interest : 

Albany Railway: Conductors, average number of hours on 
duty per day, 8 to 16 hours; wages per day, $0.78 to $1.82; per 
hour, 9.8 cents to 11.4 cents. Drivers, average number of hours 
on duty per day, 8 to 16; wages per day, $0.72 to $1.95; per 
hour, 9 cents to 12.2 cents. 

Albany, Watervliet Turnpike and Railroad : Conductors, aver- 
age number of hours on duty per day, 15; wages per day, $1.70; 
per hour, 11.3 cents. Drivers, average number of hours on duty 
per day, 15 ; wages per day, $1.45 ; per hour, 9.7 cents. 

Brooklyn City Railway : Conductors and drivers, average 
number of hours on duty per day, 1354 ', wages per day, $2 ; per 
hour, 15. 1 cents. 

Buffalo Street Railway: Conductors, average number of 
hours on duty per day, 12; wages per day, $1.80; per hour, 15 
cents. Drivers, average number of hours per day, 12; wages 
per day, $1.60; per hour, 13.4 cents. 

Coney Island and Brooklyn : Conductors and drivers, aver- 
age number of hours on duty per day, 14; wages per day, $2; 
per hour, 14.3 cents. 

Forty-second Street & Grand Street Ferry, New York : 
Conductors and drivers, average hours on duty per day, 13^ ; 
wages per day, $2; per hour, 14.8 cents. 

Rochester City and Brighton : Conductors and drivers, aver- 
age hours per day on duty, 13 ; wages per day, $1. 875/2 ; per hour, 
14.4 cents. 

Syracuse and Geddes : Conductors, average hours per day, 16; 
wages per day, $1.54; per hour, 9.6 cents. Drivers, average 
hours per day, 16; wages per day, $1.31 ; per hour, 8.2 cents. 

The difference between these rates and those paid in the same 
cities now to street railway employees will be recognized. 

The cost of labor, however, has increased steadily, not only 
in electric railway service, but in all industries in the United 
States, with the cost of food, and it is not surprising to find 
the striking correspondence between the two given in the ac- 
companying chart, which is from Bulletin No. 77 of the Bureau 
of Labor. This shows an increase in 1907 of 28.8 per cent in 
wages per hour over the average rate between 1890 and 1899, 
inclusive. During this period, however, there was a reduction 
of 5 per cent in the average working hours per week, so that 
the average full-time wages per week showed an increase in 
1907, as compared with the period 1890-1899, of 22.4 per cent. 
The corresponding increase in the cost of food was 20.6 per 
cent. This cost, also plotted on the chart, is based on retail 
prices and on weights of different articles proportioned accord- 
ing to their consumption in a workingman's family. 

The figures on wages and employees for all the street rail- 


Number of employees Average 

(including officials). Wages paid. per employee. 

1898 25.052 $13,080,651 $522 

1900 28,075 16,968,907 604 

1902 30,529 17,857,825 585 

1904 32,646 19,812,227 607 

1906 *43.28s *28,882,i53 *667 

*Including Manhattan Elevated Railway and Subway. 

Note: Statistics from New York State reports, years ended June 30. 

way companies in New York State for alternate years 
from 1898 to 1906, inclusive, are given in Table V. Table 
VI, which is from the United States census report, shows the 

number of different classes of employees in New York in 1907 
and 1902. Complete statistics on wages since 1907, either for 
the entire country or New York State, are not available, but 

1300 1801 180'i 1803 1804 180", 1896 1807 1808 1800 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 190/ 

— 4- 


Hours of Work 
Number of Employees 
Retail JPrices of Food 

Relative Figures 
>1890 to 1907, United States. 
[Average for 1890 to 1899=100.] 


-r — 


— A- 



£ — 









-Relative Wages per Hour 
-Relative Hours per Week 
..Relative Number of Employees 

. — Relative Retail Prices of Food 
Weighted accordiug to Average 
Consumption in 2507 Workingmen's 
Families. F'cctric Ry. Journal 


as with the price of materials, there has undoubtedly been a con- 
stant increase in the rate of wages paid in all industries. Cer- 
tainly there has been a marked increase in the wages which 
have been paid in the electric railway industry. 


Number of companies. 
Salaried employees — 

Officers of corporation 

Other officers, managers, 
superintendents, etc.... 
Clerks and bookkeepers.... 
Wage earners — 





*Car and motor repairers.. 


Dynamo and switchmen . . . 


Other mechanics 

Hostlers and stablemen.. 

Watchmen ' . . 

All other employees 

*Not separately reported in 
Note: Statistics from Ui 
June 30. 


in number 



of total. 











1 70 



• 5 




• 4 







96. 1 





. 6 



1 . 





28. 1 



20 . 2 
















1 . 2 




1 . 














1 . 








1 . 1 











lited States 



years ended 

The claim may be made by some persons that most if not all 
of the wage increases of the past year were voluntary acts of 
the different companies and that consequently they constituted 
a burden which might have been avoided. But this is an erron- 
eous conception of the situation. While the advances might 
not have been occasioned by strikes or even caused by fear of 
strikes, wages have increased so generally that those companies 
which were not paying the market price for competent labor 
had to increase their rates to retain their old men and attract 
new men and keep their cars in operation. The compulsion 
from an operating standpoint was as great as if the advance 
was forced by a strike while the result was better for the men, 
the company and the public. 


It is impossible to estimate the exact effect of this factor in 
increasing expenses, but there is no doubt that the more ex- 
pensive standards required by public service commissions, by 

July 2, 1910.] 



legislatures and by public opinion, in the way of increased 
safety and comfort of transportation and in the maintenance 
of unremunerative service on poorly patronized lines have in- 
creased materially the expenses of operation. For instance, 
between 1902 and 1907 there was an increase in num- 
ber of cars in the United States of 25.2 per cent, whereas the 
number of cars equipped with fenders increased 36.2 per cent 
and the number equipped with air brakes increased 300.8 per 
cent. During the same time the number of cars other than 
open cars in the United States increased 43.7 per cent, the 
number of these cars which were heated increased 45.6 per 
cent and the number heated by electricity increased 65 per cent. 

Under this heading also can be included the additional cleri- 
cal and experienced accounting labor needed to compile the more 
elaborate financial and other statistics required now by the pub- 
lic and stockholders. Thus in the United States there was an in- 
crease between 1902 and 1907 of 4572 salaried employees, or 64.1 
per cent. Of this number there was an increase of 38 officers, 
or 2.6 per cent; 767 managers, superintendents, etc., or 57.8 per 
cent, and 3767 clerks and bookkeepers, or 108.3 per cent. Table 
VI gives the classification of the employees in New York 
State, with the percentage of the total in each of the years 


• Other charges against operating expenses which have in- 
creased rapidly during the past few years are : 

(a) Requirements by commissions as to representation of 
companies at hearings, requiring attendance of principal offi- 
cials, engagement of legal counsel, and often the engagement 
of outside engineering and accounting experts. 

(b) Requirements of public service commissions, the State 
or public opinion in regard to hours and terms of labor, em- 
ployers' liability, safety and sanitary precautions for employees 
and the public. 

(c) Increase in charges for damages. This charge for all the 
electric railways in the country increased for 1902 to 1907 from 
6.6 per cent to 7.2 per cent of the operating expenses in spite of 
the fact that in 1902 94.2 per cent of the gross income of the op- 
erating companies reported came from railway service and 5.8 
per cent came from other activities while in 1907 only 90.9 per 
cent of the gross came from railway operation. 

(d) Frequent legal obligation on the part of railway com- 
panies to defray the expenses of municipal or State regulation. 


The direct taxes and license fees paid by operating electric 
railway companies in the United States decreased slightly in 
the period 1902-1907 when calculated as a percentage of the 
gross income, or from 5.2 per cent to 4.6 per cent, but if in- 
direct taxation is included, such as paving, lighting, sprinkling, 
snow removal and similar requirements, it is probable 
that there has been an increase. Table VII shows the 


Per mile Per cent, of earnings 

Total. of track. from operation. 

1894 $959,542 $706 4.01 

1896 1,164,820 671 4-04 

1898 1,439.250 717 4.51 

1900 2,311,303 1,009 5-66 

1902 *2,456,88i *925 *5-24 

1904 *2, 656, 233 *868 *5-24 

1906 *2, 895, 408 *897 *4-89 

1908 *3, 784, 299 *965 *5-79 

^Including elevated in Brooklyn. 

Note: Statistics from New York State reports, years ended June 30. 

taxes paid by street railway companies in New York State 
in alternate years from 1894 to 1908, inclusive, per mile of 
track and percentage of earnings for operation, as given in 
the report of the Railroad and Public Service Commissions. 
The figures given do not include franchise taxes assessed but 
not paid. If added they would considerably increase the 
amounts of taxes during the past 10 years. 


The deductions from income on account of interest and rentals 

of the electric railways in the United States increased between 
1902 and 1907 from 25.8 per cent to 27.5 per cent of the gross in- 
come. It is well known that the rate of interest demanded by 
investors in all forms of investment securities is considerably 
larger than 5 or 10 years ago, and this has undoubtedly had an 
influence in reducing the net income of those electric railway 
companies which have had to borrow money during this period 
to make improvements or to meet maturing issues of bonds. 
It would be interesting in this connection to learn the propor- 
tional increase in funded and unfunded debt of the electric rail- 
way companies in the United States, but this condition is com- 
plicated by advances made by holding companies to leased 
companies. On the face of the returns while the interest paid 
on the funded debt of operating electric railway companies in 
the United States decreased between 1902 and 1907 from 14.1 
per cent to 12.5 per cent of the gross income, the aggregate of 
the interest on other debt, rent of leased lines and terminals, 
and miscellaneous deductions increased from 11.7 per cent to 15. 
per cent of the gross income, so that, as quoted above, the de- 
ductions from income on account of interest and rentals in- 
creased from 25.8 per cent to 27.5 per cent. 


The condition is admittedly a serious one, not only to the 
electric railway companies, but to the country which is de- 
pendent upon extensions of the transportation facilities to 
keep pace with the development in the industries, populations 
and transportation requirements of the community. But the 
ability to construct extensions involves the ability to sell 
securities and in the present state of the investment market 
it is extremely difficult to finance any new electric railway 
undertaking. As an example, the returns from New York 
State, as contained in the 1909 and 1910 editions of American 
Street Railzmy Investments, show during the year only 138. 1 
miles of new electric track were built, or less than 3 per cent 
of the total mileage of the State. Of these, 80 miles rep- 
resented the interurban railway construction of one set of 
owners whose work was commenced several years ago, 15 1 /? 
miles represented an interurban line built across Long Island 
and 6 miles were horse track, leaving less than 37 additional 
miles for the 160 or more other operating companies of the 
State. It is doubtful whether any one would have the temerity 
to claim that the needs for additional means of transportation 
in the territory served are limited to the pitiful amount of new 
mileage shown above. 


A study of the situation of the average city electric railway 
company indicates, therefore, that, although it is enjoying an 
increase in gross receipts, this gain is being accompanied by 
such a large increase in expenses that the net receipts are be- 
coming less. Unfortunately there are no radical improvements 
of either apparatus or practice in sight to promise material bet- 
terment of present conditions. The limit of size of cars which 
can be commercially operated has been reached, if indeed it has 
not been exceeded in many instances. The outlook for reducing 
expenses by increased car speeds is equally discouraging because 
as the business of our cities grows, street congestion will become 
worse rather than better. The prices for labor and materials, 
as a whole, are higher than at any other period in the history 
of electric traction. Such a condition means a general cessation 
of extensions and improvements — possibly of operation in some 
cases — unless some plan can be evolved by which the receipts 
per passenger can be increased. To secure this advance, special 
authority would probably be necessary, but if the advance is 
justified in public opinion the authority should not be difficult to 
secure. The form and extent of the increase would, of course, 
have to be determined, and might vary in individual cases. But 
the main facts of the higher costs of material and labor are 
matters of general knowledge and the movement to increase the 
rates on the steam railroads forms a precedent to similar action 
on the part of the electric roads. The final solution of the 
problem merits the most serious study on the part of legisla- 
tures, public service commissions and railway officials. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 


By V. S. Yarnell, Expert, Carnegie Steel Company. 

The methods of manufacture, as will be explained in the pa- 
per, are those employed by the Carnegie Steel Company in the 
manufacture of Schoen solid forged and rolled steel wheels. 

The solid steel wheel represents the result of evolution. The 
first wheels made were of wood sawed from the trunk of trees 
or fashioned from timber. These were later bound with iron 
to insure longer life and better service. The wooden wheel of 
a century or more ago was superseded in turn by the cast iron 
wheel as that material came into use as the result of improved 
methods in founding and casting, and continued to be the 
standard wheel for all classes of service so long as that service 
did not exceed the limit of its strength. 

Wheels were then made from paper, compressed into solid 
form, with iron or steel rims. They in turn were superseded 
by wheels of cast iron or cast steel centers with rolled steel 
tires, the process of rolling not having been sufficiently far ad- 
vanced to insure the immediate and satisfactory substitution 
of a solid steel wheel for cast iron, although more than 20 
years ago a company was organized to forge and roll steel 
wheels from solid ingots. The solid steel wheel, whether forged 
or rolled, stands at the head of this chain of development. It 
may not be the ideal wheel of the future, but it is to-day the 
best wheel for all classes of service because it combines within 
itself those elements of strength, safety and homogeneity which 
characterize rolled steel over any other material of construction. 


The first practical solid forged and rolled steel wheel manu- 
factured in the United States was made in 1903, by Charles T. 
Schoen, the pioneer builder of steel cars, after a long series of 
experiments covering a period of five years. The Schoen Steel 
Wheel Company was organized in May, 1903, and was pur- 
chased by the Carnegie Steel Company in July, 1908. The 
Schoen plant is located at McKees Rocks. Pa., and is now a 
part of the Homestead Steel Works organization, which is one 
of the plants of the Carnegie Steel Company. 

selection of material 

The chemistry of the steel used in the manufacture of Schoen 
steel wheels has been arrived at after careful consideration. The 
prescribed limits of the carbon, maganese, silicon, phosphorus 
and sulphur, as shown in the 1910 wheel catalogue, issued by 
the Carnegie Steel Company, we believe to be ideal for wheels 
manufactured by this process, to insure the proper degree of 
hardness and toughness, which means wearing quality com- 
bined with safety. 

rolling the slab 

Ingots of the proper chemistry being selected, they are heat- 
ed and rolled in the slab form, about 26 in. wide by 4?4 in- 
thick. The process of rolling the ingots into slabs is the first 
refining process in the manufacture of the wheel— the reduc- 
tion being about 6 to 1. 

selecting the slab 

This is one of the most important features in the manufac- 
ture of wheels. It is a well known fact that in all steel ingots 
there exists a certain amount of segregation and small gas 
pockets, usually in the center, extending from the top down- 
ward. To insure the elimination of the segregated portion, a 
liberal discard is invariably made. No slab is ever used in 
the manufacture of wheels that in any way shows surface or 
internal defects. The slabs that pass this rigid inspection are 
then stamped with the heat number from which they were 
rolled, also numbered serially, and marked with a letter indi- 
cating the position in the ingot from which the slab was cut. 
process of forging and rolling the wheel 

The first operation in the wheel plant is heating the slab for 
forging, extreme care being exercised to bring the slab to the 

proper temperature by gradually heating, to insure that the 
structure of the metal when finished will be in the best possible 
condition. The slab after heating is forged in a 7000-ton hy- 
draulic press. 

This forging machine carries in addition to the top forging 
die, a heavy circular knife or shear, and after the first forging 
operation, the blank is sheared by the same machine to circular 
form. Fig. 1 is a sectional view of the wheel blank after the 
first forging operation. In this view can be seen the result of 
distributing the metal which is pressed into the hub from the 
portion that will eventually be the web, and this gives the 
blank its first form of a wheel. 


After the blank has been reheated it is subjected to the sec- 
ond forging operation in a 5000-ton capacity hydraulic press. A 
ring is slipped over the hot blank and through this ring the rim 
alone is given an extra forging. The result of these two suc- 
cessive forgings is that the metal has been pressed from the 
center of the slab and condensed in the rim where density and 
homogeneity of material make possible uniformity of service 
wear. Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the blank after the second 
forging. From the second forging press the blank passes 
through the punch, where the metal left in the hub by the acorn- 
shaped dies of the forge is removed by a specially constructed 
punch. This punch exerts a pressure of 750 tons. Fig. 3 is a 
sectional view of the blank after coming from the punching 
machine. The blank comes from the punching machine at about 

* Paper presented at annual meeting of Street Railway Association of 
State of New York, Cooperstown, June 28-29. 

Fig. 6 

a cherry red, and again passes to another heating furnace, 
where it is heated uniformly, after which it is rolled in a 
specially constructed rolling mill, where the rim of the wheel 
receives a thorough working or rolling. 

In the rolling operation a mandrel is placed through the hub 
and the wheel is supported in this manner during the rolling 
operation. There are five rolls, all bearing on the wheel at the 
same time. The two web rolls, which are power driven, have 
a bearing surface from directly under the rim extending to 
within 6 in. of the hub. The back roll formed to fit the trend 
and flange is on the same horizontal plane as the web rolls and 
directly in line with the center of the wheel. The two side 
rolls bearing on the edge of the rim work by friction. All 
the rolls are adjustable and during the rolling operation the 
back roll is forced towards the web rolls, compressing the metal 
in the rim to the required density, and can be varied according 
to the amount of rolling and the temperature at which the metal 
is finished. The web of the wheel, as it comes from the rolls, 
is flat and at right angles to the tread. 

Fig. 4 is a sectional view of the wheel as it comes from the 
rolling mill, and shows the amount of work that has been 
done on the portion of the web nearest the rim of the wheel. 
It also shows the decreased area of the rim, indicating the 
amount of pressure brought to bear at this point in the rolling 
operation. The rolling of the rims is done principally to make 
the metal of the proper density to resist wear in service. The 
wheel is taken from the rolling mill at about a cherry red and 

July 2, 1910.] 



is given the proper amount of coning or dishing. Under the 
same press the wheel is made truly round by compressing its 
circumference in a die composed of segments of a circle. Fig. 
5 is a sectional view of the wheel after coming from the coning 
and truing press. Fig. 6 is a sectional view of the wheel ma- 
chined to a finish. 


The wheel after passing through the various operations, as 
described, is now ready for inspection. All wheels are carefully 
inspected, either by a representative of the purchaser, or by the 
inspectors of the manufacturer. All wheels are rejected that 
in any way show they have developed defects in the course of 
manufacture, also those that are not within the tolerances set 
forth in the specification. 


The care exercised in selecting steel of a suitable grade, dis- 
carding a liberal amount from the top of each ingot used, the 
thorough, uniform working of the steel in the rolling mill, in 
the forging presses, and finally in rolling the wheels at proper 
temperature, results in the finished wheel being homogeneous 
and as free from inherent defects as it is possible to manu- 

The proper chemical composition of the steel used, combined 
with the mechanical operation in the process of manufacture, in- 
sures durability. 

Strength and hardness, combined with toughness, guard 
against failure from breakage in service, which means that the 
solid steel wheels, as being made to-day, under the supervision 
of experts, are safe, strong, durable and homogeneous and 
meet the hard service conditions of high speed and heavy 
wheel loads, as shown by the service records of the railways. 


There are nearly 400,000 Schoen steel wheels in service, of 
which approximately 100,000 have been applied on electric rail- 
way cars, in addition to a large number of solid steel wheels 
of other makes. We are all striving after the same result — a 
perfect wheel. 

To have wheels prove efficient in service, it is necessary that 
they be made well and treated well. The responsibility for the 
performance of wheels in service rests as much with the user as 
with the manufacturer. 


In the maintenance of wheels, both for efficiency and econ- 
omy, there are several points which might be considered which 
would increase the mileage of the life of the wheel. In select- 
ing a pair of wheels to be mounted on an axle, the first thing 
to be taken into consideration is the diameter, in order that 
there may be as little variation in the wheels as possible. 

In boring the wheel, it should be bored absolutely true and it 
should be known that the axle is perfectly straight. The wheels 
after being pressed on should be gaged properly at several dif- 
ferent points on their circumference so as to be absolutely sure 
that the flanges run true to the rail at all points. A gage 
should also be furnished the wheel inspectors, whereby they 
could determine the exact wear of the tread and flange before 
the wheels are removed for re-turning. 

It is very common practice for the interurban companies to 
allow the flanges to run until they are dangerously sharp. This 
is false economy, as in this way so much metal has to be re- 
moved in turning so as to again bring the tread and flange to 
its proper shape that the loss of metal is much greater than 
would be necessary were the wheels turned at the proper time. 

Trucks should also be considered an important feature in 
the saving of wheel flanges. While from ordinary inspection it 
might appear that the truck was in fair condition, the placing 
of a tram diagonally across the truck from center to center of 
journal box will show a great many of these to be untrue, or 
in other words, the truck will be out of square. This also has 
a great deal to do with sharp flanges or the crowding of wheels. 
All of the above defects, to say nothing of bad track conditions, 
are important factors in the life or mileage of wheels. 


A word as to standard designs for solid steel wheels. It is 
the desire of the Carnegie Steel Company to lend every as 
sistance to its railway friends in their efforts to arrive at a 
limited number of standard designs for electric railway wheels. 
To this end the Carnegie Steel Company has recently issued a 
wheel and axle catalog", in which are shown wheels suitable 
for all classes of service. These are, with few exceptions, in 
accordance with the recommended practice of the Committee 
on Equipment of the American Street & Interurban Railway 

In this connection the speaker wishes to quote from the 1909 
report of the Committee on Equipment, as follows : 


"The demand for standardization of rolled steel wheels has 
been manifest for some time and now that their use is becom- 
ing so general, the necessity of some sort of standards becomes 
more and more urgent. 

"Manufacturers of rolled steel wheels state that a large 
number of designs come in, which require large expenditure for 
dies and rolls. If the number of designs and sizes could be re- 
duced, it would enable the manufacturers to avoid equipping 
with a multiplicity of dies, and what perhaps is even a more 
important feature, the use of a limited number of standards 
would obviate the necessity of frequent change of dies in run- 
ning out small orders. It can readily be seen that a continuous 
day's run on one size and style of wheel means the maximum 
output and minimum cost of production, but if, after running 
out a few wheels, it is necessary to change dies, run out a few 
more and repeat this operation a few times, the day's output 
will be greatly curtailed and the cost of production rise to an 
unduly high figure. 

"It is the belief of the wheel manufacturers, and of your 
committee, that certain representative dimensions of wheels 
can be adopted which will meet practically all railway require- 

"The great advantage of standards to the railway company 
arises from the fact that fewer designs mean lower production 
cost to the manufacturer and correspondingly lower prices to 
the consumer." 


Another quotation from the report of the committee on 
equipment of the American Street & Interurban Railway En- 
gineering Association, which report was compiled from data 
received from 35 different street and interurban railway com- 
panies, is as follows : "That many of the larger companies are 
coming to the use of rolled steel wheels, deeming it safer and 
more economical." 

The mileage obtained from rolled steel wheels is shown in 
committee's report by questions and answers, as follows : 

Q. "How many turnings are given them ?" 

A. "The average is 3, with the exception of one large com- 
pany, which gives 10." 

Q. 'What is the approximate mileage between each turning?" 

A. "The large company above mentioned gets 10,500 miles 
between each turning. The rest of the companies give the 
wheels between three and four turnings and obtain an average 
of between 30,000 to 35,000 miles between each turning." The 
rim of the wheels ranges from 2 in. to 3% in. in thickness when 
new and were worn down to between y 2 in. and 1% in. in 
thickness when scrapped. This record shows the life of the 
wheels to be 150,000 to 175,000 miles. 

Although many of the roads using solid steel wheels are 
obtaining much greater mileage, one company has had several 
hundred Schoen rolled steel wheels in service for more than 
three years with a record of over 100,000 miles, without 

The large number of rolled steel wheels that are being used, 
and the growing demand for wheels of this type indicate that 
the railways are adopting them principally for reasons of safety 
and economy. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 



The involute or single curve tooth is used for railway motor 
gears and pinions in preference to the epicycloidal or two curve 
tooth for two reasons : Firstly, on account of the greater thick- 
ness of the dedendum, and, secondly, because the epicycloidal 
tooth cannot be operated unless the distance between the cen- 
ters of the gear and pinion remain constant, which is impossible 
under present operating conditions. While the epicycloidal 
tooth affords as nearly a perfect roll and frictionless operation 
as can be obtained, this unfortunately is not true with respect 
to the involute tooth. In order to obtain a perfect roll it is 
obvious that the meshing teeth of the gear and pinion must 
have the same contour of face. This condition cannot obtain 
for the involute tooth unless both gear and pinion are made 
with 30 teeth or more, and practically all railway motor pinions 
are designed to have less. Pinions with less than 30 teeth have 
the dedendum undercut, which undercutting becomes greater 
as the number of teeth diminish. This is done to give a proper 
clearance for the gear teeth. It is, of course, quite clear that 
the smaller the diameter of a gear the greater is the space be- 
tween the tops of the teeth. 

A radial line passing through the pitch circle on the face of a 
tooth and another line at a tangent to the same point forms in 
the case of a standard involute tooth an angle of 14^ deg. It 
is obvious that the greater the angle the thicker does the tooth 
become at the base and any increase in this direction is a dis- 
tinct gain in tooth strength. It is now fairly standard practice 
to make gear and pinion teeth with an angle of 20 deg. for all 
motors of over 150 hp capacity. They are generally known as 
stub teeth. No matter what angle of tooth, it is, of course, 
essential that the dimension at the pitch line shall remain con- 
stant. It is also the practice to have the dedendum or dis- 
tance from the pitch line to the tooth base remain the same as 
the standard, while the addendum or part above the pitch line 
is reduced. It is claimed that on account of the increased 
angle of pressure the bearing linings will be the more readily 
affected, but from observations in actual practice this trouble 
does not seem to exist. Mention has already been made of 
change in tooth profile for pinions which have less than 30 
teeth. Theoretically this change takes place as each tooth is 
eliminated, but the difference for each change is only a few 
thousandths of an inch. There is also a growing demand for 
considerable accuracy with respect to tooth dimensions. Such 
requirements are commendable and are being given careful and 
proper attention, and doubtless they would increase the efficiency 
of the gearing if all other vital requirements could be main- 
tained, but when one considers the unsatisfactory conditions 
under which railway motor gearing is operated it is obvious 
that the change of a few thousandths of an inch in some part 
of the tooth dimensions is insignificant. Take as an instance 
the fact that the present design of trucks precludes the use of 
a bearing on both sides of the gear and pinion so that when 
power is transmitted from the pinion to the gear both the 
armature and axle shafts tend to spring away from one an- 
other. The armature shaft bearing adjacent to the pinion be- 
comes worn on the side which is farthest from the axle shaft, 
while the bearing at the other end wears on the side near the 
axle shaft. This allows the pinion teeth to set at an angle to 
the gear teeth, which means that the ends of the teeth nearer 
the motor do the greater proportion of the work while the pitch 
lines at the other end of the gear and pinion teeth are so far 
apart that they do not transmit their share of the pressure. 
Furthermore, it must not be forgotten that the axle bearings on 
which the motor is mounted have also worn on the side away 
from the motor tending to carry the pitch lines of the gear 
and pinion teeth still further apart. Again an examination of 
teeth broken in service almost invariably shows the fracture to 
have started at the motor end and that only about one-third of 

* Abstract of a paper read at the annual meeting of the Street Railway 
Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown. N. Y., June 28, 1910. 

the tooth is broken off. If the axle linings were more fre- 
quently replaced or an outboard bearing could be provided foi 
both the armature and axle shafts, it would then be advisable 
to pay more detailed attention to the profile of the tooth face, 
but under existing conditions the tooth is unquestionably the 
most accurate part of the whole mechanism. A means for a 
partial elimination of bearing wear is the mounting of a pinion 
on each end of the armature shaft with two gears on the axle 
shaft. This throws equal stress on both trains and always keeps 
the pitch circles of the meshing gears and pinions parallel to 
one another. The writer recently had the opportunity to in- 
spect an electric locomotive operating under such conditions and 
found that the wear across the whole of the face of the teeth 
was identical and for this reason alone they should give a much 
greater life than if only one gear and pinion were used of twice 
the tooth thickness or length of face. 

A second fruitful cause of rapid wear of teeth is the amount 
of sand that drifts into the gear case. It is generally conceded 
that gears and pinions operated on elevated structures show 
a longer life than those run over paved streets, and a still far 
greater life than those run over unpaved streets especially in 
a sandy country. An analysis of grease taken from mo- 
tor gear cases used on elevated structures shows about 1 
per cent of gritty matter, while on paved streets the 
percentage of grit increases to 5 or 6 per cent and in sandy 
country it will run as high as 18 or 20 per cent. Rapid 
wear of gears and pinions can almost always be attributed 
to wear of bearing linings or an excessive amount of grit 
in the gear case. The question of a suitable gear lubri- 
cant has received careful attention from a number of promi- 
nent manufacturers. Unquestionably a lubricant of a heavy 
clinging character gives the best results, but it is quite possible 
to err too far in this direction and use one that is so heavy, 
that considerable energy has to be expended even to make the 
gearing turn round. To insure a maximum of clinging qual- 
ity of lubricant at a minimum expenditure of power some 
companies manufacture two grades, a heavy one for summer 
use and a lighter one for winter. 

Cedar chips and cork dust can also be added with quite bene- 
ficial results. What seems to be most needed is some agent 
which will form a cushion between the meshing teeth and pre- 
vent them from cutting one another, and for this reason oils 
and thin grease are not recommended. 

The question often comes up as to the limit of wear of gear 
and pinion teeth. So far as efficiency is concerned, tests have 
indicated that there seems to be little difference between new 
and considerably worn teeth running together, so that the ques- 
tion seems to hang on two pegs. First and perhaps most im- 
portant, the susceptibility of the nerves of the population living 
on the route over which the gears are operated and in the sec- 
ond place, upon the strength of the metal in the teeth. 

It is the standard practice to manufacture gears from cast 
steel. Such steel contains about 30 points of carbon and has 
about the following physical characteristics r 

Tensile strength 60,000 lb. 

Elastic limit 25,000 lb. 

Elongation in 2 in 18 per cent 

Reduction in area 20 per cent 

This metal is of ample strength for gears to be used with mo- 
tors up to a capacity of 75 hp, but for motors with a higher 
capacity greater strength is required. This can be attained by 
increasing the carbon content so as to obtain the following 

physical characteristics: 

Tensile strength 70,000 lb. 

Elastic limit 30,000 lb. 

Elongation in 2 in 20 per cent 

Reduction in area 30 per cent 

It will be noted that the reduction in area has been increased 
notwithstanding the increased content of carbon. This has been 
effected by annealing the metal after it has been cast, because 

July 2, 1910.] 



the extra carbon would make it too brittle if annealing were 
not resorted to. 

Cast steel gears are made either split or solid and the split 
type are furnished with either four or eight bolts. In the case 
of the eight bolt gears, four are placed on each side of the 
hub, two alongside one another near the hub, the other two as 
near the rim as possible. A bad feature about the eight bolt 
gear is that the bolts cannot be made of sufficient diameter to 
prevent the metal being stretched beyond its elastic limit, when 
the gear is bolted on the shaft. This complaint cannot be 
raised with reference to four bolt gears because the diameter 
of the bolt can be sufficiently increased to prevent trouble. 
The bolts in four bolt gears can be located one on each 
side of the hub, and the other two out by the rim. In this case 
the hub bolts are about 8 in. long, while the rim bolts 
are less than half that length. Naturally there is more stretch 
to the longer bolt and a consequent difficulty to equalize the 
strains between them. Another method is to place the bolts 
side by side midway between the hub and rim. In this case 
all four bolts are of the same length. 

It may be argued that on account of such a location the gear 
when under stress would tend to open either at the hub or at 
the rim. This trouble can be anticipated in the design and it 
does not occur in actual practice. In fact both are amply strong 
for the requirements. 

Solid gears on account of their general design can be made 
both stronger and lighter than split gears and one excellent 
feature is the fact that if sufficient allowance is made for a 
pressing fit there is no necessity for weakening the wheel axle 
by key seating for the gear key. An allowance of 0.001 
in. for every inch of axle diameter should require from 
40 to 60 tons to force the gear in place, and such a fit is 
ample to prevent the gear from slipping. In order to ob- 
tain maximum strength of steel in a casting it is essential 
that all sections shall be as nearly the same thickness as pos- 
sible. Therefore, when the outside finished hub diameter (or 
that portion around which the gear case fits) is large in com- 
parison with the hub bore, it is advisable to core or groove 
the exterior of the hub. This will tend to leave all sections 
about the same thickness, reduce the weight, and allow all por- 
tions of the metal to cool equally. If the hub were left full 
size then it would cool more slowly than the spokes, excessive 
shrinkage strains would be set up at the junction and any ex- 
cessive stress in operation would be liable to Cause a fracture 
at that point. Similar care should be taken in the design of 
the juncture of the spokes and rim because when a gear rim 
breaks the fracture almost invariably occurs at this point. 

During the early days of electric railroading when the capac- 
ity of motors did not exceed 40 or 50 hp. cast steel gears and 
soft machine steel pinions were ample for the work required 
of them, but with the advent of heavy interurban and suburban 
cars requiring greater capacity motors and running at much 
higher speeds, such metal was unable to cope with the demands, 
until at the present time every artifice known to the steel man- 
ufacturer is being used to produce a metal of sufficient hard- 
ness, strength and toughness to successfully take care of the 

The first step in the direction of strengthening pinion steel 
was to increase the contents of carbon and manganese, the 
former to raise the elastic limit and the latter to increase the 
toughness and liability to wear. Also the pinion billets were 
forged in both directions to obtain equal physical characteristics 
in both longitudinal and transverse axes. This increased the 
elastic limit from 25,000 lb. per sq. inch, as is obtained in or- 
dinary machine steel, up to about 40,000 lb. per sq. inch, but even 
this increase was insufficient to cope with the demands of some 
roads. It then became a choice of heat treating carbon steei 
or going over to alloy steels such as chrome nickel or chrome 

The highest requirement in tooth stresses is about 75,000 
lb. per sq. inch. The elastic limit of heat treated carbon steel 
or chrome vanadium steel will exceed the value, but as the first 
cost of the carbon steel, also the cost of making it into a pinion, 

is much less, it has been generally adopted. Properly selected 
and carefully heat treated carbon steel has about the following 
physical characteristics : 

Tensile strength 115 to 120,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Elastic limit 80 to 85,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Elongation 30 to 35 per cent 

Reduction in Area 13 to 15 per cent 

While before heat treatment the same metal would give only 
the following characteristics: 

Tensile strength 85,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Elastic limit 43,000 lb. per sq. in. 

Elongation 18 per cent 

Reduction in Area 40 per cent 

To cope with similar high tooth stresses in gears, a steel rim 
of quite similar physical characteristics is shrunk on a cast 
steel center ; a maximum allowance is made on the rim for a 
shrinkage fit of 0.001 in. for every inch of diameter of the cast 
steel center. The rim can be readily expanded in boiling 
water and this fit is sufficient to hold the rim in place without 
the aid of a key. 

The method of heat treating steel is to raise it to a pre- 
determined temperature depending on the carbon content. Care 
must be exercised to see that every portion of the metal is the 
same temperature, otherwise shrinkage strains will be set up 
when it is quenched. Experience shows that oil is the best 
quenching medium for gears and pinions since it cools the 
metal more slowly than water and allows the interior to re- 
ceive the treatment before the outer skin has become hard 
and set. Water on the other hand cools the skin so quickly that 
it becomes rigid while the interior is still in a soft and ductile 
state ; when the time comes for the interior portion to cool and 
harden it naturally contracts and pulls away from the already 
hardened skin. This sets up shrinkage strains and lowers the 
physical characteristics of the metal. The high physical prop- 
erties of heat treated steel will recur to the original value if 
the temperature of the metal is raised to about 600 deg. F. or over 
and allowed to gradually cool. Therefore, it is most essential 
that no heat treated gears or pinions should be subjected to a 
greater heat when they are mounted on rims or shafts respec- 
tively. To obviate over heating when shrinking on gear rims 
and pinions, it is advisable to boil them in water or oil as such 
temperatures will expand sufficiently to meet all requirements. 

Case hardening has also been successfully exploited. Steel 
of a very low carbon content is necessary for this proc- 
ess. After the pinion or gear has been cut it is placed in 
a metal box, bone dust is packed around the teeth and the 
bore is plugged or covered over in such a way as to prevent the 
process from affecting it. The metal box with the pinion and 
bone dust inside is placed in a furnace and kept at a bright heat 
for several hours, the time depending on the depth the hard- 
ness is required to penetrate the metal. During the heat the 
bone dust turns into almost pure carbon and by the action of 
heat this carbon becomes impregnated in the pinion teeth, so 
that about 1 per cent of carbon is found in the steel on the face 
of the pinion, and this gradually tapers off until the original 
20 points are found at a depth of about 0.1 in. from the sur- 
face. It is only natural that the physical properties of this steel 
cannot be as high as are those of oil-quenched steel, but it is 
much harder and shows a long life for gears and pinions which 
are not subjected to excessive strains. 

The destructive action of gritty matter which becomes mixed 
with the gear lubricant is very conspicuous when hardened 
pinions are operated with relatively softer cast steel gears, and 
strange though it may seem the hard pinion gets most of the 
wear. Hard gritty substances seem to embed themselves in the 
faces of the gear teeth and lap the harder pinion teeth. This 
action becomes so pronounced on some roads operating over 
sandy country that a longer life can be obtained by the use of 
a soft machine steel pinion. 

The question of the rate of wear per thousand miles run is 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

one which does not seem to have been very fully investigated. 
The writer has several gears and pinions under observation to 
obtain such data, but this is a test which requires two or three 
years to complete. To show the relative wear of hardened gears 
and pinions operated in various combinations, the following ap- 
proximated life has been obtained from gears and pinions 
on ioo-hp motors under two cars running over the same route 
and identical as to weight, motor capacity and running sched- 
ule. The life has been estimated by subtracting the amount of 
wear on the pitch circle of the teeth after running 50,000 miles 
from the original thickness and then estimating how many more 
car miles the teeth could run before 0.1 in. had been worn 
from each face of the teeth, on the basis that the wear would 
be constant throughout their life. All teeth on these gears are 
cut to 2 l /y pitch. 

Untreated high carbon pinion running with cast steel gear : 
Pinion life 70,000 miles ; gear life 220,000 miles. 

Heat-treated high carbon pinion running with cast steel 
gear : Pinion life 100,000 miles ; gear life, 240,000 miles. 

Heat treated high carbon pinion running with heat treated 
high carbon gear: Pinion life, 250,000 miles; gear life 750,000 

Case-hardened pinion running with case-hardened gear : 
Pinion life 200,000 miles ; gear life 650,000 miles. 

With a view to discovering the relative merits of alloy steels 
both heat treated and untreated, also heat treated carbon steel 
a number of pinions were tried out on a road whose service con- 
ditions are about as severe as are known. After the pinions 
had been in service for over two years they unfortunately had 
to be removed on account of a change in the gearing, but as 
every one of them was given an opportunity to run over 100,000 
miles the results obtained are quite interesting. All the pinions 
were made with 2 1 /? pitch teeth, 14^2 deg. angle. Chrome nickel 
steel was furnished by two companies, and for a matter of com- 
parison they are given as No. 1 and No. 2. 


One pinion broken after 33,300 miles. 

One pinion worn out after 84,800 miles. 

One pinion broken from outside causes after 85,600 miles. 

One pinion, record lost. 


Two pinions broken, one after 26,000 miles and the other after 
82,000 miles. 

Two .pinions, record lost. 


None broken. 

Two pinions worn out after an average of 98,500 miles. 
Two pinions broken from outside causes after an average of 
49,000 miles. 


One broken after 48,500 miles. . 
One worn out after 33,000 miles. 

One removed due to change in gearing after 117,000 miles. 
One pinion, record lost. 


None broken. 

Two pinions broken from outside causes after an average of 
82,000 miles. 

One pinion removed due to change in gearing after 119,000 

One pinion, record lost. 


None broken, none worn out. 

Three broken from outside causes after an average of 73,800 

Five removed due to change in gearing after an average of 
approximately 115,000 miles. 
Two pinions, record lost. 

All tests and experiments clearly indicate the advisability of 

using high grade heat treated steel, or case hardened steel 
for gears and pinions used with railway motors which are of 
75 hp. capacity or under, while heat treated carbon steel alone 
is best suited for gears and pinions which are subjected to 
higher tooth stresses by motors of larger capacity ; for not only 
will the breakage of the teeth be reduced to a minimum, but the 
cost of the gearing per car mile run will be considerably low- 
ered notwithstanding the relatively high price paid for it. 



The question of standardizing track construction in paved 
streets is both a general and a local one. As a general ques- 
tion it consists of standardizing the constituent parts of 
a track — the . foundation, the substructure and the superstruc- 
ture. As a local question it consists of standardizing the 
local conditions in each city ; that is, in having a standard 
type of construction to fit any conditions under which the city 
desires to carry on a street improvement. I think it can safely 
be said that the measure of efficiency of any organization is the 
extent to which it is standardized. A poor standard is better 
than none at all, as it results in economy in expenditures. 

A large majority of roads of the size of those in this State 
find themselves afflicted with the maintenance of from 25 to 75 
different types, of construction on their city lines. At certain 
times in their history they come face to face with a condition 
where it is necessary for them to make heavy track renewals. 
Then it becomes necessary to choose a type of construction 
which is the most efficient and at the same time the most eco- 
nomical to build and maintain. 

On account of the great changes in street railroading in the 
past 20 years it is very difficult to decide between the various 
types of construction which have been put down in that time. 
Each type shows some point of superiority over the other 
types. The natural result, therefore, is to build an experimental 
piece of track embodying as many of the good points of the 
old types as possible and from the results shown by this con- 
struction derive what conclusions we can for our standard type. 
Such a section of track was built in Rochester in 1909. A good 
system of drainage was put in, 7 l / 2 -'m. concrete ballast, steel ties, 
T-rail and stone block pavement. The rail was laid of three 
kinds — Bessemer, open-hearth and nickel steel — held with con- 
tinuous plates. The pavement was Medina block set on a mor- 
tar cushion instead of sand. The stones were 5 in. deep and 
the groove cut in them by hand. This structure is being used 
as the basis of an analysis of a track structure in Rochester. 

The constituent parts of the track structure are its founda- 
tion, substructure and superstructure. 


Let us first consider the foundation. The foundation of our 
track is ordinarily clay or sandy soil. It is the bottom of a 
trench from 15 in. to 21 in. below the surface of the street. It 
is, therefore, a natural sump for the collection of surface 
water. Obviously the first standard to perfect is the drainage 
system because an accumulation of confined water in this trench 
will destroy the best substructure and superstructure which 
can be built. One standard of construction for the drainage 
system which can be used with success consists in giving the 
bottom of the track trench a 6-in. crown at the center so as to 
form a natural path for the water to flow to the outside of 
each track. Outside of each outside rail and 12 in. below sub- 
grade place a 4-in. sewer pipe drain carefully lined and joints 
wrapped with burlap. In this way the water is drained away 
from the center between tracks instead of toward it. Various 
schemes have been used by engineers for compacting the foun- 
dation. In some cases it is rolled; in other cases crushed stone 
is tamped into the ground to produce an arching effect in the 

♦Abstract of a paper read at the annual meeting of the Street Railway- 
Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown, N. Y., June 28, 1910.. 

July 2, 1910.] 



soil. This is a condition which cannot be standardized, as it 
depends on the nature of the soil. 


The second part of the track structure is the substructure 
consisting of the ballast and ties. We have at our command 
three kinds of ballast which may be used; namely, sand, crushed 
stone or gravel and concrete, any of which will make a good 
substructure, the sand least of all on account of its tendency to 
wash under the action of water. 

After drainage the life of a track probably depends more on 
the substructure than any other item. The question of reason- 
able life of track is a dangerous one to touch upon. I doubt 
if any engineer would give a greater life than 20 years to track 
as constructed at present. We hear a great deal about so-called 
permanent types of construction. Perhaps certain parts of a 
track structure can have a degree of permanency, but as a 
whole I think our standard should be one which can be main- 
tained rather than a track which is permanent. There can be 
no greater reason why a track structure should be expected to 
be permanent than that other parts of the physical property 
should be permanent. 

With the idea that whatever permanency we get in a standard 
track structure other than the drainage is to be had in the sub- 
structure we are left to choose that material which has the 
greatest rigidity, namely, concrete. With concrete as our 
standard ballast construction we are at once confronted with 
the fact that it will not stand up unless allowed time to take its 
final set before traffic is allowed to pass over it. This time 
should not be less than 10 days. 

There are certain conditions of city operation which will not 
permit an uninterrupted time of 10 days for concrete sub- 
structure to set. This gives rise to the use of a material such 
as crushed stone for ballast, and, hence, a second standard of 
construction as far as the substructure is concerned. When 
conditions are such that we can absolutely close the street to 
all traffic for a period of 10 days after placing the ballast, I 
believe the rigid concrete ballast should be standard construc- 
tion. If conditions will not permit this, rock ballast tamped 
without interrupting traffic may become our standard. The 
depth of the ballast depends on the amount of traffic and the 
character of the foundation. A depth of 6 in. below the bot- 
tom of the tie for concrete and 8 in. for stone ballast substruc- 
ture is reasonable for standard substructure construction. 

We have open to us two kinds of ties for our standard con- 
struction ; namely, ' wood and steel, but the tendency of rail- 
roads is to eliminate the wood tie, due to the increasing cost 
and scarcity of timber. In line with a concrete substructure, 
the ties which form the other element of the substructure must 
be as long-lived as possible. The steel tie, therefore, goes hand 
in hand with concrete ballast. The weight of the tie depends 
on the engineer's judgment. Its requirements are bearing area, 
stiffness and accurate rolling. 

While, to my mind, the concrete foundation and steel tie con- 
struction gives the highest type of standard substructure con- 
struction, one weakness arises from the difficulty of renewal. 
The present form of steel tie cannot be taken out without heavy 
labor cost and the possibility of destroying the concrete sub- 
structure. New rail cannot be laid on the old ties and put in 
surface except by shimming. If our concrete substructure is 
going to outlive the rail, joints and pavement we must find a 
way to renew the steel tie without heavy labor cost and the pos- 
sibility of destroying the substructure. This will mean either 
the use in the first installation of a wood tie or of a steel tie 
of different shape than those now on the market. If, for in- 
stance, we used a wood tie in the concrete in the original con- 
struction these could be removed and a small steel tie inserted 
in the cavity when the rail renewal took place, thus giving twice 
the life to the substructure as to the superstructure. The same 
thing would be true of a differently shaped steel tie. I think 
this condition must be met before we can call our concrete steel 
tie type of construction really standard. 

For our second or stone ballast type of standard substructure 

construction only one tie, the wood tie, can be used, as a steel 
tie in stone ballast requires constant maintenance for a year 
after installation. In paved streets we are compelled to close 
up the pavement as soon as possible and consequently could not 
undertake frequently to re-tamp for a year the steel ties in 
stone ballast. 


The third part of the track structure is the superstructure 
consisting of the rail, joints and pavement. In a way this 
is the least important part, as its life depends to a large extent 
on the foundation and substructure. Stability in our substruc- 
ture produces stability in the rail and consequently a longer 
life to our pavement. 

The choice of a rail for standard superstructure construction 
is a discouraging undertaking. The trade catalogues contain 
prints of a. large number of sections, principally the side-bear- 
ing rail. Our requirements for rail are not hard to meet, as 
we have no great trouble in keeping our rail in surface. We 
do, however, have one controlling condition to meet in picking 
a standard rail, in that it is difficult to keep our rail in line. 
This is due to the fact that we operate single cars and do not 
have the steadying effect of a long train as on steam roads. 
The fact that our rails are difficult to keep in line at once fixes 
our standard rail as one whose physical properties tend to make 
it easy to keep its alignment. The first requirement in a rail to 
meet this condition is that it be center-bearing and under 
present designs this limits us to a T-rail. As far as I know, 
no center-bearing groove rail has yet been rolled. 

Assuming then that our first rail standard is to be a T-rail 
we must decide on what weight to use. Theoretically, I think 
it can be shown that an 80-lb. rail will meet any service, in- 
cluding interurban service, which is met in city work. How- 
ever, we must consider that the first cost of the rail represents 
only about 10 per cent of the net cost of a track. There is, 
therefore, no great object in picking light rails within reason- 
able limits. The character of pavement must decide our type 
of T-rail, whether standard or special. For cities whose specifi- 
cations call for a 7-in. stone for stone block pavement, the spe- 
cial T-rail, as recommended by the American Street & Interur- 
ban Railway Association, meets the requirements. With brick 
pavement the standard A. S. C. E. T-rail can be successfully 

Another type of pavement, the wood block, is coming into 
general use and will always force us to have a standard super- 
structure to meet this condition. As it is not practical to cut a 
groove in the wood block and maintain it, our third standard 
for superstructure should call for a groove rail. 

The second part of a superstructure is the joint. Types of 
joints and fastenings are nearly as numerous as types of rail. 
Two ideas present themselves in the joint problem. Are we 
going to construct a joint designed to be permanent and, there- 
fore, not admit of maintenance, or are we going to construct a 
joint which permits maintenance? As the standards outlined 
above are designed to permit maintenance, our joint standard to 
be in conformity must be a joint which can be maintained. 
The riveted joint as recently developed fulfills the mechanical 
requirements of a joint and also permits maintenance. The 
only objection to this joint is the high cost of the riveting out- 
fit, which makes it prohibitive to some roads. As a mechani- 
cal joint its results are more than was expected, and I should 
feel safe in accepting it as a standard. 

To those of us who cannot afford this riveted joint, any of 
the base-supported joints give a joint susceptible of maintenance 
and form a fair standard for our construction. The bolts are 
hard to tighten, but if necessary this can be done. The surface 
of the rail can be kept true at the joints by the use of a special 
cutting flat file. The idea proposed by the Boston Elevated 
Railway in 1890 of installing a joint box adjacent to the joint 
to allow the tightening of the bolts was a good one. This idea 
has been experimented with recently, but no practical results 
have been developed. 

The choice of rail as between Bessemer, open-hearth and 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

alloy cannot as yet be based on experience. No great superior- 
ity has been shown for open-hearth steel over Bessemer. The 
alloy rails, such as nickel, have shown about 20 per cent greater 
resistance to abrasion than the Bessemer, but are prohibitive 
on account of the high cost. Titanium rail has shown remark- 
able results on the New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road. The application of the titanium does not greatly increase 
the cost of the rail and, therefore, an ordinary street railway 
can afford to experiment with it. Extensive experiments are 
being carried on in the comparison of the wearing qualities of 
Bessemer, open-hearth and alloy rail, but the method of rolling 
seems to have the greatest effect on the wearing quality of 
the rail. 

For the portion of our rail superstructure consisting of frogs, 
switches and mates we have four types of construction to 
choose from, as follows: Solid manganese work; cast-steel 
construction with hard center plates ; iron-bound construction 
with hard center plates, and ordinarily built-up work. These 
types of construction are standard, and it remains for the rail- 
way companies to standardize them as to location and as to 
radii of switch pieces to permit renewals without the expense 
of new patterns. 

Drainage of the special work foundation is even of more im- 
portance than in standard track construction. Since steel ties 
are not practicable in connection with special work installations, 
we must use the wood tie. Here is a chance to standardize by 
making up special sets of ties to fit each turnout. In this way we 
have a direct result of standardization by saving a very con- 
siderable amount of board measure in the ties by not using the 
ordinary tie and overlapping the ends. The question of ballast 
for special work is a matter of choice with each engineer, but 
stone ballast probably meets the greatest number of require- 
ments in connection with the special work substructures. It 
allows water to pass through it and does away with the allow- 
ance of 10 days for setting, as would be the case with a con- 
crete substructure for special work. Crushed stone also per- 
mits surfacing when renewals are made. 

The choice of the third part of our superstructure, the pave- 
ment, is not entirely in the hands of the railroad companies. 
Pavement is essentially a problem for the city engineer, and in 
the last analysis his judgment must stand. Our superstructure 
standards must be such as meet his requirements as to pave- 
ment. My experience has been that city engineers will not per- 
mit the use of brick on any except light-traffic streets, and the 
tendency is more and more toward the use of the stone block 
pavement. This is to our advantage as the block stone has a 
high salvage value, while other classes of pavement have little 
or none. After the choice of pavement has been made, the rail- 
road company can have something to say as to the method of 
laying the pavement. Ordinary city specifications cover the re- 
quirements for pavement, except as to the character of cushion 
between the concrete foundations and the block. As the railway 
has to maintain the pavement these details are of interest to it. 

One of the direct results of the experimental piece of track 
built in Rochester was a change in the pavement specifications 
abolishing the use of a sand cushion and substituting for it a 
dry-mortar cushion. The cushion consists of one-to-one dry 
mortar. When the grouting takes place the water from the 
grout sets the dry-mortar cushion so that the blocks are on a 
solid bed, instead of a sand bed easily washed by water. This 
is one requirement which I think should be added to ordinary 
paving specifications and made a standard form of paving 

General Standards. 

Considering the track as consisting of foundation, substruc- 
ture and superstructure, we have then the following general 
standards which may be applicable to cities of ordinary size : 

Foundation. — The foundation should be well drained in any • 
type of construction. 

Substructure. — First : 6-in. concrete substructure laid where 
it is possible to keep all traffic off the street for a period of 10 
days after the concrete is placed. 

Second : 8-in. stone ballast to be used in all cases where it is 
not possible to keep all traffic off the street for a period of 
10 days. 

Superstructure. — First: special T-rail as recommended by the 
American Street & Interurban Railway Association where the 
pavement is to be stone block. 
( Second : standard A. S. C. E. T-rail where the pavement is 
to be brick. 

Third : grooved rail where the pavement is to be wood block. 

The choice of the three rail standards as above has left out 
one consideration important in some cities, which is width of 
street. In choosing standards one must use as a basis his own 
experiences. To those of us who have not had experience in 
cities having narrow streets, it can readily be seen that where 
all traffic is compelled to take the car tracks this fact might so 
far outweigh the advantages of T-rail as to make inadvisable 
its use as against a groove rail. 

In addition to the possible standards of foundation, substruc- 
tures and superstructures as outlined above, there are many de- 
tails, such as tie treatment, fastenings, tie rods, tie plates, bolts, 
etc., which can be standardized. These, while important, are 
not the controlling factors in a track structure. The important 
requirement for these details is that we stick to one standard so 
as to make renewals easy and inexpensive. Local conditions 
have a very great effect on our type of standard construction 
and on our interpretation of what result standard construction 
should give, particularly as to its life. Chief among these con- 
ditions is the question of sewer systems. An ordinary sewer 
system in a city is designed to serve a certain number of peo- 
ple per acre. In the business section the number of people is 
much higher than it would be in a residential district. In 
American cities it often happens in the course of rapid growth 
that residential districts become business districts, so that 
the sewers originally built are inadequate and it is necessary 
to renew them. Whenever this is done the tracks must come 
out and be rebuilt. People will not consent to be taxed for 
sewers for the good of future generations, so that this condi- 
tion of sewer construction in cities is bound to continue as 
long as cities grow. Another point tending to reduce the life 
of a track is the continual construction of laterals of all sorts 
beneath the track. Sewer laterals, fire-alarm conduits, electric 
light conduits, water mains, gas mains and various other forms 
of municipal utilities find occasion frequently to cross the street 
and consequently have to undermine the track. In each case 
where this is done the so-called permanent track is reduced to 
limited life track. 

The standards outlined above are not given with the idea 
that they will produce permanent construction, although in the 
case of the concrete construction we should be able to produce 
a substructure which will outlive two superstructures placed 
upon it. 


The American Street & Interurban Railway Transportation 
& Traffic Association sent out under date of June 24, through 
Secretary Donecker's office, data sheet No. 60 prepared by the 
training of transportation employees committee, the chairman of 
which is G. O. Nagle, general manager of the Wheeling (W. 
Va.) Traction Company. Among the questions which the 
members are asked to answer are those relating to -the num- 
ber of conductors and motormen employed and new ones en- 
gaged during the past 12 months ; the average number of men 
who remain in the service one year or longer ; the methods of 
instruction covering the practice relative to the use of instruc- 
tor motormen and conductors, extra compensation for such 
instructors, average time required to qualify a new man for 
work, the payment of men during the breaking-in period and 
practice with regard to paying men on extra list; use of skele- 
ton cars and model apparatus, and determination of the can- * 
didate's fitness for a position. 

July 2, 19 10.] 




By Clarence Renshaw, Westinghouse Electric and Manu- 
facturing Company 

The use of power-operated control apparatus affords many 
advantages. One of the most important of these is the ability 
to operate multiple-unit trains of two or more motor cars. 
This is of the greatest assistance in handling heavy traffic 
under any circumstances, particularly on high-speed roads. 

Increased seating capacity during rush hours or on special 
occasions obtained on such roads by operating additional cars 
as "second sections," or by reducing the usual headway, is 
always attended by increased danger of collision or other 
accident. Similar capacity obtained by the use of multiple- 
unit trains, however, does not affect the usual train dispatch- 
ing, and is, therefore, absolutely safe in this respect. In addi- 
tion to this important advantage, multiple-unit trains can be 

dentally, with large equipments, a considerable saving in plat- 
form space is effected. The location of the controlling appa- 
ratus beneath the car, also, by reducing the amount of wiring, 
more readily permits the thorough protection of it, and this, 
together with the more powerful and substantial character of 
the apparatus, enables a car so equipped to render a maximum 
service with a minimum of delays and expense. 

During the past year the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company has placed on the market a new line of 
power-operated multiple-unit control equipments, which have 
been remarkably successful. These equipments are much 
simpler than any previous types of multiple-unit control 
equipments and have been designed with especial reference to 
the needs of city and interurban roads. They are designated 
as Type HL unit-switch control equipments, and have 
been referred to as the hand-operated type to distinguish 
them from equipments arranged for automatic acceleration, 
which was formerly the only type made. The Type HL equip- 
ments are based upon the same fundamental principles as the 

Cut-out swotches a,b to are 
con nected to #V handte 
Cut-out swotohes d,e t^f are 
connected to* Z hand/e 


Master Con f rotter 

F 1 ' I Grounded on frame 

)Btow -out Coct 

Sea uence of Sw/ tenet 


Swi tones, 





f 4 





































3wctcn Group 

Fig. 1 — Multiple-Unit Control — Wiring Diagram of Control Apparatus for Four 75-hp Motors 

operated more cheaply than the same number of motor cars 
can be operated singly, and more satisfactorily than the same 
number of cars can be operated by a combination of motor 
cars and trailers. 

The ability to operate multiple-unit trains during rush 
hours or on special occasions also will frequently permit the 
size of cars and equipments to be based upon the average 
rather than the maximum load conditions, and thus allow 
smaller cars and lighter motors to be used. For instance, cars 
small enough to be operated by means of quadruple 50-hp. 
motors may be sufficient where equipments of 75-hp. motors 
would otherwise have been required, or quadruple 75-hp. motors 
may do where quadruple 100-hp. motors would otherwise have 
been necessary. If this can be done, large economies, both in 
investment and in operation, may be effected. 

Even where train operation is not contemplated, the use of 
power-operated control apparatus is well worth while to secure 
the location of the main power circuits and circuit-breaking 
devices away from the platforms and below the car floor. 
When thus located they are out of sight of timid passengers, 
and a source of numerous damage claims is eliminated. Inci- 

* Abstract of a paper read at the annual meeting of the Street Railway 
Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown, N. Y., June 29, 1910. 

well-known automatic types of unit switch control equipments 
and retain all of their essential features. Many important im- 
provements have been made in constructional details, however, 
and the circuits have been so simplified that they are easier to 
follow and to comprehend than those of the usual platform 
types of controllers. 

In the Type HL unit switch control equipments the various 
main circuit connections between trolley, resistance, and mo- 
tors, which, in the usual car equipment, are ordinarily made 
by the overhead circuit-breaker and by the power drum and 
contact fingers of the controller, are made by six or eight (de- 
pending upon the size and number of the motors) unit 
switches, each provided with a strong magnetic blow-out and 
normally held open by a powerful spring. These switches are 
assembled in a common frame and designated as a "switch 
group." In the larger sizes of equipments the group is sup- 
plemented by two additional switches mounted in a second 
frame, and called a "line switch." Each switch is closed when 
desired by compressed air acting on a piston, which opposes 
the spring and forces the lower or movable switch jaw against 
the upper or stationary one. 

The connections ordinarily made by the reverse drum of the 
platform controller are made up in these equipments by a re- 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

verse drum similar in general to that in the controller, but of 
more substantial construction, pneumatically operated and 
mounted in a separate case. The complete reverse drum with 
its operating mechanism is termed a "reverser." 

The admission or release of compressed air to the cylinders, 
and hence the operation of the switches and reverser, is regu- 
lated by means of electrically operated magnet valves attached 
to the cylinders and governed by means of a master controller. 
The small amount of power which is required for operating the 
magnet valves is taken from the trolley through a resistance. 
The circuits from the master controller are carried to a 12- 
conductor control "train line," from which branch circuits are 
run to each piece of apparatus. This train line extends the en- 
tire length of each car, and terminates in one or more 12- 
conductor "train line receptacles" at each end. 

By means of a 12-conductor "train line jumper" placed so as 
to connect adjoining receptacles on adjacent cars, the train 
line of any car may be connected to that of a second car at 
either end, and the control train line thus made continuous 
throughout a train of any number of cars. Operating the mas- 
ter controller on any car under these conditions will operate 
the respective pieces of apparatus on all cars simultaneously. 

Air for operating the pneumatic parts is obtained from the 
air-brake system through strainers for removing the moisture 
and through a reducing valve set for 70-lb pressure. 

The general arrangement of main and control circuit con- 
nections for quadruple equipments of 75-hp motors or less is 
shown by the diagram on page 35, from which the operation 
of the control may be readily understood. 

It will be noted that the arrangement of the main circuit con- 
nections to the motors is the same as that used in the well- 
known "K" type of controller. With this arrangement is com- 
bined a particularly ingenious connection of the resistance, 
which gives a maximum number of resistance steps with a 
minimum number of switches. The entire combination of main 
circuit connections is such that an extremely simple arrange- 
ment is obtained, and an unusually small number of switches 
serves to effect the necessary combinations. 

From the standpoint of safety, it is usually not desir- 
able to attempt to operate large cars unless the air brakes are 
in good working order. If, for any reason, it should be de- 
sired to do this, however, an emergency reservoir may be 
added. This provides a reserve supply of air for operating 
the control apparatus in case of accident to the main source. 

A particular feature of the control for quadruple equipments 

Fig. 2 — Multiple-Unit Control — Unit Switch Group 

is the arrangement of the cut-out switches for cutting out a 
damaged motor when necessary. These are so arranged that 
in case of motor trouble one motor of each pair is cut out, thus 
leaving the remaining two motors operated in series-parallel 
just the same as if they were the two motors of a double-motor 
equipment. With this arrangement a car with two motors 
temporarily cut out will operate just as smoothly as one with 
all four motors in service. 

The magnet valves which control the switches and reverser 
are operated by means of current from the trolley through a 

resistance. A very small amount of current is required for 
operating these valves, and this has made it possible to arrange 
the valves so that they will operate with a wide variation of 
trolley voltage. 

A main switch is provided in the circuit between the trolley 
and the motors, so that by opening this switch the control ap- 
paratus may be operated for test purposes without putting 
power on the motors. 

Overload protection is provided by means of an overload trip 
mounted on one end of the switch group. In case of over- 

Fig. 3 — Multiple-Unit Control — Master Controller 

load or short-circuit, this will open the control circuit to cer- 
tain of the switches in the group and thus cut off power. A 
copper ribbon magnetic blow-out type fuse is also provided, but 
th ere should be little or no occasion for this to blow. 

In general, the switch group consists of a cast and malleable- 
iron skeleton frame, to which the various working parts are 
attached, which is completely enclosed by easily removable 
sheet-iron covers. 

A blow-out coil is located at the side of each switch in such 
a way as to give a particularly short magnetic path, and thus to 
allow a very strong magnetic flux to be obtained with blow-out 
coils of reasonable size, and a moderate expenditure of energy. 
An exceptionally strong blow-out effect is thus obtained which 
enables the switches to open under heavy overloads without 
damage and secures long life for the contact tips. 

Each switch and each blow-out coil is enclosed in an insulat- 
ing box of vulcabeston, and the switch jaws are surrounded by 
an easily replaceable box of soapstone and asbestos lumber. 
All live parts are carefully insulated from each other and from 
the frame. Wherever possible, the connections between the 
various switches and blow-out coils are made of copper strap 
rigidly supported and giving the same substantial effect as the 
busbar connections on a power-house switchboard. 

A particular feature of this group, and, in fact, an essential 
advantage of the unit-switch system of control, is the heavy 
pressure obtained at the switch jaws for opening and closing 
them. With the type of switch described a pressure due to 
the spring of nearly 100 lb. is obtained at the switch jaws for 
opening them, and a similar force due to the air pressure in 
the cylinder for closing them. This force is not applied merely 
as a steady pull or dead weight, but the means which are em- 
ployed to obtain a wiping contact when closing the switch 
gives also a toggle-joint effect when the switch is opened. 
The heavy pressure for closing the switches insures good 
contact and excellent carrying capacity, while that for opening 
them is so great that failure to open is almost impossible. 

July 2, 1910.] 



The term "unit switch" which is applied to this system of 
control apparatus is derived from the fact that the design of 
the fundamental pieces of apparatus is laid out on the "unit" 
plan, so that any worn, broken or damaged part may be easily 

The reverser consists of a number of copper fingers mounted 
on a stationary base and pressing on one or the other 
of two sets of movable contacts carried on a wooden drum. 
The drum is revolved to the forward or the reverse position by 
one or the other of two pneumatic cylinders, each controlled 
by a magnet valve similar to those in the switch group. 

Fig. 4— Welded Sheet-Steel Gear Case 

Powerful forces approximating those for operating the 
switches are used also for moving the reverser, so that heavy 
pressure may be used on the fingers and firm contact thus se- 
cured. This construction gives the reverser large overload 
capacity for taking care of heavy current rushes, and makes it 
almost impossible for the fingers to become stuck or welded,, 
due to motor flashes, short-circuits or other similar troubles. 

No springs are used in the reverser cylinders, and the drum 
when moved to one position by closing the circuit of one of the 
magnets remains in that position until the circuit of the other 
magnet is closed. Suitable small fingers mounted upon the 
reverser frame and pressing upon corresponding movable con- 
tact pieces on the reverser shaft establish the necessary inter- 
locking connections. * 

The reverser parts are built upon a cast-iron frame, suitably 
protected by easily removable sheet-iron covers. 

The master controller which is used with Type HL unit 
switch control equipments contains the usual power and 
reverse handles and these are mutually interlocked. It is ar- 

as over any other forms of multiple-unit control. The more 
important may be summarized as follows: 

The apparatus is extremely simple in all of its parts. 

Powerful forces are employed for opening and closing the 
switches and throwing the reverser. The control apparatus is 
capable of opening the circuit under all conditions and reliabil- 
ity of operation is thus insured. 

The main power circuits are removed from the car platform 
and accidents from "controller blow-ups" are avoided. 

Economy of platform space is secured. 

Multiple-unit train operation is available and greatly in- 
creased passenger capacity can be had at any time without 
operating additional trains or overloading the motors. The 
dangers due to "second sections" are thus avoided. 

Heavy pressures are used on the contacts and great momen- 
tary overload capacity thus secured. 

An exceptionally effective magnetic blow-out is employed, and 
the circuit thus opened with little or no burning of the contacts. 

The wiring and connections between the various switches and 
blow-out coils are arranged in a particularly substantial and 
workmanlike manner. 

Automatic overload protection is secured in addition to the 
protection afforded by a fuse, by means of a device of such a 
nature that its calibration can be relied upon. 

The apparatus is capable of operating satisfactorily with trol- 
ley voltages varying from a maximum of 600 volts or more to 
a minimum of approximately 200 volts, thus covering any range 
likely to be met with in service. 

When operating with minimum trolley voltages the switches 
open and close with the same force as when operating with 
maximum trolley voltage. 

The powerful forces used in operating the switches and their 
great momentary overload capacity, together with the strong 
magnetic blow-out which is obtained, and the substantial ar- 
rangement of connections, give an exceptional reliability of 
operation of the switches, and insure long life of the contact 
tips and other wearing parts. The use of reliable control appa- 
ratus means a minimum amount of motor trouble, since faulty 
operation of the control apparatus frequently causes damage 
to the motors. Economical maintenance should thus be effected 
by the use of unit switch control apparatus and at the same time 
reliable service secured. 


The use of the acetylene welding process has recently en- 
abled a very substantial sheet-steel gear case to be developed, 
and although not yet thoroughly tried out, this gear case gives 
good promise of success in eliminating some of the weight of 
car equipments. Such a gear case for a Westinghouse No. 
303 motor, which has a rating of 100 hp at 550 volts, is made of 

Fig. 5 — Blower for Forced Ventilation of Motors on Long Island Railroad Motor Cars 

ranged with five notches in series and four in parallel. The 
position of the notches is indicated on the cap plate of the mas- 
ter controller and also by a suitable star-wheel inside of the 
case. The main resistance, control resistance, train line recep- 
tacles, train line jumpers, and other equipment details have been 
carefully designed to perform their specific functions. 

The Type HL unit switch control equipments offer a num- 
ber of important advantages over drum-type controllers as well 

Vs-in. sheet steel and weighs 124 lb., as compared with a weight 
of 193 lb. for the malleable-iron gear case previously used on 
this motor. A saving of 59 lb. is thus effected. This is not a 
large saving, but it is sufficient to be well worth while where 
it can be conveniently secured. 

The welded gear case has a reinforcing strip at the bot- 
tom, which is the part most likely to be damaged. The ar- 
rangement used on the Westinghouse motors of suspending 



[Vol. XXXVi. No. I. 

the gear case from the two ends simplifies the problem of sup- 
porting such gear cases very greatly. 


An interesting development of the past year is the method 
used for securing increased motor capacity on the new electric 
motor cars purchased by the Pennsylvania Railroad interests for 
use on Long Island and in the new tunnels through Manhattan 
•Island. Each car is equipped with two interpole motors, which 
are normally rated at 215 hp., but which by means of forced 
ventilation are enabled to do work which would otherwise re- 
quire motors rated at about 250 hp. each. 

The blower outfit consists of a 1^2-hp.. 2250-r.p.m. motor, to 
the shaft of which is attached, at each end, a blower fan, 9 in. 
in diameter and 3 in. wide. Each of these fans is capable of 
forcing between 400 cu. ft. and 500 cu. ft. of air per minute 
through the motor to which it is connected. 

The truck on which these motors are mounted is so arranged 
that the blower outfit can be mounted below the bolster so that 
the general arrangement of motors and blowing outfit is shown. 

This arrangement has been remarkably satisfactory, and 180 
cars are being equipped in this way. The installation is of par- 
ticular interest as being the first instance where forced ventila- 
tion has been used for car motors on such a large scale. 


D. N. Bell, assistant general passenger agent of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, recently made the following statement to a rep- 
resentative of this paper regarding the reasons which led that 
company to announce increases of its commutation rates to 
New York City. 

"A thorough analysis was made of our commutation busi- 
ness, and we found that on the 50-trip tickets the average 
amount paid per passenger was 11.1 cents, the average distance 
traveled was 9.22 miles, and the average rate per mile was 

I. 202 cents. On the 60-trip ticket the average amount paid was 

II. 1 cents, the average distance traveled was 16.83 miles, and 
the average rate per mile was 0.666 cent. On the 180-trip and 
annual tickets the average amount paid was 12.3 cents, the 
average distance traveled was 26.45 miles, and the average rate 
per mile was 0.466 cent. The cost of terminal service at Jersey 
City and New York, including ferriage between the two points, 
is 10.5 cents, so that after deducting terminal and ferriage ex- 
penses we are carrying 50-trip passengers 8.22 miles for 6 
mills; 60-trip passengers 14.83 miles for 6 mills, and 180-trip 
and annual passengers 24.45 miles for 1.8 cents. 

"During the past 10 years there has been a marked increase 
in the cost of handling passenger traffic, due to a steady de- 
mand on the part of the traveling public for stations equipped 
with modern conveniences, trains composed of the best equip- 
ment and the taking of every possible precaution to insure 
against accident. To accomplish these results, we have invested 
millions of dollars in improving the roadbed, replacing block- 
signal system and the laying of heavier rails, thus permitting 
greater speed with absolute safety. 

"In addition to the above, like all other roads, our cost of 
operation has been increased on account of greater expenditures 
in taxes, labor, etc. The increase in the cost of labor since 
1899 has ranged from 32 per cent to 100 per cent. The in- 
crease in taxes in the State of New Jersey has amounted to 286 
per cent during the same period. 

"We have also, within the past year, entered into an arrange- 
ment with the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Company by 
which our passengers are transported between Jersey City and 
Church and Cortlandt streets, New York, without additional 
charge, the expense of transportation being borne by this 

"In view of the above we feel that the increased charges to 
commuters are not unfair, and can be justified before the 


The twenty-eighth annual convention of the Street Railway 
Association of the State of New York was called to order by 
President E. F. Peck at the Hotel O-te-sa-ga, Cooperstown, 
N. Y., at 10 150 a. m. on June 28. 

President Peck introduced Lynn J. Arnold, of Cooperstown, 
who made an address of welcome to the association. 

John H. Pardee, the secretary, read a letter from the Hotel 
Clifton, Niagara Falls, Ont, inviting the association to hold 
its next annual meeting there. 

Mr. Peck then read the president's annual address. An 
abstract follows : 


"The evolution of transportation has been so rapid that it 
has been a severe task for the companies engaged in this busi- 
ness to keep pace with the times. A rival of the electric rail- 
ways, and one which bids fair to grow rapidly in popularity, 
has arisen in the skies. I refer to the flying machine, recent 
experiments with which have set the whole nation in a quiver 
of excitement, and have upset many of our old-fashioned 
theories in regard to rapid transit. Whether this development 
will be of any serious import, or whether it will have any 
commercial value, is a problem which none of us, at the 
present time, is able to solve. Not many years ago we laughed 
at the adventures of Darius Green with his wonderful flying 
machine ; but to-day who would dare ridicule the achievements 
of such venturesome men as the Wright brothers, Curtis and 
Hamilton? Who here is competent to predict as to the future 
in any matters pertaining to the development of transportation? 
As it is, we are not here to-day to prophesy as to the future, 
but rather to discuss the serious problems which daily con- 
front us. 

"The past year has been an eventful one to the electric rail- 
way interests, and the financial reports of our member com- 
panies for the fiscal year ending June 30 will, in most cases, 
show marked improvement over the previous year. The dark 
clouds of financial unrest that nearly overwhelmed us in 1908 
seem to be gradually drifting away, and to-day I fully believe 
we have entered upon another period of prosperity. 

"The paramount problem before us is that of the 5-cent fare. 
As this subject will be discussed later by one who has given it 
careful study, and is better able to present the facts than I, it 
is unnecessary to consider this most important matter at this 

"Another question which has been the subject of considerable 
discussion during the past year has been that of the encourage- 
ment of friendly relations between the electric railway com- 
panies and the public. During the past six months this associa- 
tion has fathered a systematic publication of a series of educa- 
tional articles on the following topics : 

" 'Cost of snow removal and maintenance of track pavement, 
showing the hazardous and expensive character of this burden 
which must be borne by the street railways, and which has 
been appreciated but slightly, if at all, by the general public. 

" 'Plans and methods of street railway companies, by per- 
fecting safety devices, to prevent accidents to human beings; 
and the education of the public to greater care and prudence. 

" 'Division of the nickel as applied to the various operating 
and maintenance accounts, bringing out conspicuously the enor- 
mous percentage paid for labor, and the comparatively insignifi- 
cant percentage which the street railway companies are able 
to retain as a profit from the business. 

" 'The remarkable and unappreciated expense, and the execu- 
tive management, required to move people to and from their 
work in rush hours, showing the cost to the companies of 
meeting such extreme peak-load conditions. 

" 'The remarkable increase in population and prosperity in 
the rural districts, and the inadequately appreciated benefits 
resulting therefrom to farmers, small villages, and hamlets 
throughout the State from the extension of suburban and 
interurban railway systems.' 

"The general object to be obtained by the publication of these 

July 2, 1910.] 



articles was to bring the public of New York State generally 
to a realization of the peculiar problems and expense incident 
to street railroading, to the end that a better and fairer treat- 
ment of these public-service corporations might result eventu- 

"Indicative of the importance placed on this subject by the 
executive committee of the American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association, a joint meeting of representatives of the 
various State and sectional associations was held in New 
York City in January of the present year to discuss means to 
bring about a closer affiliation of State and sectional associa- 
tions with the American Association, to the end that with their 
united action results more beneficial to our business might be 
obtained. After considering the various phases of the situa- 
tion, it was generally concluded that the most effective method 
of procedure would be the appointment of the presidents of the 
State and sectional associations as members of the committee 
on public relations of the American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association. The suggestion of the joint committee was 
later adopted by the executive committee of the American 

"With the work performed by the association during the past 
year you are all more or less familiar. An innovation in our 
quarterly meetings was decided upon by your executive com- 
mittee, a 'get-together' dinner on the evening previous to the 
business session. I feel that the good derived from our meet- 
ings has been greatly enhanced by these social gatherings. 

"The work of an association of this character depends large- 
ly upon the personnel of the executive committee, and I wish 
to express my sincere thanks to the members of the executive 
committee for the hearty support given me in conducting the 
affairs of the association." 

Mr. Pardee then presented his report as secretary, showing 
20 member companies, 6 associate members and 75 allied mem- 

H. M. Beardsley, Elmira, the treasurer, made a report show- 
ing a balance at the close of the previous year of $6,101. Re- 
ceipts during the year were $6,070 and disbursements $4,911, 
leaving a balance on hand of $7,260. 

Edgar S. Fassett, Albany, chairman of the committee on city 
rules, reported that no questions requiring the attention of the 
committee had arisen during the year. 


Henry W. Blake, editor of the Electric; Railway Journal, 
then read a paper on "The Problem of the 5-Cent Fare." The 
paper is published in abstract elsewhere in this issue. 

Mr. Fassett said that as a member of the committee on topics 
he had suggested that Mr. Blake be asked to prepare the paper 
and said that the title really should be, "What Shall We Do 
to Be Saved?" That was really the subject of the paper. 

Something had to be done, Mr. Fassett said. A slight ad- 
vance in commutation rates had put one company doing both 
an urban and an interurban business on its feet financially, but 
the average city road was not able to adjust its fares. With the 
5-cent fare as the fixed unit of compensation the only solution 
was the receipt of some money for transfers. Mr. Fassett's 
initiation into the business took place in 1885 and at that time 
the street railways secured two or three 5-cent pieces for a 
length of ride for which but one fare was received now. A 
change in the law providing for a 5-cent fare should be made so 
as to enable companies to charge for transfers. Otherwise ex- 
pansion was at an end. No increases in mileage were being 
constructed or would be until conditions were changed. The 
United Traction Company had franchises for $500,000 of new 
road, but could not construct the lines under existing conditions. 

Mr. Fassett believed that with the publicity which the com- 
panies were receiving the people were beginning to see that the 
fault did not lie with the railways. However, some steps must 
be taken to enable the railways not only to exist but to expand 
so as to meet the increasing requirements of the communities. 

On motion of W. H. Collins, Fonda, Johnstown & Glovers- 
ville Railroad, a vote of thanks was given to Mr. Blake for 
his paper. 

At the suggestion of C. Loomis Allen, Utica & Mohawk Val- 
ley Railway, discussion was then postponed until a later session 
in order to give the delegates an opportunity to study Mr. 
Blake's paper. 

interurban rules 

The discussion on the advisability of adopting the interurban 
rules approved by the American Street & Interurban Railway 
Association at the Denver convention in October, 1909, was 
opened by C. Loomis Allen. 

Mr. Allen thought that a study of the interurban rules as 
adopted at Denver would be sufficient argument in favor of 
their acceptance, but he realized that an added moral support 
would be given to the American Association by a ratification 
of the rules by the New York Association. These rules repre- 
sented the best thought and best practice up to the time of 
their adoption by the best men in the business. Where differ- 
ences of opinion existed on any points they were talked over 
and reconciled and all points at issue were settled by deciding 
votes. In reading the resolutions adopted at the Denver Con- 
vention and moving their adoption Mr. Allen said that different 
methods of bperation and the regulations of various States 
would cause modifications of the rules to accord with local con- 
ditions. He asked how many roads had adopted the rules ap- 
approved at Denver. 

Matthew C. Brush, general manager, Buffalo & Lake Erie 
Traction Company, said that he had the Denver code, except 
for very slight changes due to local conditions, in proof form 
and that the rules would be in force in 30 days. 

W. B. Rockwell, general manager, Syracuse & Suburban 
Railroad, had adopted the Denver code with slight changes 
arising from local conditions. 

T. C. Cherry, Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway, had adopted 
both the urban and the interurban rules with very slight ex- 
ceptions. For interurban trainmen books containing both codes 
were provided. 

Joseph K. Choate, general manager, Otsego & Herkimer 
Railroad, had adopted the rules effective as of July 1. 

John E. Duffy, superintendent, Syracuse Rapid Transit Rail- 
way Company, was not able to attend the Denver convention, 
but was a member of the committee of the American Street & 
Interurban Railway Transportation & Traffic Association that 
compiled the rules. He was chairman of the committee that 
compiled the New York State code adopted at Kingston in 
1907, which was entirely different from the Denver code. The 
New York code, as adopted then, was similar to that of the 
American Railway Association. The present committee on in- 
terurban rules of the Transportation & Traffic Association had 
held three meetings so far this year and it appeared to be the 
unanimous opinion of the members of the committee that the 
American Railway Association code should be adopted. The 
argument advanced in favor of this code was that it repre- 
sented the best thought and effort of steam railroad managers. 

Mr. Duffy did not see any reason why interurban electric and 
steam roads could not be operated under like rules. The rules 
should be numbered alike in both codes. The committee on 
interurban rules of the Transportation & Traffic Association 
had seen fit to change front. The sentiment in New York State 
was in favor of the American Railway Association code in 
1907. Now the committee had practically finished its work and 
at the meeting to be held in Atlantic City in October of this 
year would present a code that would be a duplicate of that 
of the American Railway Association so far as it was applicable 
to interurban electric roads. Some of the high-speed, single- 
track interurban roads of the West had operated under this 
code with success. It would not be possible to operate under 
American Railway Association rules absolutely, but amendments 
could be made that would make them applicable to all local 
conditions arising in interurban electric operation. 

Mr. Duffy admitted that the Denver code was good, but said 
that the Ame rican Railway Association code represented the 
thought and experience of officials of steam railroads through a 
period of many years. 

Mr. Rockwell had been waiting for several years for some 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

action to be taken on the subject of interurban rules and con- 
ditions had so developed that some definite course was essential 
at Denver. He had never heard a more thorough discussion 
than that which took place over the Denver rules. Rules could 
be changed by amendment from year to year. 

Mr. Duffy referred to the information on the data sheets sent 
out by the committee and said that the report to be made at 
the Atlantic City Convention would recommend what the com- 
mittee thought was best for the roads. Continuing, Mr. 
Duffy said that C. D. Emmons, chairman of the committee, had 
taken up questions of difference with the transportation com- 
mittee of the American Railway Association and would meet 
a member of the steam road committee and a representative of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission to discuss the subject. He 
asked that the committee be supported in the course which it 
had concluded to follow. Its work should not be nullified before 
its recommendations were presented to the Atlantic City con- 
vention. The report of the committee as presented at the 
Denver convention was a good work, but it was now proposed 
to try to reconcile the differences which developed at that 

Mr. Allen said that the interurban code was taken up rule 
by rule at Denver. The final report as adopted was not coinci- 
dent with that recommended by the committee. The majority 
determined each point. The changes that it was now proposed 
to recommend at Atlantic City were not so much changes of 
theory and practice as of other matters. The retention or re- 
jection of rules was governed by the doctrine of survival of 
the fittest. The question was simply that of the adoption of 
the American Street & Interurban Railway Association code. 
Strong arguments would be presented on both sides at Atlantic 
City. If the code was changed then the New York association 
could change too. The industry was not standing still. He 
wanted the safest and best rules that could be secured for the 

Mr. Allen added that after the 1897 classification of accounts 
was adopted the association stood still and it was a shock when 
the Interstate Commerce Commission requested the adoption of 
a new system. The companies then were behind the times. It 
was better now to go on record for the rules adopted by the 
Transportation & Traffic Association and ratified by the parent 

Mr. Duffy was right in his position, Mr. Allen said. He was 
working as a member of the committee of six. But that com- 
mittee would have to convince the Transportation & Traffic As- 
sociation of the correctness of its position. 

John H. Cain, superintendent, Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester 
Railway, attended the meeting at Kingston at which the rules 
were adopted and put them into effect on the road with which 
he is connected. During the two years there had not been a 
failure of the rules. The New York State Association had 
adopted a code taken practically from that of the American 
Railway Association and he thought that at the Atlantic City 
convention substantially the same code would be adopted so 
far as it is applicable to electric interurban roads. 

R. E. Danforth, general manager, Public Service Railway, 
Newark, N. J., doubted whether more than one-third of the 
men present knew the numbers of the rules. If a steam rail- 
road man was hired by an electric railway he had to learn a 
good deal anyway about methods that were different from 
those to which he had been accustomed. So far as principles 
were concerned, the Denver code was taken almost bodily 
from that of the American Railway Association and it was a 
good safe system for operation. Perhaps each individual road 
would prefer some slight changes in details. He thought that 
Mr. Allen's resolution should be passed, although realizing that 
minor changes may be necessary to adapt the code for local 

W. H. Collins, Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad, 
had a book of rules based on the Denver code about ready for 
adoption on that road. He believed it was the best code ever 
provided to meet the different conditions existing. His early 
experience had been with steam railroads but he realized that 

the American Railway Association code as used by steam rail- 
roads was not applicable to all electric interurban roads. As a 
matter of fact the adoption of the resolution would be in sup- 
port of the work of the committee and would strengthen its 
position. If the committee did something better at Atlantic 
City the New York association should adopt that. 

Mr. Duffy said that all he wanted to do was to retain the 
American Railway Association numbers of rules and companies 
could put in force the rules they desired. Some of the offi- 
cials were bound to follow steam railroad practice and the com- 
mittee was trying to adopt something which those officials and 
others also could adopt. 

E. F. Campbell, Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, 
thought the rules all over the country should be the same. 
It was wrong to have different codes in different States. Some 
of the best men he had were trained on steam railroads. The 
same numbers should be applied to rules on both electric and 
steam properties. A few months would make very little dif- 
ference. When the association acted it should take the right 

Mr. Rockwell said that if the association waited year after 
year no rules would be adopted. 

Mr. Cain said that the New York association had adopted 
practically the American Railway Association code. Each year 
the American Street & Interurban Railway Association had 
drawn nearer to the same code. , < 

Mr. Allen said that if the report of the committee was ac- 
cepted at Atlantic City he would be the first one to ask that the 
New York State Association rules be amended. He believed' 
in investigating every practice and in striving to do everything 
that would advance the industry. He was proud of the fact 
that electric railways had taught steam railroads something 
concerning transportation. Was it a good position not to ratify 
the Denver code but to wait and see what else was done? If 
the Denver code was adopted it put the association on record 
as adopting rules that represented the best thought and prac- 
tice up to that time. 

The resolution offered by Mr. Allen was then adopted, as 
follows : 

"Whereas, the committee appointed at the last meeting of 
this association has prepared and reported a certain code or set 
of rules governing the operation of electric interurban cars, 
which code is intended to include such general rules as repre- 
sent the best and most modern practice in electric railway oper- 
ation, and 

"Whereas, this association has duly and carefully considered 
and amended the same in some particulars, and 

"Whereas, it is for the interests of the members of this asso- 
ciation that the association adopt, approve, promulgate and 
recommend a code of rules which shall be considered the 
standard code, except in so far as it may, in specific instances, 
be necessary to omit, add to or change rules in order to con- 
form to State or municipal laws and regulation or to local con- 

"Now therefore be it resolved, that the rules reported by the 
committee and as changed, omitted or amended at this meeting 
be the standard code of rules of this association for the opera- 
tion of interurban cars, until such rules may be duly amended 
or changed at a meeting of this association, and 

"That this association requests its members to adopt this 
standard code of rules for the operation of interurban cars on 
their respective railways except in so far as such rules may con- 
flict with State or municipal laws or regulations or be unwise 
or inapplicable on account of local conditions, and 

"That the committee on interurban rules be continued to re- 
port at the next meeting of the association such proposed 
changes or amendments as may seem wise or necessary." 

Adjournment until the afternoon session followed. 


The session of Tuesday afternoon opened with the presenta- 
tion of the paper on the "Latest Development of Car-wheels 
For Electric Railways," by V. S. Yarnell, expert, Carnegie Steel 
Company. This paper is published elsewhere in this issue. Mr. 

July 2, 1910.] 



Yarnell illustrated his paper with about 20 stereopticou 
slides which were thrown on a screen, the room being darkened 
for the purpose. There was no discussion. President Peck 
then asked Martin Schreiber, engineer maintenance of way, 
Public Service Railway, New Jersey, to read the paper on 
"Standardization of Track Construction in Paved Streets" pre- 
pared by B. E. Tilton, engineer maintenance of way, New York 
State Railways. This paper is found elsewhere in this issue. 

Mr. Schreiber at the conclusion of the paper discussed the 
subject of track construction on the Public Service Railway. He 
said that steel ties should be used only with a concrete sub- 
structure because with stone ballast the spacing of the ties 
would have to be so short that the cost of steel ties would be 
prohibitive. With a concrete substructure, the cost of con- 
struction with steel ties was about equal the cost of construc- 
tion with wood ties. It was generally conceded that all wood 
ties should be treated. Practically the only wood that did not 
require treatment was oak, whose use for ties was prohibitive 
on account of cost. Mr. Schreiber then described the open 
tank and the closed tank methods of treatment and exhibited 
half sections of ties treated by each of these methods. His 
company has treated between 50,000 and 60,000 long leaf yel- 
low pine ties by the open tank treatment, using the same method 
employed by roads in Denver, Salt Lake City, and Berlin, Ger- 
many. With the pressure system a cheaper preservative ma- 
terial could be used, that is, natural creosote could be employed, 
but the cost of treatment of the tie was higher than with the 
•open treatment. Mr. Schreiber also showed a sample section of 
one of 25,000 short leaf yellow pine ties, which his company had 
had creosoted in Jacksonville. Complete penetration was shown. 
The specifications employed were the same as those of the 
American Engineering & Maintenance of Way Association. 
When both were creosoted he did not think that there was much 
difference in the wearing qualities of short leaf and long leaf 
pine. He referred to a common method of distinguishing be- 
tween these two kinds of timber by the number of rings; less 
than from five to eight rings per inch indicated short leaf pine. 
In Europe good results had been obtained for ties of cheaper 
woods such as birch, when thoroughly impregnated. Most en- 
gineers consider the pressure system more reliable than the 
superficial system, but the latter seemed to be giving good re- 
sults. Still another material used for tie preservation is zinc 
chloride or a combination of zinc chloride and creosote. This 
method has been used extensively in the West and is now be- 
ing employed on the Chicago properties. Mr. Schreiber thought 
that roughly the cost of superficial treatment was from 25 to 
26 cents a tie and the full treatment was approximately 40 cents 
per tie. The use of softer woods was less objectionable in 
electric railway service than in steam railway service, because 
there was less rail wear as the rail was supported between ties. 

The Chicago roads, according to Mr. .Schreiber, were using 
tie-plates on every tie. They were also using screw spikes, 
hoping that the ties would outlast two rails. With the screw 
spike the hole can be filled up and a new rail installed or the 
old rail realigned. In tests conducted by the Board of Super- 
vising Engineers of Chicago screw spikes have shown practi- 
cally double the holding power of ordinary spikes. Roughly, it 
required 5400 lb. to draw one out instead of 2700 lb. with the 
ordinary spike. He considered tie plates much more desirable 
than tie rods, especially with a low rail. He agreed with Mr. 
Tilton on the advisability of using a dry mortar cushion under 
the paving. His company had done this for some time, but he 
did not see why a T-rail could not be laid with wooden block 
paving. The situation in regard to rail sections was now fairly 
satisfactory. In streets where groove rail was used, the stand- 
ard of the American Association in which the head was set 
slightly off from the gage line was desirable and made a good 
wearing rail. Many companies have adopted this section with 
slight modifications in the shape of the groove. He considered 
granite made the best paving, especially when used as in Chi- 
cago and by the Public Service Railway Company with very 
narrow joints. Tt made as smooth a paving as brick and had a 
much longer life. 

C. Gordon Reel, consulting engineer, Kingston, spoke in favor 
of T-rail construction and said that it was not used in New 
York State as much as it otherwise would because of Sec. 109 
of the Railroad Law which prohibited the use of "center-bear- 
ing" rails. This law was passed 20 years ago and had no ref- 
erence to T-rails but was intended to apply to a rail with a 
special head, having a narrow tram on each side, at that time 
used in New York. This old type of rail was not desirable but 
the former Railroad Commission had ruled that the T-rail was 
also a "center-bearing" rail. He did not think that the Public 
Service Commission had ruled on the same subject but objec- 
tion was sometimes raised to T-rail by local authorities based 
on this erroneous construction of Sec. 109. He made a motion 
that the President should appoint a committee of three to take 
the matter up with the Public Service Commission and obtain 
a ruling on the meaning of the word "center-bearing." The 
motion was carried. 

M. V. French, engineer maintenance of way, Utica & Mo- 
hawk Valley Railway, disagreed with the other speakers as to 
the advisability of using dry mortar under paving. He said 
that if the stone paving or brick was properly grouted a sand 
cushion was all that was necessary. If good mortar was used, 
the paving blocks could not be used over again. The mortar 
cushion has never been used in Utica, but no trouble had ever 
been experienced there with the pavement heaving except in one 
place where it was not properly laid. He recommended a 
depth of y 2 in. to 54 in. as a sand cushion for brick and i l / 2 in. 
to 2 in. for block paving. He strongly recommended that on 
a track laid on stone ballast cars should be run over the track 
before the paving was laid. In Utica he had found a settle- 
ment of from y 2 in. to Y\ in. in track on 8-in. ballast, thought 
to have a very solid foundation. He had heard of the rule in 
regard to eight rings to the inch to distinguish short leaf and 
long leaf pine, but tie contractors had declined to bid on speci- 
fications containing this provision. He also laid great stress 
upon the use solely of ties cut from living timber. Other 
ties were apt to have a fungus growth, acquired while the tim- 
ber was stacked. 

W. Boardman Reed, president Otsego & Herkimer Railway, 
described the real center-bearing rail which was condemned by 
the law. He did not think it was so bad a rail for railway 
purposes. It had been used on the 125th Street crosstown line 
when that line was built for cable traction, and also had been 
used on various horse car lines in New York City. 

In answer to a question F. A. Bagg, Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railway, said that he had laid strips of cement 
pavement 12 in. to 16 in. wide next to the rail at a point on 
his road where the brick next to the rail had been removed. 
This paving had been in some years and had given good results. 

On account of the absence of a number of accounting officers, 
President Peck announced that the discussion on the subject of 
the system of accounts prescribed for street railroad corpora- 
tions by the Public Service Commission, Second District, would 
be postponed. 

A letter was read from the Public Service Commission, Second 
District, on the subject of passenger traffic, suggesting that the 
commission would be glad to confer with representatives of the 
electric railways on this topic. A motion was made that a stand- 
ing committee be appointed to consider questions relating to 
tariffs and traffic to meet the representatives of the Public 
Service Commission. 

Supplementing the letter from the commission, Walter E. 
Griggs, chief of the division of tariffs of the commission, said 
that he would be glad to have the committee appointed. He 
spoke of the importance of tariff construction and the advantage 
of committee work on this subject. 

J. M. Campbell, Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, urged 
the appointment of a committee as suggested and said that it 
would perform an important work in effecting uniformity of 
tariffs. Mr. Campbell spoke of the discrepancies in existing 
tariffs on various roads and described his experience with the 
conditions governing the sale of tickets for children or their 
transportation free. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

The motion for the adoption of the standing committee was 
then carried. President Peck appointed as members of this 
committee E. E. Campbell, Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Rail- 
way ; R. W. Colt, general passenger agent, Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railroad ; C. R. Gowan, general passenger agent, 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway ; Charles H. Armatage, general 
traffic manager, United Traction Company of Albany, and H. 
C. Allen, Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company ; B. E. Wil- 
son, general passenger and express agent, New York State Rail- 
ways; I. W. Nugent, general freight and passenger agent, Ot- 
sego & Herkimer Railroad. 

The nominating committee was then appointed by Mr. Peck. 
This committee was as follows : C. Loomis Allen, Edgar S. 
Fassett, R. E. Danforth and J. N. Shannahan. 

Adjournment was then taken until Wednesday, June 29. 


The Wednesday morning session was opened at 10 130 a. m. 
with President Peck in the chair. After Secretary Pardee an- 
nounced the accession of several manufacturing and supply 
companies to the membership list, the chair appointed the fol- 
lowing gentlemen to act as a committee of three to place the 
subject of center-bearing rails before the Public Service Com- 
mission, Second District : W. H. Collins, general manager, 
Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad ; M. J. French, 
engineer maintenance of way, Utica & Mohawk Valley Rail- 
way Company, and B. E. Tilton, chief engineer of tracks, 
New York State Railways. 

The next order of business was the reading of a paper en- 
titled "Railway Motor Gears and Pinions," by T. W. Williams, 
of the General Electric Company. An abstract of this paper is 
published elsewhere in this issue. 

In response to a query from C. Loomis Allen, general man- 
ager of the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway, as to what lubri- 
cants he would advise for gearing, Mr. Williams said that un- 
questionably the heavy, clinging grease lubricants were much 
better than thin ones. One of the ingredients of the heavy 
lubricants seemed to be pitch. The value of the material was 
not so much its lubricating quality, but its ability to form a 
cushion which prevents direct metal-to-metal contact. 

Clark H. Prather, superintendent of motive power, Roches- 
ter, Buffalo & Lockport Railway, asked why there should be 
such variations in the life of chrome-nickel, heat-treated pin- 
ions from the same maker as given in the paper. Mr. Williams 
replied that it was impossible to account for a great many 
breakages. One pinion may have received a better heat treat- 
ment than the others. The slightest carelessness in quench- 
ing was likely to leave one portion much harder and less duc- 
tile than the rest of the piece, thus causing dangerous shrink- 
age strains. 

The next paper was on "Recent Developments in Multiple- 
Unit Control," prepared by Clarence Renshaw, of the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. An abstract 
of this paper is published elsewhere in this number. In re- 
sponse to a question, Mr. Renshaw said that no additional com- 
pressor capacity was required if care was taken to avoid 
leakage losses. 

The next order of business was to have been a discussion on 
H. W. Blake's paper on "The Problem of the 5-Cent Fare," 
read at the Tuesday session. Upon motion by J. C. Calisch, 
vice-president, Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company, it was 
decided to postpone this discussion until the next quarterly 
meeting, when it will be made the first order of business. By 
that time the members of the association will have had ample 
opportunity to analyze the paper. 

C. Loomis Allen, as chairman of the nominating committee, 
presented the following ticket, which was unanimously elected : 
President, James H. Pardee, operating manager J. G. White 
& Company, New York ; first vice-president, E. J. Cook, gen- 
eral manager, New York State Railways, Rochester ; second 
vice-president, J. W. Hinkley, Jr., president, Poughkeepsie City 
&. Wappingers Falls Electric Railway; secretary, C. Gordon 
Reel. Kingston ; treasurer, H. M. Beardsley, assistant general 
manager, Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Company; executive 

committee, J. K. Choate, W. H. Collins, J. C. Calisch and 
J. E. Duffy. 

Upon motion by W. H. Collins, resolutions of thanks were 
tendered to J. K. Choate and to the hotel management for the 
splendid convention arrangements. The convention adjourned 
after R. E. Danforth, a former president of the association 
and now general manager of the Public Service Railway, 
Newark, N. J., had been elected an honorary member of the 
association upon motion of C. Loomis Allen. A farewell 
luncheon was held at Five-Mile Point, on Lake Otsego. 


The annual banquet was held on Tuesday evening and was 
a most successful affair. The only disappointment was the 
absence of Vice-President Sherman, who was unable to appear 
as one of the speakers, owing to the serious illness of Mrs. 
Sherman in Baltimore. The toastmaster of the evening was 
Hon. John D. Kernan, Utica, who had a felicitous introduction 
for every one of the orators of the evening. The latter were 
James F. Hooker, Schenectady, who spoke on the "Benefits of 
Electric Railways" ; Rev. Ralph Birdsall, Cooperstown, who. 
gave sketches of the historical features of the convention meet- 
ing-place under the title of "The Glimmerglass" ; Walter B. 
Reed, Schenectady, who presented a sheaf of wittily told' 
stories under the caption of "The Flying Machine," and Hon. 
John N. Carlisle, Watertown, member of the Public Service 
Commission, Second District, who spoke on the need for and 
the functions of the Public Service Commissions in New York. 
Mr. Carlisle pointed out that such commissions offered the only 
method of stopping socialism through the power conferred on 
them to check corporation abuses. His idea of the functions 
of a public service commission was to help the corporations in 
the solution of their problems as well as to help the public. 

He said that the commission of which he was a member was. 
being used too much for complaints against corporations and 
too little for their assistance. The latter condition was the 
fault of the companies themselves. In several instances the 
commission had gladly helped the railway companies to secure- 
reasonable franchises from the local municipalities, and in one 
case it had refused its sanction to a franchise because it felt 
that the railway could not do business under the rigorous local 
restrictions placed in its franchise. The Street Railway Asso- 
ciation ought to ask the State Legislature to pass a uniform 
franchise law just as there is now a uniform fire insurance- 
policy throughout New York. There was no reason why the 
electric interurban railway in particular should not be able to. 
go through a district as easily as a steam railroad. The lat- 
ter gets its privileges from the State Supreme Court without 
haggling with a score of petty municipalities, each of which 
has some special and frequently impracticable condition to im- 
pose relative to construction, speed, fares, etc. The present 
system led to perfectly absurd conditions. Congestion in 
cities presented another serious problem, and he hoped that the 
association members would also take up with the important- 
manufacturers in their towns the question of having different- 
opening and closing hours for their different departments so- 
as to avoid peak loading. 

Further, Mr. Carlisle said the corporations had a wrong idea- 
as to the commission's attitude toward capitalization. The 
commission realized that the present managers were not re- 
sponsible for the over-capitalization of the past. If money- 
was needed for a new project, the commission was perfectly- 
willing to make a reasonable allowance for the inevitable pro- 
motion and organization expenses over the actual construction 
cost. The financial condition of the public service corporations- 
of the State was a most serious one. Thus, of the 310 gas, 
electric and street railway companies in the commission's- 
jurisdiction, 237, or 80 per cent, were not paying dividends on' 
any kind of common or preferred stock. The capitalization 
of the non-dividend companies totaled $142,330,000, or 66 per- 
cent of all the common and capital stock issued by these cor- 
porations. Either there was too much stock or an insufficient 
return was being secured on it. The commission was.anxious- 
to see that the corporations got enough money to run their busi- 

July 2, 1910.] 



ness properly. It had no intention whatever of keeping them 
down to a 6 per cent basis or any other definite profit. It 
wished that they could make 25 per cent on their common stock 
so that the companies could do more for the public. He real- 
ized that every railway man in the State would be glad to im- 
prove his line and service, but to attain this end there must be 
a stop to loading up the corporations with stock. 


The social side of the convention was very enjoyable, in- 
cluding as it did automobile and boat trips for the ladies and 
the annual baseball game between the railroad men and the 
supply men. The line up on each side consisted of : 

Railroad men : Joel, pitcher ; Brown, catcher ; Barnes, first 
base; Gower, second base; Wilson, shortstop; Weidman, third 
base; Hamilton, left field; French, center field: Kadi, right 

Supply men : Ransom, pitcher ; Hegerman, catcher ; Smiley, 
first base ; Ellicott, second base ; Campbell, shortstop ; Farmer, 
third base; Berry, left field; Slimp, center field; Chapin, right 

A novel feature of the convention was the fact that many 
of the delegates from the western part of the State went to the 
convention in two special cars. These cars came from the 
Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, via Syracuse and Utica, 
then to Cooperstown over the tracks of the Otsego & Herkimer 


The Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn, Berlin, Germany, now 
has about 240 km (192 miles) of track on plain concrete foun- 
dations in asphalted streets, as illustrated in the section Fig. 1. 
It also has six different types of construction in stone-paved 
streets, comprising a total of 460 km (285 miles) and 8 km (5 
miles) of track with wooden blocks. The standard weight of 
rail is 51 kg per meter (about 102 lb. per yard). In addition 
to the foregoing types, the company has installed during the 
past four years 7 km (4.3 miles) of track on foundations of 
reinforced concrete plates in asphalted streets. This last con- 

It was the belief of the Berlin company that ordinary track 
concrete does not contain enough cement to give it the strength 
necessary to carry heavy traffic. Further than this, the con- 
crete is rarely given the opportunity to set properly, and once 

£lcctric till. J.,l,,;,ul. 

Fig. 1 — Berlin Concrete Track — Ordinary Concrete Con- 
struction in Asphalt-Paved Streets 

in service it is subjected to the deleterious influence of water 
and the continuous pounding of vehicle traffic. Consequently, 
it was determined to try a reinforced concrete construction in 
which the concrete itself would be relieved from severe strain. 

Fig. 3 — Berlin Concrete Track — Blocks in Place 

As shown in the illustrations the construction adopted consists 
principally in the use of a ready-made reinforced concrete tie 
or plate which is 10 cm (4 in.) thick, 40 cm (15.6 in.) wide 
and 50 cm (19^ in.) long. These plates are set at 1.44 m (4.4 

Cenu'nt Morta 

Reinforced Tie 
or Piute 

Section A-B. 


:ky >'~v'yV7>7::*s^;r~^ :.-r'~~ ; ; 

Section C-D. 

1.44 m i 

-15:0-111— 0M87O-1 


All IJimrneions 
are in Meters or 
Decimal parts o 
a Meter unless 
otherwise noted, 

-W-4— + -lT^i- 

-M4— H I*— M4— ») 

11 m 

^ o.-.d ryt £ta g 

4--->K--1t44— > 

■— fc44 — 4*- '-It- 

4 — 4j— W4 — ' 

«— h<*~ 4*— t 


if" 4< — : 

<— -W4— 4* u 

'-1 | ( 



Fig. 2 — Berlin Concrete Track — Construction on Reinforced Concrete Ties 

struction is shown in plan and section in Fig. 2 and by half-tone 
in Fig. 3. The reinforced concrete has been found considerably 
stronger than the ordinary concrete design shown in Fig. 1, and, 
besides, costs about $5,000 less per km (0.62 miles), as less con- 
crete is used. 

ft.) from center to center, except at joints, where one plate is 
laid under the end of each abutting rail. Tie rods are installed 
every 2.16 m (6.6 ft.). The construction described was de- 
signed by Arthur Busse, chief engineer of way and structure 

of the Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 


The Durham Traction Company, Durham, N. C, is an in- 
teresting example of an efficient public utilities corporation in 
a small town. The population of Durham does not exceed 10,- 
ooo and it has therefore proved most satisfactory to have the 
power, railway, lighting and even the ice manufacturing busi- 
ness in the hands of a single company. The following para- 
graphs will describe the various features of the company's 
work except the lighting. 


The trackage of the Durham company is 7 miles, composed 
of standard gage 60-lb. T-rail on the highways and 70-lb. 

Durham Traction Company — The Casino 

girder rail in the paved streets, all laid on white oak or chest- 
nut ties spaced 2 ft. The routes are single track except for 
a 600-ft. siding on the main street of Durham. The lines run 
from the center of the town about 2 miles in each direction, 
east and west, and the longest possible ride for one fare is 
about 4^-2 miles. The overhead construction is of the span 
type within the city limits but brackets are used elsewhere. 
The trolley wire is No. 00 throughout and the feeders are of 
No. 0000 cable. The feeders run from the power station in 
the city for about 1 mile in each direction and the longest 
transmission with the trolley alone is Ij4 miles, which is the 
distance from the end of the eastern feeder to the new base- 
ball grounds. Cars are operated on a 12 minute headway. 
The company sells no tickets at reduced rates except that 
$5 lots may be purchased at the main office for $4.50. Free 
transportation is given only to the city police, the chief of 
the fire department, the street commissioner, the county sher- 
iff and the sheriff's deputies. The company does not give trans- 

Brill single truck cars with 7 ft. wheel base and four 12-bencb 
St. Louis cars, two of which have Dupont single trucks and 
two were equipped last season with Brill maximum traction 
trucks. The company expects to equip the other cars with 
the maximum traction trucks some time this summer. 

At present the company is doing very little repairing at 
its own car house, most of the work being done at a nearby 
machine shop which, however, is not supplied with a wheel 
press. The company is planning to purchase a lathe, wheel 
press and boring mill and other tools necessary for car re- 
pairs and power house maintenance. Woodworking tools will 
not be installed as there are plenty of facilities in Durham for 
the small amount of work of this kind which the company has. 
The necessity for a wheel press may be appreciated from the 
fact that it now costs $2.50 per wheel set each way merely for 
the freight. 


The power station of the company is used both for d. c. 
railway work and a. c. lighting. The original d. c. installation 
consisted of a 200-kw General Electric railway generator con- 
nected to a Ball simple engine. This machine is now used 
principally on Sundays when the other apparatus is shut down. 
Another reserve unit is the 200-kw General Electric 2300-volt 
alternator which is run by a high-speed Ball engine operated 
either condensing or non-condensing. The principal unit for 
carrying the load, however, is a 500-kw, 2300-volt, three-phase, 
60-cycle Parsons turbine which is run at 3600 r.p.m. This 
machine was installed in the fall of 1906 and has been giving 
very satisfactory service. The voltage delivered by the turbo- 
generator is divided between the lighting transformers and 
three 75-kw oil-cooled transformers which feed a 200-kw Gen- 
eral Electric rotary. This rotary is sometimes run inverted 
to take direct-current from the railway generator and to de- 
liver alternating current to the lighting system. The boiler 
equipment which is operated at 160 lb. pressure now comprises 
three 125-hp. Aultman & Taylor and two 250-hp Stirling boil- 
ers. The power house is to be lengthened, however, about 36 
ft. for its entire width of 100 ft. to take new equipment as 
follows: Two 250-lip boilers, one Hamilton-Corliss cross- 
compound condensing engine to be direct-connected to a Gen- 
eral Electric 2300-volt, 600-kva generator. The new condens- 
ing equipment to be installed will consist of 2000 sq. ft. capa- 
city apparatus from the C. H. Wheeler Engineering Company 
of Philadelphia, Pa. This will embrace a pair of natural draft 
cooling towers with combined capacity of 2600 gal. of which 
1000 gal. will be used for the present turbine because the old 

Durham Traction Company — Entrance to Lakewood Park 

portation to newspapers, but has an annual contract with the 
latter whereby car tickets are exchanged for advertising bills. 


The company now operates 10 closed single truck cars, eight 
of which were built by the American Car & Foundry Company 
and have Lord Baltimore trucks carrying two GE-54 motors ; 
the other two were built by the Southern Car Company and 
are mounted on Dupont single trucks carrying two GE-67 
motors. The remaining rolling stock comprises four 10-bench 

cooling tower will be displaced. In connection with this ap- 
paratus, there are also to be furnished by the same contrac- 
tor a Mullins wet vacuum pump and a volute pump driven by 
a 40-hp induction motor which will have a capacity of 1600 
gal. of water per minute. The old steam auxiliaries now in 
this plant comprise a 1000-hp Cochrane feed water heater and 
a Worthington 1800 sq. ft. surface condenser. This power sta- 
tion also contains the refrigerating machines which are oper- 
ated by steam from the boilers previously mentioned. 

July 2, 1910.] 




An excellent traffic producer for the company is a 30-acre 
grove located about \y 2 miles from the center of Durham and 
known as Lakewood Park. The grounds are in the midst of 
fine rolling country but at present do not contain a lake suit- 
able for boating. It is planned, however, to dam the brook 
which runs through the park and thereby enlarge the present 
pond in one of the hollows to such an extent that it will be 
possible to build a rustic path 900 ft. along the shores. If this 
work is undertaken, the company will embellish the vicinity 
of the lake with bridges, benches, etc. As Durham is an in- 

Durham Traction Company — A Scene in Lakewood Park 
Near the Dance Pavilion 

land city far from large bodies of water, an improvement of 
this kind should greatly increase the revenues of the park. 

The accompanying views will give a fairly good idea of the 
arrangement and attractions in Lakewood Park. Cars are 
run in on a stub track through the park gates to a covered 
platform, the passengers being unloaded next to the Casino, 
which is the principal building in the park. The Casino is pro- 
vided with a ticket office in the front and eight dressing rooms 
in the rear. Its stage is 32 ft. wide and has five sets of scen- 
ery. The seating capacity is 1000. Admission to the enter- 

Durham Traction Company — Interior of Theater at 
Lakewood Park 

tainments last season was free to all seats except 400 orchestra 
chairs for which 10 cents each was charged. More money was 
taken in by this plan last summer than when the admission 
charges were 10, 15 and 25 cents. The change of policy, how- 
ever, was induced primarily by a rapid development of moving 
picture shows in Durham which threatened to cut seriously 
into the park business. In 1908, vaudeville and moving pic- 
tures were given for a general admission of 10 cents and a 
free house for ladies and children every Wednesday afternoon. 

,ast season the railway secured a repertoire stock company 
with moving pictures and vaudeville between the acts. There 
were two changes of bill weekly and the 10-cent charge was 
made only for the 400 orchestra seats. As a result, the traf- 
fic to the park was largely increased and at the same time the 
theatrical people received as good returns as under the old 
conditions. The Casino is leased for a nominal figure. The 
company has nothing further to do with it except to furnish 
the lighting and whatever policing is required. The stage 
people even paid for their own transportation. In order to 
limit the patrons of the theater to passengers, the company 

Durham Traction Company — The Swimming Pool in 
Lakewood Park 

printed a triplicate ticket of the type reproduced on page 46. 
This was sold for 10 cens in the city. The first coupon was 
given for the ride to the park, the second was for admission 
to the Casino and the third for the ride to Durham. 

All the park concessions except the merry-go-round and the 
swimming pool are rented. These concessions include a roller 
skating rink, bowling and box-ball alleys, pool room, shooting 
gallery, ball rack, photograph studio, lunch privileges, and re- 
freshment stands. The concrete swimming pool operated by 
the company is very popular especially with onlookers for 

Durham Traction Company — In the Dance Pavilion at 
Lakewood Park 

whom benches are provided on the hillside. The pool is large 
enough for 100 people and is graded in depth to suit all ages. 
Forty dressing rooms are provided. A charge of 25 cents is 
made for the use of room and suit. 

Free orchestral music and dancing are provided at the pavil- 
ion every night except Wednesday and Sundays. Four to six 
firework displays are also given throughout the season. A 
rather novel feature of the park management is that iced city 
water is furnished free from two artistic fountains, a 300-lb. 

4 6 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 


Good for One Fare 



Not good" 






block being placed over each fountain coil every day of the 
park season. 


For the last four years the Durham Traction Company has 
been making ice from distilled water from the condensation 
of its Westinghouse power station turbine. The daily capa- 
city of the ice plant, which is located in the power station, is 
50 tons, but this is a great deal more than the amount sold as 
there is only local trade to cater to, such as stores, residences, 
the hospital, etc. Durham is not on the main line of any rail- 
road and has no important garden truck shipments so that 
there is no ice market for refrigerator cars. The ice-making 
equipment includes two refrigerating machines and tanks, with 
a special forced-draft cooling tower. The latter is kept sep- 
arate from the cooling tower of the power station proper and 
is more liberally designed so that the water in summer never 
reaches as high a temperature as that in the other cooling 
tower. An extra multi-stage pump is installed for handling 
the cooling water to the refrigerating machines. 

Practically no money is spent for soliciting ice business. The 
ice machine loads help to keep the boilers busy in the summer 
time when the lighting business is low. The ice compressors 
use steam from the regular boilers 
of ioo-lb. pressure, this being cut 
down from the regular pressure of 
160 lb. by a reducing valve. In the 
power station accounting, an arbi- 
trary portion of the cost for steam 
generation is charged off against the 
ice department, as is also the cost of 
water and engineering service. The 
chief engineer of the power station 
also takes care of the refrigerating 

The prices of ice are as follows : 
10 lb. tickets, 45 cents per 100 lb. ; 
25 lb. tickets and upward, 40 cents 
per 100 lb. ; cash ice for the wagon, 
SO cents per 100 lb. ; block ice, 35 
cents per 100 lb. when delivered and 
ZiVi cents per 100 lb. when taken by the user at the company's 
platform. The summer trade is handled by 11 regular wagons 
and one occasional dray. Most of the horses are sold at the 
end of the season, as not more than two wagons are required 
for the winter service. Very little feed has to be bought be- 
cause most of it is raised by the company on its park grounds 
and elsewhere. 


The gross earnings of the Durham Traction Company are 
divided into different departments approximately as follows : 
Railway, 41.4 per cent; power and lighting, 39.6 per cent; ice, 
19 per cent. Since 1905, the company has doubled its busi- 
ness and decreased its operating expenses by 15 per cent. In 
connection with the lighting business, it might be interesting 
to note that this company was one of the first to exploit 
tungsten lamps in the south, both for house and street sign 
lighting. The power business amounts to 600 hp in induction 
motors, all scattered among very small units because the large 
factories in Durham have their own power plants. 

The Durham property is largely owned by R. H. Wright 
and J. S. Carr, local capitalists. The manager is R. L. Lind- 
sey, who has been with this company since its organization in 
1901 when he became auditor. Previous to this, he was sec- 
retary and treasurer of the parent corporation, the Durham 
Electric Light Company, whose service he entered in 1898. He 
was appointed general manager of the present company in 
1905 in addition to his previous work as auditor. 


Good (or One Fare 



Park Ticket 

The traffic on the electric street railways of Bohemia in 1909 
was as follows: Passengers, 55,679,248; receipts, $1,565,078, of 
which the Prague lines alone had 42,634,681 passengers and 
$1,181,312 receipts, leaving for all others, 13,044,567 passengers, 
and $383,766 receipts. 

The Spencer Air Purifying Company, New York, has placed' 
on the market two interesting devices especially designed for 
securing clean air and consequent economy in air brake power 
consumption and maintenance. The company's air purifier is 
applicable to all modern compressors, while the equalizer and 
purifier system combined is intended for compressors where 
both the pump and motor are mounted in one case. 

The object of the air purifier is to insure the passage of clean 
air to the compressor without the use of screens which soon 

Fig. 1 — Simple Air Purifier 

clog up if not given constant attention. As shown in the ac- 
companying drawing, Fig. 1, this contrivance comprises a small,, 
light, sheet metal tank which may be placed anywhere in the 
line of the air-piping system as, for instance, under the seats. 
The air inlet is through the pipe shown at the right hand end 
of the drawing. The underside of this pipe is slotted so that 
when air comes in it is deflected toward the bottom of the tank 
against a layer of oil which extends almost to the height of the 
slot and which traps every particle of dirt before the purified 
air reaches the pump intake at the upper left-hand end of the 
tank. The bottom of the tank contains a plug to permit the 
removal of the dirt-filled oil from time to time. From ex- 
perience with the installations already made on electric rail- 
ways it has been found that the tank requires cleaning not 
oftener than once a year. The same principle of air purifica- 
tion can be applied to the natural air cooling of railway or 
other motors. Some figures of the power economy possible 
with the Spencer method were published on page 624 of the 

Fig. 2 — Equalizer and Purifier Combined 

Electric Railway Journal, Oct. 2, 1909, in a description of its 
use on -the New York & Queens County Railway. The fact 
that clean air is always obtainable makes possible the use of 
a smaller compressor and eliminates the danger of compressor 
burn-outs due to no-load operation. 

The equalizing and air-purifying system combined is especial- 
ly adapted for old style compressors. It traps the exhausts 
from the brake cylinders at the release of the brake and utilizes 
it to air cool both the pump and the motor. The principle of 
operation will be understood from the following paragraph 
and by reference to Fig. 2. 

July 2, 1910.J 



When the brakes are released the exhaust is conducted 
through the top pipe r, branch pipe 3 and automatic valve 4 into 
the tank 5. When the exhaust and tank are equalized the auto- 
matic valve 4 closes against the volume in the tank, thus trap- 
ping it. At the same time the automatic valve opens the by- 
pass 6, leading into the motor case 7 and the brake cylinder 
air is blown against the motor, thus keeping the latter clean 
and cool. The volume of air in tank 5 is under some pressure 
and due to its expansion is very cold. This air is blown on 
the pump 9 through the pipe 8 and cools the pump and motor 
and also supplies the pump with a large volume of clean air, in 
this way increasing the power efficiency. After the volume of 
air in tank 5 is pumped out, atmospheric pressure is admitted 
through the valve and tube shown at the lower right end of 
the tank and, as in the case of the simple purifier, the air is 
deflected and cleaned before it reaches the pump intake. 

with the armature shaft. The slotted vertical piece "D" is 8 
in. high, thereby giving an adjustment for commutators up to 
16-in. in diameter. The clamp "E" is 51 in. long and will take 
on any armature shaft. "F" is a movable nut, which allows 


J. A. Place, Geneva, N. Y., has placed upon the market a 
light and compact commutator slotting machine which was 
first designed and installed by him for the Asheville (N. C. ) 
Electric Company when he was in its employ. The machine is 

Commutator Slotter 

designed for independent drive and is adapted to any size of 
commutator. It is capable of slotting GE-80 and GE-67 com- 
mutators in about 1^2 hours each. The machine illustrated is 
operated by a 1/15-hp, 60-cycle, no-volt motor run at 1800 r.p.m. 

It is so constructed that the saw arbor is run in eccentric 
bearings. When the cut is completed the saw is raised from 
the slot by turning the hand wheel "A" and is ready to be car- 
ried back to starting position. The eccentric bearings are set 

Cable Clamps in Front of West Farms Car House 

free motion to the feed screw when the carriage is moved side- 
ways for segments out of true. Three turns of the handle "G" 
will move the carriage 1 in. 


The accompanying views show four installations made by 
the Union Railway Company, New York, with Matthews cable 
clamps. One illustration shows them applied to a strain pole 

Cable Clamps at 150th Street and Melrose Avenue; Southern Boulevard and Westchester Avenue, and 150th 

Street and Third Avenue, New York 

in a solid length of brass tubing "B" which constitutes an oil re- 
ceptacle sufficient to lubricate the saw arbor for months. The 
nut "C" is for the side adjustment of the carriage, to make 
possible the slotting of an armature which might be out of line 

at 150th Street and Third Avenue; another to a corner pole at 
150th Street and Melrose Avenue where the giving away of the 
first pole made it necessary to transfer the cables to a second 
pole without interfering with the service; a third illustration 

4 8 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. f. 

shows the application of the clamps at a corner pole at South- 
ern Boulevard and Westchester Avenue ; and a fourth illus- 
tration shows them in use between two poles in front of the 
West Farms car-house where the cables are brought from be- 
low to the aerial lines past lightning arresters, switch-boxes, 
etc. These clamps have given such satisfactory service that the 
Union Railway Company has made them its standard for all 
corner work, dead-ending, etc. The first clamps were installed 
about three years ago and the same type was adopted for all 
later installations. 

The old method was to make a wrap splice, cut the wire, 
dead-end on a pole and put a jumper across. In the hurry to 
cut in a cable, it often happened that the soldering was for- 
gotten. The clamps have eliminated all difficulties of this kind 
and furthermore they avoid all waste of material and loss of 


The Wichita Falls (Tex.) Traction Company lately has re- 
ceived from the Danville Car Company four 16-bench pay-as- 
you-enter trailer cars of the novel design shown in the accom- 
panying illustrations. It will be observed that the cars are of 
open construction with side screens. The body ends are fur- 
nished with bulkheads arranged for a sliding entrance door 
controlled by the conductor and a sliding exit door. These 
doors are used in connection with a two-leaf swinging en- 
trance gate and a single swinging exit gate, both under the 
control of the conductor. On the opposite side of each plat- 
form there is a single sliding gate which is locked when on the 
inner side of the track; otherwise it serves as a sliding front 
exit controlled by the motorman. At the entrance-exit side of 

Pay-As-You-Enter Trailers for the Wichita Falls Traction Company 

Platform and Interior View of the Wichita Falls Pay-As-You-Enter Cars 

current on account of bad connections. It takes less time to 
make a splice than before and the job looks better when it is 
finished. The clamps are applied after the cable insulation has 
been cut away for the necessary distance. No trouble has been 
experienced from sliding. In the case of the installation at 
150th Street and Melrose Avenue already mentioned, it has been 
a simple matter to change from pole to pole without interfer- 
ence of any kind as the clamp made it possible to take the cables 
and loop them over one at a time on the pole arms without 
breaking the connections. All the clamps were installed under 
the supervision of J. D. Kent, chief and electrical engineer of 
the Union Railway Company. This company operates the 
greater part of the overhead trolley electric railway mileage in 
the Borough of the Bronx, New York. 

each platform there is a folding step which is latched when not 
in use. The step on the other side is of the folding type and 
is operated in conjunction with the sliding exit gate. 

The general construction of this rolling stock is such that it 
can be converted into motor cars later on. The car body dimen- 
sions are : Length over the crown pieces, 59 ft 9^ in. ; width 
over the sills, 8 ft. ; length of platform center, from center of 
end posts, 7 ft. The side sills of the car are plated with $&-in. 
by 8-in. steel. The roof is one of the monitor deck type the 
full length of the car body and is provided with ventilator sash 
glazed with white Florentine glass. The inside finish 
of the car is of ash and the ceiling finish of bird's-eye maple. 
The cars have Westinghouse trailer car brake equipment, type 
S.T., and are mounted on Brill No. 27 G-2 trucks. 

July 2, 1910.] 




(From Our Regular Correspondent) 
The fifteenth annual convention of the Incorporated 
Municipal Electrical Association was opened on June 14, 
1910, at the Institute of Engineers and Shipbuilders, Glas- 
gow, by A. Mclnnes Shaw, Lord Provost of Glasgow, after 
which W. W. Lackie, chief electrical engineer of the Glas- 
gow Corporation Electricity Department and president of 
the association, read his presidential address. Thereafter 
a paper on "Commercial Progress," by A. C. Cramb, Croy- 
don, and H. Collings Bishop, Newport, was presented for 
discussion. Luncheon at the City Chambers was then 
tendered to the members and delegates by the tramways 
and electricity committees of the Glasgow Corporation. In 
the afternoon the various power houses and substations of 
the electricity and tramways departments were visited, and 
in the evening there was a reception and conversazione at 
the City Chambers. At the meeting of the association held 
on June 15 at Edinburgh the Lord Provost of Edinburgh 
welcomed the delegates. The papers presented at this 
session were "Exhaust Steam Turbines and Condensing 
Plant," by F. A. Newington, Edinburgh, and "Mixed 
Pressure Turbines," by Ashton Bremner, Burslem. Luncheon 
was tendered to the members and delegates by the Corpora- 
tion of Edinburgh. In the afternoon the works of the 
Electricity Department were visited. The association met 
again in Glasgow on June 16, when the following subjects 
were discussed: "Advantages of Continuous Records of 
Costs and of Steam Consumption," by George Wilkinson, 
Harrogate, and C. E. C. Shawfield, Wolverhampton, and 
"Cheapening of the Cost of Mains and Services," by S. E. 
Fedden, Sheffield, and S. J. Watson, Bury. Various other 
electric stations were visited in the afternoon, and the 
ladies were carried in a special car to Rouken Glen. The 
fourth day of the convention was devoted to the business 
meeting and the election of officers and council for the 
ensuing year. 

The Tramways & Light Railways Association held its 
annual congress this year at the Imperial Hotel, Dublin. 
William Murphy, chairman of the Dublin United Tram- 
ways, opened the congress. R. S. Tresilian, of the Dublin 
United Tramways, then read a paper descriptive of the 
system of that company; J. R. Salter read a paper, "Tram- 
way Economics." Harry England submitted a paper, 
"Railless Traction," and Fred. Coutts a paper, "Should the 
1870 Act Be Revised?". In the evening a banquet was 
tendered to the delegates by the Dublin United Tramways. 
The second day was devoted to a visit to the power station 
and to various excursions. The Dublin United Tramways 
entertained those in attendance at the conference at 
luncheon at the Marine Hotel, Kingstown, and at tea at 
the Claremont Hotel, Howth. 

The first electric tramway in Edinburgh was inaugurated 
in June, 1910, when a car conveying a number of officials 
was run from Ardmillan Terrace to the new Cattle Markets 
at Gorgie. As is well known, Edinburgh is equipped with 
a most successful system of cable tramways, so that this 
new extension will be carefully watched. 

The London County Council has a bill before a select 
committee of the House of Commons for extensions to its 
system. Mr. Macassey, who appeared for the London 
County Council, explained that the bill was an omnibus 
one, and sought to obtain powers for a variety of things. 
The bill contemplates a total expenditure of £931,335 for 
the construction of new tramways, the reconstruction of 
horse tramways and the widening and making of new 
streets. In the County of London there are 144 miles of 
tramways, of which 136 are owned by the London County 
Council, 113 miles being worked by electricity, and most of 
the remainder being still worked by horses. Mr. Macassey 
pointed out that in 1904-05 the total number of passengers 
carried was 164,000,000, while last year the number of 
passengers carried increased to 451,000,000. It has also 
been reported by the highways committee of the London 
County Council that the Council has had under considera- 
tion the question of making arrangements whereby passen- 
gers on the tramways could book direct to any station on 
the several underground electric railways in London, and 
vice versa. It has therefore been suggested that authority 
for this purpose should be sought at the next session of 

Parliament. The London County Council is also consider- 
ing the subject of issuing return tickets at reduced rates 
between the hours of 10 a. m. and 5 p. m. with a view to 
increasing traffic on its system during the hours when 
ordinarily the traffic is light. 

In the London Letter in the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 4, 1910, page 1001, it was stated that Sir George 
Gibb, who has resigned as managing director of the Metro- 
politan District Railway, had been appointed chairman of 
the board. It should have been stated that Sir George 
Gibb had been appointed chairman of the Road Board, a 
new body constituted under the provisions of the Develop- 
ment and Roads Improvement Funds Act of 1909, and 
formed to give proper arteries through London and provide 
proper egress and ingress to and from the metropolis and 
the outlying disticts. 

An interesting job in electric rail welding is being carried 
out on the Birmingham Corporation Tramways system by 
the Tudor Accumulator Company, the British representative 
of a German invention. If the work now being done is 
satisfactory after it has been in service some time it is more 
than likely that an agreement will be entered into between 
the company and the Council whereby all lines on which 
the return circuit is not particularly good will be welded 
by the Tudor process. 

The Board of Trade of Torquay has intimated that it will 
not renew the certificate for the use of the Dolter system 
on the tramway after Oct. 30, 1910, unless service im- 
proves. The Torquay tramways are equipped with the 
Dolter surface contact system, and while on the whole 
the system has worked satisfactorily, there has been con- 
siderable trouble from live studs. The Board of Trade has 
never issued a license to the company which operates the 
system for a longer period than six months, and has on 
several occasions called attention to the number of live 
studs reported to it each month by the company. Doubtless 
the surface contact system will be abandoned and the tram- 
ways equipped with the overhead system, which, it is esti- 
mated, can be done for about £8,000. 

The Maidstone Corporation has before it a proposal to 
extend the electric tramways of the borough to the neigh- 
boring town of Chatham, a distance of nearly 7 miles. It is 
estimated that the scheme would involve an expenditure 
of £60,000. 

A receiver has been appointed for the Sunderland District 
Electric Tramways, Ltd. The company was formed to con- 
struct a tramway from Houghtonle-Spring to Sunderland. 
There are £160,000 of first mortgage debentures outstand- 
ing and £20,000 of second mortgage debentures. The com- 
pany has been carrying on business for eight years at a 
loss. No interest has been paid on the preferred shares, of 
which there are £90,000, or on the £74,000 ordinary shares. 
Though no interest on the debentures is in arrears, it is 
admitted that there would not be sufficient funds to pay the 
interest which becomes due on July 1, 1910. 

The Paisley District Tramway is building a new line 4 
miles long, to connect Barrhead and Rouken Glen, and cost 
about £40,000. The extension will mean that passengers 
from Paisley to Rouken Glen will have a choice of returning 
by the Corporation cars or via Barrhead to Paisley, and 
thence by the Paisley Road to the city, or travel to Renfrew 
and return to the city from Renfrew or Yoker. The company 
has agreed to build a double-track line and Spiers Bridge 
has been extended at a cost of nearly £3,000, and rails laid 
across it. The Clyde Valley Company will supply the elec- 
tric power. The terminus of the Paisley District Tramway 
at Rouken Glen is close to the terminus of the Glasgow 

The annual meeting of the Anglo-Argentine Tramways, 
Ltd., was held recently in London. During 1909 223,823,792 
passengers were carried. The total receipts were £1,938,- 
887, and the expenditures, including £50,000 carried to the 
depreciation renewals funds, totalled £1,207,222, leaving a 
net profit of £731,665. After providing for all fixed 
charges, dividends on both classes of preference shares, 
nine months' rent of the Metropolitan Tramways and the 
share capital sinking fund, the surplus is £140,972, from 
which has to be deducted the interim dividend paid on the 
ordinary shares and the extra dividend which has been 
recommended upon them, together £130,625, leaving a bal- 
ance of £10,347 t° be carried forward. A. C. S. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

News of Electric Railways 

Transit Affairs in New York 

The Public Service Commission has rejected the terms 
offered by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company for the 
use of the Center Street subway loop in Manhattan. The 
letter from the commission to the company was signed by 
Commissioner McCarroll, who is acting chairman. Mr. 
McCarroll points out that traffic can be increased over the 
Williamsburgh Bridge 15 per cent or 20 per cent and that 
the connecting loop is a trunk line of vast importance. He 
also says that it is unfair for the company to desire to 
withhold 40 per cent of the rental until the Williamsburgh 
Bridge can carry 10-car trains as the stations on the Broad- 
way elevated are not equipped to receive 10-car trains. Dur- 
ing the rush hours 62 trains are run across the Brooklyn 
Bridge while only 20 trains are operated across the Wil- 
liamsburgh Bridge. Mr. McCarroll suggested that Presi- 
dent Winter, of the company, and Vice-President Calder- 
wood should confer with the members of the commission in 
regard to the matter. This they have done, but no agree- 
ment has been reached. The Board of Estimate and Ap- 
portionment has also rejected the offer of the company to 
operate across the Manhattan Bridge. 

On June 24, 1910, E. W. Winter, president of the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company, sent a letter to the Public 
Service Commission containing a further statement of the 
position of the company in regard to the operation of the 
bridge loop subway. The letter in substance reaffirms the 
offer, with additional details and a concession in one par- 
ticular, giving the city the option of changing at its will 
from a flat rental to payment from the company on a car 
mileage basis. The company offered originally to pav, in 
case a flat rental basis was determined upon, $40,000 the first 
year, $60,000 the second year, $80,000 the third year, $100,000 
the fourth year, and $120,000 the fifth year. Thereafter the 
rate was to be $200,000 a year, with a reduction propor- 
tional to the capacity of the bridge loop subway under a 
limit of a 10-car train. The commission was of the opinion 
that these sums were much too small, and that payment 
for the first year should be at least $75,000 and increase 
annually in the proportion named in the company's pro- 
posal, making the payment for the fifth year $225,000 and 
thereafter, if 10-car trains were permitted to operate, $375,- 
000 a year. Mr. Winter, in his letter, said, in part: 

"In addition to payments to the city, I ask you to con- 
sider the fact that approximately $2,000,000, rather more 
than under, will have to be expended for a substation in 
Manhattan, additional electrical and other equipment made 
necessary by this extension of service, and a conservative 
estimate of increase in operating expenses of $100,000 per 
year will have to be borne by the operating company, con- 
stituting in all a fixed charge on the basis of our proposal 
ranging approximately from $240,000 for the first year to 
$320,000 for the fifth year, and, if the city makes it possible 
for the operation of 10-car trains, $400,000 per year there- 

"In short, the company proposes to incur an expense 
ranging from $240,000 to $400,000 per annum for the privi- 
lege of performing an important service for the public with- 
out additional charge, its only possible pecuniary return 
being such enhancement of its general business as may in 
time be expected because of increased accommodation to 
its passengers. 

"I call your attention to Clause B in the proposal of May 
27, in which an alternative offer is made on a car mileage 
basis, the rate suggested being practically the same as that 
applying to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company's 
rental reduced to car mile basis. The immediate returns 
to the city under this arrangement can be estimated by 
applying the rate of 4>4 cents per mile to the closely 
approximated car mileage named in that communication. 
Under this plan the city would share in whatever increase 
of business might come from time to time in the line in 

The Public Service Commission has sent a letter to the 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment asking the board 

to appropriate $490,000 to provide for additional entrances 
and exits for the subway. The work of lengthening the 
platforms in the subway is now well under way and it is 
estimated that this improvement will increase the capacity 
of the subway 25 per cent. In order to avoid extensive 
congestion around the entrances, however, and to make full 
use of the lengthened platforms it is believed by the com- 
mission's engineers that it will be necessary to have more 
entrances and exits. The more important stations will 
then be arranged more or less like the present station at 
Fulton Street, which has entrances and ticket booth at 
John Street and Dey Street, on Broadway, as well as at 
Fulton Street. 

Cleveland Traction Situation. 

The Cleveland Railway has refused to accept the Hitch- 
ens amendment to the Tayler franchise, which provided 
that a greater portion of the cost of renewal work shall 
be charged to capital account. The officers of the com- 
pany concluded that the capital valuation would probably 
be increased too rapidly through the working of the amend- 
ment, and that trouble might possibly result in the future 
from it. 

J. J. Stanley, president of the company, has asked the 
City Council to confer with him on the question of an 
additional allowance for renewal charges. If the company 
is granted an addition above that provided in the Tayler 
franchise, the improvements may proceed, but if this is 
not done the account will have to be overdrawn for a 
time, at least, as some of the track is still badly in need of 
repair. Under the present grant all the renewal cost that 
may be charged to capital account is the difference be- 
tween the cost of the new property and the original cost of 
the property which is replaced. 

An allowance will have to be made for operation, it is 
believed, if the increase in the wages of motormen and 
conductors is to stand. This will also be referred to the 
City Council for consideration. Mr. Stanley believes that 
the board of arbitration took an extreme view of the con- 
ditions affecting the men who have been in the employ 
of the company more than one year, and that an increase 
of 2 cents an hour would have covered the case satis- 

During May, 1910, 3,403,578 more passengers were car- 
ried than in May, 1907. The increase in car mileage for 
May, 1910, over May, 1907, was 23,330 miles. During March 
and April, 1910, there was a decrease in car mileage, but 
an increase of about 2,000,000 in the number of passengers 
carried. During the rush hours all available cars are in 
service, and about 50 per cent, of the business is done 
during those periods. Mr. Stanley states that no additional 
cars can be operated during the rush hours, but that the 
service can be bettered by not taking so many cars out of 
service during the non-rush hours. Street Railway Com- 
missioner Dahl has objected to this because it would in- 
crease the operating expenses. 

Yonkers Strikers Return to Work Pending Settlement 

On June 23, 1910, the motormen and conductors of the 
Yonkers (N. Y.) Railroad who were on strike returned to 
work, temporarily, pending the decision of Supreme Court 
Justice Keogh, in the matter of an increase of wages. 

On the same day there was a hearing before Justice 
Keogh, at which Thomas F. Curran represented the city 
of Yonkers, John J. Crennan appeared for the strikers, 
and Leverett S. Crumb represented Leslie Sutherland, 
the receiver of the company. Mr. Curran told the court 
about the inconvenience to which persons were being put 
by the strike, and the suffering that it entailed, and urged 
the court to come to a decision that would speedily end the 
existing situation. Mr. Crumb said that the men on strike 
wanted an increase in wages to 30 cents an hour. Prior to 
the strike they had been paid on a sliding scale, the aver- 

July 2, 1910.] 



•age pay being about 23 cents an hour. By the sliding scale 
system, which had been fixed by Justice Morschauser about 
a year ago, and to which the men had agreed, the men 
longest in the service of the company received the highest 
pay. According to Mr. Crumb the company's bonds are held 
by the Central Trust Company, New York, N. Y., as a 
•depository. He said that Frederick W. Whitridge, receiver 
for the Third Avenue Railroad, represented the bondholders 
of the Yonkers Railroad, and was also receiver of the 
Union Railway. The Yonkers Railroad, the Westchester 
Electric Railroad and the Tarrytown, White Plains & 
Mamaroneck Railroad were all in the hands of receivers 
■and all were controlled by Mr. Whitridge, as representative 
of the bondholders. Mr. Crumb argued that if the increase 
•demanded by the strikers of the Yonkers Railroad were 
granted it would mean an increase in the wages of the 
men of the Westchester Electric Railroad and the Tarry- 
town, White Plains & Mamaroneck Railroad, which would 
amount to about $295,000 a year. 

Justice Keogh, after being assured that the receiver of 
•the Yonkers Railroad would submit to him a full statement 
as to the financial status of that road, said he would take 
the matter of the strike under consideration, and, in the 
"meantime, desired that the strikers return to work pending 
his decision. 

The strike was declared on June 15, 1910. Leslie Suther- 
land, who is operating the property as receiver, requested 
the men to return to work pending an adjustment of the 
wage question. This the men declined to do, and Mr. Suth- 
erland stated that the cars would be permitted to remain in 
the car house until the men did return to work. Finally, 
■the case came before the court for review as a result of 
an action by the City of Yonkers to compel the company 
.to operate cars. 

Plans for Opening Franchise Negotiations at Toledo 

Brand Whitlock, Mayor of Toledo; B. Merrell, chairman 
■of the railways and telegraph committee of the City Council 
•of Toledo, and Carl Nau, of Nau, Tanner & Rusk, who are 
examining the books of the Toledo Railways & Light Com- 
pany, Toledo, Ohio, for the city, have been named as a 
sub-committee of the general committee of the whole of 
the City Council to frame a reply to the suggestion of the 
company that the franchise matter should be referred to a 
■commission of engineers. Mayor Whitlock has prepared 
two letters on the matter and whichever is adopted by the 
sub-committee will be referred to the Council before it is 
transmitted to the company. « 

Mayor Whitlock has formally accepted the invitation to 
make an inventory of the physical property of the com- 
pany, but has declined to entertain the suggestion of Presi- 
dent Lang, of the company, that the matter be referred 
to a board of engineers for settlement. The Mayor says 
that, in referring the matter to a board of engineers, the 
city officials and Council would be delegating to others 
•duties with which they were charged when elected. He 
says that engineers will be employed to secure and furnish 
information, but that he does not believe such a board 
could properly arrange a settlement of the question. Mayor 
Whitlock states that Nau, Tanner & Rusk will proceed 
to make up the inventory, and suggests that they be allowed 
to inspect a copy of the inventory which was prepared for 
the committee representing the bondholders of the com- 
pany some months ago. 

Ohio State Board of Arbitration Acts in Threatened Strike 
at Columbus 

On June 23, 1910, the State Board of Arbitration of Ohio 
•ordered the officers of the Columbus Railway & Light Com- 
pany, and the representatives of the organized employees of 
the company, to appear before the board on June 24, 1910, 
and present evidence under oath regarding the differences 
between them. The board can not enforce compliance with 
its decision, but it can make its findings public. 

Previous to this call the employees of the company who 
are organized had authorized the executive committee of the 
hody of which they are a part to call a strike. The repre- 
sentatives of the employees claimed that several men were 

discharged without cause, in violation of the agreement of 
May S, 1910, between the company and the men. 

On June 23, 1910, the officers of the company issued a 
written explanation. They claimed that there had been 
no discharges except for cause. In taking action in a 
case they had not inquired whether the employee was a 
member of the organization or not. Mr. Stewart, general 
manager of the company, subsequently asserted that he 
would protect all his men, whether they belonged to an 
outside organization or not, and that men who were uncivil 
to other employees could not remain in the service of the 

At the hearing before the State Board of Arbitration, 
each side was represented by attorneys. Chairman Theo- 
dore I. Reese turned the chair over to Judge Noah Swayne. 
On motion of the attorney for the men the hearing was 
continued until July 1, 1910, in order that another attorney 
might have an opportunity to be present as a co-representa- 
tive of the men. The attorneys were instructed to formu- 
late a code of procedure and to specify to the board by 
June 28, 1910, the charges against the company, so as to 
give an idea of the extent of the hearing. The question of 
wages does not enter into the controversy at this time. 

Association Meetings 

Central Electric Traffic Association. — September. 
Central Electric Accounting Conference. — Chicago, 111., 

Colorado Electric Light, Power & Railway Association. — 
Glenwood Springs, Col., Sept. 21, 22 and 23. 

Oklahoma Public Utilities Association. — Oklahoma City, 
Okla., Sept. 30 and Oct. r. 

American Street & Interurban Railway Association. — 
Atlantic City, N. J., Oct. 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. 

New Jersey Line Opened. — The North Jersey Rapid Tran- 
sit Company, Paterson, N. J., which is building an electric 
railway to connect Paterson, Glen Rock, Ridgewood, Ho- 
hokus, Allendale and Suffern, placed the line in operation 
between Paterson and Hohokus on June 22, 1910. 

Sentence Passed on Men Who Held Up Seattle Car. — 
The four young men who held up a car of the Seattle 
(Wash.) Electric Company, at First Avenue South and 
Spokane Avenue, Seattle, at 1 a. m., on April 8, iq 10, and 
robbed the passengers of $1500 in money and jewels, entered 
pleas of guilty when arraigned recently in the criminal 
court, and were sentenced to serve from five to 20 years 
each in the State penitentiary. The robbers were appre- 
hended in Portland, and were promptly identified in Seattle. 

Equipment Trust Certificates Subject to Approval of Com- 
mission. — The Court of Appeals has affirmed a decision of 
the Appellate Division of the Third Department in the 
controversy submitted without action upon an agreed state- 
ment of facts between the Public Service Commission of 
the Second District of New York and the New York Cen- 
tral & Hudson River Railroad. The companies, known col- 
lectively as the New York Central Lines, issued $30,000,000 
of equipment trust certificates for the purchase of engines, 
cars and equipment in November and December, 1907, 
without application to the commission. The commission 
held that under section 55 of the Public Service Commis- 
sions Law the consent of the commission was necessary, 
and the court upholds the contention of the company. 

Meeting of the Stone & Webster Club. — About 50 repre- 
sentatives of Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass., in the 
Pacific Northwest, who are members of the Stone & Web- 
ster Club of Washington, met at the Tacoma Hotel, Ta- 
coma, Wash., on June 15. A. L. Kempster, superintendent 
of transportation of the Seattle Electric Company, who is 
president of the club, presided as toastmaster at a dinner 
which preceded the business session of the club. J. W. 
Wilmot, of the Seattle Electric Company, read a paper en- 
titled "Prevention of Accident Claims"; A. H. McKay, 
traffic manager of the Puget Sound Electric Company, pre- 
sented a paper entitled "Freight Transportation," and W. 
Osborn, of the Washington Water Power Company, Spo- 
kane, Wash., who was in attendance at the meeting of the 
National Electric Light Association, held recently in St. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. I. 

Louis, read excerpts from a number of papers presented 
before that association, devoting particular attention to the 
paper by Arthur S. Huey, of H. M. Byllesby & Company, 
Chicago, 111., which dealt largely with the relations between 
public service corporations and the public. 

Plans for Boston Elevated Station Approved, — The 

Massachusetts Railroad Commission has approved the plans 
of the Boston Elevated Railway to establish an elevated 
station in Causeway Street, Boston, in connection with the 
East Cambridge elevated extension over the Charles River 
Dam. The station will be connected by passageways with 
the North Union Station of the Boston & Maine Railroad and 
the North Station of the Boston elevated system. A plat- 
form about 410 ft. long will be provided for East Cam- 
bridge cars, and a spur track will be installed for the use 
of elevated trains running between the North and South 
Stations. The entrances and exits will be located on the 
property of the Boston & Maine Railroad, with a covered 
connection with the North Station. Provision will be made 
in Commercial Street for double-track service in connec- 
tion with the inter-terminal train operation. The East 
Cambridge elevated service will be handled by surface cars, 
which will be diverted into the Tremont Street subway at 
the head of the Canal Street incline. The new station will 
materially reduce the volume of traffic, which at present has 
to be handled in a somewhat limited platform area at the 
North elevated station. 

Grand Central Terminal Improvements. — The work of de- 
molishing the Grand Central Station of the New York Cen- 
tral & Hudson River Railroad, in New York, has been 
begun preparatory to erecting the new terminal on the 
site now partially occupied by the company. There will be 
two great waiting rooms in the new station, one for the 
suburban traffic, and the other for the through passengers. 
Each will be on the level of the tracks that it serves, and 
will be quite distinct from the other. The ticket offices, 
the entrances and exits, and everything else are distinct 
and separate. There will be two concourses, also, for 
suburban and through passengers. Each will have its own 
ticket offices, information bureaus, baggage checking places, 
parcel rooms, and all the facilities for travel. The con- 
course for the inbound trains will accommodate 8,000 people, 
and the outbound 15,000. The waiting rooms will be large 
enough to accommodate about 5,000 more. Seventy thou- 
sand outbound passengers an hour will be the capacity of 
the new terminal. Among the features which have been 
decided on is one by which trains when coming in will dis- 
charge passengers and continue on around a loop instead 
of backing out, as they do at present. The total area of 
the old terminal was 23 acres; that of the new will be 76 
acres. The old terminal had a capacity of 366 cars; the 
capacity of the new will be 1,149 cars. The station building 
proper will be 600 ft. on the street level, 300 ft. wide, and 
105 ft. high. Below the street level it will be 745 ft. long, 
480 ft. wide, and 45 ft. deep. 


Massachusetts. — The Legislature adjourned on June 15. 
Near the close of the session the bills were passed to au- 
thorize the purchase of the Berkshire Street Railway by 
the New York. New Haven & Hartford Railroad, and to 
permit the Boston & Eastern Electric Railroad to build a 
tunnel under Boston Harbor. The proposed acquisition of 
the securities of other street railways by the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway was embodied in a resolution which provides 
for an investigation and report upon the subject by the 
Boston Transit Commission and the Massachusetts Rail- 
road Commission as a joint board. Other constructive 
legislation included the passage of a resolve to require the 
Boston Transit Commission to investigate the engineering 
details of a subway from Park Street to the South Station, 
Boston; the extension of liability to cover passengers rid- 
ing on car platforms and the granting of half-fare privi- 
leges to pupils of industrial schools. A resolution was also 
passed to require the standard-gage steam railroads at Bos- 
ton to report upon electrification within the Boston metro- 
politan district, the report to be passed upon in a supple- 
mentary report to the Legislature of 191 1 by the joint 
commission on metropolitan improvements created by the 
acts of 1909. 

Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Market 

June 28, 1910. 

With no outside buying and with professional traders 
timid, there is little chance to hold a market the tone of 
which is radically weak. Beginning yesterday morning, 
after a week of exceptional dullness, a selling movement 
was started, and before it was checked near the close to- 
day prices had declined from 2 to 5 points. There was no 
assignable cause for the break. Tractions suffered along 
with the other issues. 

The money market, on the other hand, continues to be 
entirely in favor of the buyer. Rates to-day were: Call, 
2 l /y to 3 per cent; 90 days, 2> Z A P er cent. 

Other Markets 

The Philadelphia market has been weak, in sympathy 
with Wall Street, and trading has been light. Prices have 
receded, but to no considerable extent. Rapid Transit sold 
down to i8^4 and Union Traction to 46, but very little 
stock changed hands. 

The main interest in tractions in Chicago has been in 
Elevated railway shares. Metropolitan has been more 
active than the others, and both the preferred and com- 
mon now approximate the figures of the merger agreement. 

Tractions in Boston have been less active during the past 
week. While there has still been some trading in Massa- 
chusetts Electric and Boston Elevated, there have been no 
material changes in prices. 

There has been practically no trading in tractions in 
Baltimore during the week except in the bonds of the 
United Railways Company. Prices for these are unchanged. 

Quotations of various traction securities as compared with 
last week follow: 

June 21. June 28. 

American Railway Company a44^4 a44 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) *6o a6o 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) *03 aoi 

Boston Elevated Railway ai26 ai26 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies ai4 ai4 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) . . . a74 a74 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common).... aio^ aio$4 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred).. a4i a4o 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 79 76% 

Brooklyn Rap. Transit Company, 1st pref. conv. 4s 83% 83 !4 

Capital Traction Company, Washington ai29^4 ai2g l / 2 

Chicago City Railway ai95 aigs 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common) *3'4 3/4 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred) *7 l A *7» 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 a75 a^ 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 ai9 ai7 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf., 3 an ai L, 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4s a6J4 ao'/i 

Cleveland Railways *9^'A 9\ l A 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey a76 a7b 

Consolidated Traction of N. J. 5 per cent bonds aio3 aio3 

Detroit United Railway *S° l A 50V2 

General Electric Company 147 M3 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) aio8J4 aio8 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) .... a87 a8g 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (common) 19% 18 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 51% 49H 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (iVs) 79% 80 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common) .... a25 a25 
Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) . . . a72 a73 

Manhattan Railway iZ°Vs 13° 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) aio ai5% 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) a8i a8o 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) *24^ a23?4 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (preferred) a7i a70 

Metropolitan Street Railway IS ! 5 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred) *no 110 

North American Company 69 68 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) a22 a22 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) 66 a6; 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common) a^Vi 848 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (preferred) a4354 a43% 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company a20 ai9 l A 

Philadelphia Traction Company a84^S a84j4 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent col. notes.... *96 896 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs aioi aioi 

Seattle Electric Company (common) *uo l A ano 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) *ioi aioo 

South Side Elevated Railroad (Chicago) a72 a72% 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York 7Vs a 7« 

Toledo Railways & Light Company 9'A 8 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) 110^2 109^2 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia 346^ 846 

United Rys. & Electric Company, Baltimore ai3% ai4% 

United Rvs. Inv. Co. (common) 32 30 

United Rvs. Inv. Co. (preferred) *6s 55 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) a35 a33j4 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) .... a89 a88 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) a88 a88 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) aioi aioo 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company 65% 62 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st pref.) '125 125 

a Asked. * Last Sale. 

July 2, 1910.] 



Reorganization of International Traction Company 

The committee consisting of Robert L. Fryer, Thomas 
De Witt Cuyler, Lewis Cass Ledyard, Thomas E. Mitten 
and Charles Steele, which has been appointed to protect 
holders of the $30,000,000 of 50-year 4 per cent collateral 
trust bonds of the International Traction Company, has 
issued a statement in part as follows: 

"The International Traction Company owns all of the 
stock of the International Railway, which is deposited under 
the collateral trust indenture and constitutes the main 
security for the 50-year 4 per cent collateral trust gold 
bonds. The International Railway owns and operates the 
properties known as the International Traction System, all 
of which are located in Buffalo and vicinity. 

"The International Traction Company has issued all of 
the bonds under the collateral trust indenture reserved for 
extensions and betterments of the property. There remain 
unissued $11,665,000 of bonds reserved exclusively for the 
acquisition or retirement of underlying bonds secured by 
liens on the property of the International Railway. 

"For the payment of such underlying International Rail- 
way bonds, the collateral trust indenture contemplated the 
issue and sale of an equal amount of the 50-year 4 per cent 
collateral trust gold bonds of the International Traction 
Company reserved for such purpose. As the collateral trust 
bonds have a limited market and are selling much below 
par, they cannot provide sufficient funds to meet such under- 
lying obligations, of which many will mature in the near 

"In view of this situation and of the fact that under the 
collateral trust indenture no more bonds can be issued for 
extensions or betterments, there is urgent need for a re- 
organization of the finances and the legal status of the 
International Traction System. The urgency of this need 
is indicated by the foreshadowed inability of the Inter- 
national Railway to pay the dividend on its stock necessary 
to enable the International Traction Company to make its 
interest payments due next July on the 50-year 4 per cent 
collateral trust gold bonds. 

"This condition has resulted, not from lack of earning 
power, but from the rapid growth of its business, and the 
consequent necessity of devoting to improvements and ex- 
tensions publicly demanded a large part of its earnings 
which have been the only resource of the International 
Traction Company for such capital requirements since the 
exhaustion of collateral trust bonds reserved for such pur- 

"The agreement recognizes that foreclosure proceedings 
may ensue, and that the interests of the bondholders will 
require protection through the committee, empowered to 
acquire the pledged stocks of the International Railway at 
the foreclosure sale, and to cause to be organized under 
the laws of New York a new railroad which, by merger, 
shall acquire first the stock and then the physical proper- 
ties of the International Railway (subject to its prior mort- 
gages). Under this agreement such new company is to 
execute a refunding mortgage to secure 5 per cent bonds 
to mature not earlier than July r, 1949. which shall con- 
stitute a first lien upon portions of the property of the 
International Railway, and a lien upon the other properties 
owned or controlled by the International Railway, as em- 
braced in the reorganization, subject to bonds secured by 
direct liens. 

"In exchange for their deposited bonds, the depositing 
collateral trust bondholders, at their option, shall receive 
either (a) 5 per cent refunding bonds of the new company 
to the amount of 80 per cent of the par value of such de- 
posited bonds, and accrued interest in full in cash on the 
deposited bonds from the date of the last interest payment 
thereon to the date from which the new bonds shall draw 
interest, or (b) cash to the amount of 70 per cent of the 
par value of such deposited bonds, and also accrued interest 
in full on the deposited bonds from the date of the last 
interest payment thereon to the date fixed by the commit- 
tee for such cash payment. Should the holders of the 
bonds prefer not to accept the new bonds, they can sell 
them at 70 cents on the dollar, a sum in excess of the 
present market price. 

"It will be observed that the agreement authorizes the 
committee in its discretion to make provision for the stock- 

holders of the International Traction Company in the stock 
of the new railroad. 

"Arrangements have been effected whereby J. P. Morgan 
& Company, New York, N. Y., will act as depositary for 
the committee, and on behalf of the committee will issue 
transferable receipts for all deposited bonds. 

"In view of past experience and the present condition of 
the property, the normal capital requirements of this grow- 
ing system must now be estimated to be $1,000,000 per 
annum. The larger amount, $2,750,000, as indicated by the 
proposed capital expenditures for 1910 and 191 1, is due to- 
the fact that, because of the exhaustion of the 4 per cent 
collateral trust bonds provided for such purposes, the capi- 
tal expenditures for the two preceding years, 1908 and 1909, 
were abnormally and harmfully low. 

"On the basis of the reorganization of the property, as 
now proposed, net earnings as at present would indicate 
a satisfactory margin over the amount necessary to pay the 
fixed charges of the reorganized company. The normal in- 
crease in net earnings should be more than sufficient to 
meet the additional fixed charges for future capital re- 

Consolidation of Chicago Elevated Railways. 

The proposed consolidation of the elevated railways in 
Chicago seems likely to be effected. A few weeks ago an 
option was secured on the stock of the South Side Elevated 
Railroad by Henry A. Blair, on behalf of a syndicate 
headed by the First National Bank, New York, N. Y. Sub- 
sequently the trustees of the Northwestern Elevated Railroad 
stock accepted terms proposed by Mr. Blair. The Chicago 
& Oak Park Elevated Railroad has for some time been 
controlled by the Blair interests, and will, of course, enter 
the merger. On June 22, 1910, the directors of the Metro- 
politan West Side Elevated Railway voted to accept the 
offer of Mr. Blair for the purchase of the stock of that 
company, subject to the ratification of the stockholders. It 
is stated that the consolidated company will probably be 
known as the Union Consolidated Elevated Railways. 

Chicago Railways Readjustment 

Andrew Cooke, Charles G. Dawes and John Barton 
Payne, acting as a committee of the security holders 
of the Chicago Railways and the Chicago Consolidated 
Traction Company, submitted to Judge Peter S. Gross- 
cup on June 22, 1910, a plan of readjustment which 
they have worked out for these companies. In effect 
the Chicago Railways will purchase the property of 
the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company and execute a 
rehabilitating mortgage to provide the necessary funds, 
including the cost of retiring the receivers' certificates out- 
standing. The . Chicago Railways will use its existing 
rehabilitation mortgage for the purpose of acquiring the 
property of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company if 
the City of Chicago approves the plan. A mortgage to 
secure what shall be known as purchase money bonds, 
bearing interest at the rate of 4 per cent for five years, and 
5 per cent thereafter, will also be approved, as will a mort- 
gage to secure what shall be known as funding mortgage 
bonds, to bear interest at a rate of 4 per cent a year, if 
earned, and such interest to be non-cumulative. It is agreed 
that the mortgage shall cover all the properties of the 
Chicago Consolidated Traction Company acquired by the 
purchase within city limits. The allotment of the proposed 
new bonds to the holders of the present securities was 
shown in a table. No agreement has yet been reached 
as to how the $2,000,000 of bonds of the Cicero & Proviso 
Street Railway will be taken care of. The Chicago Rail- 
ways and the reorganization committee are willing to submit 
this question for decision to some arbitrator to be agreed 
upon by the parties at interest, or a referee to be appointed 
by the court. As to the securities held by the Yerkes 
estate, the plan is subject to the approval of the probate 

On June 23, 1910, Louis S. Owsley, executor for the 
Charles T. Yerkes estate, asked the Probate Court to 
approve his acceptance of the reorganization plan of the 
Chicago Railways. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

An ordinance authorizing the merger of the Chicago 
Consolidated Traction Company with the Chicago Rail- 
ways is being prepared by the transportation committee of 
Chicago City Council, acting under instructions from the 
whole body issued in response to letters from Judge Gross- 
cup, John M. Roach, president of the Chicago Railways, and 
Andrew Cooke, chairman of the reorganization committee. 
The letters were transmitted to the Council by Mayor 
Busse. It was agreed in the Council that in case the or- 
dinances cannot be prepared in time for presentation before 
the summer recess, which will probably begin on July II, 
1910, a special meeting will be called by Mayor Busse. 

Report cf Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 

The annual report of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company for the year ended March 31, 1910, has 
been issued in printed form, for presentation at the annual 
meeting of the stockholders on July 27, 1910. 

The gross earnings for the year ended March 31, 1010, 
were $29,248,682; the net manufacturing profits were $3,552,- 
978; other income aggregated $1,616,561, making a total 
income of $5,169,539, or an increase of $3,203,280 over the 
preceding year. After making deductions the net income 
for the year was $3,060,664, an increase of $3,979,346 over 
the preceding year. The value of unfilled orders on March 
31, 1910, was, in round numbers, $11,256,000, which is the 
largest in the history of the company with the exception of 
the year ended March 31. 1907. During April and May of 
the present year additional orders were taken aggregating 
in value $7,083,000, and unfilled orders on May 31 aggregated 
over $13,000,000. 

Robert Mather, chairman of the board of directors, states 
that the satisfactory results reflected in the report are 
largely due to the policy adopted by the board of liberal 
expenditures for increasing the effectiveness of the selling 
organization and for development and improvement in de- 
sign and in manufacturing methods. While this plan has 
added considerably to the expenses for the year, the in- 
crease is stated to have been amply justified both in the in- 
creased volume of business and in the decreased cost of 

The consolidated balance sheet shows total assets of 
$83,588,000. Of this sum $14,974,000 is represented by prop- 
erty and factory plant; $13,893,000 in working and trading 
assets, including raw material and supplies, finished parts 
and machines, work in progress, goods on consignment and 
apparatus with customers; $27,206,000 by investments in 
stocks, bonds, debentures and collateral trust notes, includ- 
ing those of affiliated European and Canadian Westing- 
house companies; $20,479,000 by current assets, including 
$7,040,000 in cash, $3,766,000 in notes receivable and $9,169,- 
000 in accounts receivable. Charters, franchises, patents, 
insurance, taxes paid in advance, etc., enter in the assets 
for the sum of $6,083,000. 

The main charges under liabilities are capital stock, $40,- 
719,000; funded debt, $22,326,000; collateral notes, $8,720,000; 
readjustment notes, $1,387,000; current liabilities, $3,302,000; 
reserve, $1,280,000; surplus, $5,668,000. 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies, Boston, Mass. — 

The trustees of the Boston & Worcester Electric Companies 
have voted to defer the July, or semi-annual, dividend on 
the preferred stock of the company. The last dividend paid 
was $1, on Jan. 1, 1910. In 1909 $2 was paid, and in 
1908 $4. W. M. Butler, president of the Boston & Wor- 
cester Electric Companies, has issued a statement in regard 
to the passing of the dividend, in which he says, in part: 
"By a recent act of the Legislature the fiscal year of all 
street railways in Massachusetts has been changed from 
Sept. 30 in each year to June 30, the change to take effect 
June 30, 1910. This change in the fiscal year means that 
the report of the company to the Railroad Commission 
will have to be made up for the nine months beginning Sept. 
30, 1909, and ended June 30, 1910. By this change in the 
fiscal year, July, August and September, the three best 
months, during which practically the whole year's dividend 
is earned, are eliminated from the report. If the regular 
July dividend were declared at this time, it would mean the 
declaration of a dividend on the first day of the new fiscal' 
year and before sufficient earnings had been made from 

which to pay the same, and the company has not at the 
present time a surplus adequate for this purpose. The 
trustees, therefore, have decided to defer the payment of a 
dividend on July 1." 

Carbon Transit Company, Mauch Chunk, Pa. — The Car- 
bon Transit Company has filed a mortgage to the Mauch 
Chunk Trust Company, Mauch Chunk, Pa., as trustee, to 
secure an issue of $100,000 of second mortgage 30-year 5 
per cent gold bonds, of which only a part, it is stated, will 
be sold at present to provide for floating debt and necessary 
working capital. 

Chicago City & Connecting Railways, Chicago, 111. — The 
governing committee of the Chicago City & Connecting 
Railways has declared a dividend of $2.25 a share on the 
preferred participation shares of the company and $1 a 
share on the common participation shares, payable to share- 
holders of record on June 21, 1910. 

Denver & Inter-Mountain Railroad, Denver, Col. — 

Interests identified with the Denver City Tramway have 
secured control of the Denver & Inter-Mountain Railroad, 
and new officers have been elected as follows: W. G. Smith, 
as president to succeed Charles F. Propst; J. H. Brown as 
secretary, to succeed J. F. Gaule; Fred Moffatt as treasurer, 
to succeed Wm. F. McDermott. Frank L. Butler was 
re-elected vice-president and general manager. 

Elizabeth & Trenton Railroad, Trenton, N. J.— The Eliza- 
beth & Trenton Railroad has been incorporated to take over 
the Trenton & New Brunswick Railroad and the New Jersey 
Short Line Railway. It is said that the Elizabeth & Tren- 
ton Railroad will later be leased to the Public Service Cor- 
poration of New Jersey, and that the New Jersey Short 
Line Railroad will then be pushed to completion. 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway. — The El Paso Electric 
Railway has applied to the State for permission to increase 
its capital stock from $1,500,000 to $2,500,000. 

Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & St. Nicholas Ave- 
nue Railway, New York, N. Y. — Final order for the sale un- 
der foreclosure of the property of the Forty-second Street, 
Manhattanville & St. Nicholas Avenue Railway has been 
entered by Judge Lacombe, of the United States Circuit 
Court, in the suit of the Union Trust Company. In accord- 
ance with a decree of the court Edward H. Childs, special 
master, is to sell all the property, franchises and securities 
on Sept. 1, 1910. .The company is directed by the court 
to pay within 20 days $1,679,933, which is the amount due 
for principal and interest on a mortgage held by the Union 
Trust Company. The special master is also directed that 75 
pay-as-you-enter cars, purchased since the mortgage was 
given to the Union Trust Company, must be sold with the 
rest of the property, but that the purchaser must pay in 
cash $350,365 to reimburse the receiver in the amount 
expended for these cars. All bidders for the property as a 
whole shall be required to deposit $100,000 with the special 
master prior to the acceptance of any bid. The decree does 
not fix any upset price, but the court reserves the right to 
reject or accept any bid. 

Gary & Interurban Railway, Gary, Ind. — The Gary & 
Interurban Railway has authorized an issue of $10,000,000 
of refunding and first mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds to 
provide for extensions, etc. Of the total issue, $470,000 will 
be reserved to retire a like amount of first mortgage 5 per 
cent bonds dated 1909. It is stated that $1,500,000 of the 
new bonds have been sold. The company has declared an 
initial dividend of 1 per cent, payable July 10, 1910, to 
holders of record on June 30, 1910. 

Illinois Valley Gas & Electric Company, Streator, 111. — 
Russell, Brewster & Comapny, Chicago, 111., and New York, 
N. Y., offer for subscription at $85 a share, with a bonus 
of 25 per cent of common stock, the 6 per cent cumulative 
preferred stock of the Illinois Valley Gas & Electric Com- 
pany, which controls the Illinois Light & Traction Com- 
pany, Streator, 111., and other companies. 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — 
The Lehigh Valley Transit Company's mortgage for $15,- 
000,000 to the Lehigh Valley Trust & Safe Deposit Com- 
pany, Allentown, Pa., as trustee, has been filed for record. 

Nashville Railway & Light Company, Nashville, Tenn. — 
The Nashville Railway & Light Company has declared a 


July 2, 1910.] 



•quarterly dividend of % of I per cent on the $4,000,000 of 
common stock of the company, payable on June 22, 1910, 
which compares with Y2 of 1 per cent in April and semi- 
annual distributions of 1 per cent in January, 1910, and 
July, 1909. This increases the annual rate from 2 per cent 
to 3 per cent. 

Ocean Shore Railway, San Francisco, Cal. — F. S. Strat- 
ton, receiver of Ocean Shore Railway, has filed a petition 
in the United States Circuit Court asking that the master in 
chancery examine the claims of the various creditors of the 
company to determine the priority of the claims as between 
the bondholders and the other creditors. An itemized list 
of the debts of the company, exclusive of the bond issue, was 
filed with the petition, showing the amount to be $2,321,- 
743.50. In the list the receiver- segregated the debts con- 
tracted six months or more prior to his appointment and 
those contracted afterwards up to May 5. 

Owosso & Corunna Electric Company, Owosso, Mich. — 
The property of the Owosso & Ccrunna Electric Company 
has been sold under foreclosure for $80,000 to W. M. Eaton, 
who is said to represent the Commonwealth Power Com- 
pany, Jackson, Mich. 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. — An extra divi- 
dend of 1 per cent has been declared on the common stock 
of the Philadelphia Company, payable one-half of 1 per cent 
on Aug. 2, 1910, to stock of record on July 1, 1910, and one- 
half of 1 per cent on Nov. 1, 1910, to stock of record on Oct. 
1, 1910. 

Southwestern Street Railway, Philadelphia, Pa. — The 

sale of the property of the Southwestern Street Railway, 
which was to have been held on June 23, 1910, has been post- 
poned indefinitely. 

United Light & Railways Company, Grand Rapids, 
Mich. — The United Light & Railways Company has been 
organized under the laws of Maine in the interest of Child, 
Hulswit & Company, Grand Rapids, Mich., to take over the 
Fort Dodge (la.) Light Company, Muscatine Light & Trac- 
tion Company, Muscatine, la.; Cadillac (Mich.) Gas Light 
Company, La Porte (Ind.) Gas Light Company, Mattoon 
(111.) Gas Light Company, Chattanooga (Tenn.) Gas Com- 
pany, Cedar Rapids (la.) Gas Light Company, and the La 
Porte (Ind.) Electric Company. The United Light & Rail- 
ways Company has an authorized capital stock of $30,000,- 
000, of which $12,500,000 is first preferred 6 per cent cumu- 
lative stock, $5,000,000 second preferred 3 pyer cent cumu- 
lative stock, and $12,500,000 common stock. 

On June 23, 1910, Chairman Knapp, of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, sent the following telegram to the 
presidents of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Rail- 
road, the Erie Railroad, the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Cen- 
tral of New Jersey Railroad, the Lehigh Valley Railroad, 
the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad and the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway: 

"Several complaints have been filed against advances in 
•commutation rates between New Jersey points and New 
York City, and the commission is urged to suspend the 
same. The new law has not been carefully examined and 
some of my associates are absent. Under the circumstances, 
and to afford opportunity for proper consideration both as 
regards our power and the propriety of its exercise, the 
commission requests your company to postpone until 
August 1 the effective date of tariffs announcing these 
advances. Your compliance with this request will be highly 
gratifying and permission to postpone will be granted on 

The complaints filed included that of the New Jersey 
Railroad Commission and several other complaints received 
from various municipalities of New Jersey, all directed 
against proposed advances of rates by the same railroads. 
At the informal hearing on the subject the New Jersey 
complainants' delegation, headed by Attorney General Wil- 
son, was informed that it was questionable whether the 
commission would accept the complaints, as the commis- 
sion was doubtful of its jurisdiction over the matter of com- 
mutation rates. Mr. Wilson urged upon Chairman Knapp 
and Commissioners Cockrell and Harlan action by the com- 
mission to suspend the advanced rates, under the new law, 
as nearly all of the traffic involved was interstate commerce, 

Trail icand Transportation 

Fare Complaint Dismissed in Pennsylvania. 

On June 24, 1910, the Railroad Commission of Pennsyl- 
vania dismissed the complaint of the West Chester Im- 
provement Association against the Philadelphia & West 
Chester Traction Company, Philadelphia, Pa., which, in 
October, 1909, established six 5-cent fare zones between 
Sixty-third Street and Market Street, Philadelphia, and 
West Chester, instead of five. The circular of the company 
to the public announcing the increase was published in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Oct. 16, 1909, page 888. and 
a summary of the testimony presented in behalf of the 
company at the hearing before the commission in Harris- 
burg, on April 14, 1910, was published in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal, of April 30. 19 10, page 787. The decision of 
the commission is substantially as follows: 

"The operation of the respondent's road began in Janu- 
ary, 1899, an d from that date until September, 1909, the 
through fare from Sixty-third Street, Philadelphia, to West 
Chester, a distance of approximately 20 miles, was 25 cents, 
the fare zones in that distance being five, and the second 
one of that number — counting from Philadelphia — ended at 
Newtown Square, where nearly all the complainants in 
this case reside. 

"In September, 1909, the company felt compelled to in- 
crease those fare zones to six, making the through fare from 
Philadelphia to West Chester 30 cents; and in this read- 
justment of those zones, Newtown Square fell practically 
in the centre of the third zone, instead of being the terminus 
of the second, as theretofore. This change is the occasion 
of this complaint. 

"We have not been given the distances of the original 
zones, but the distances of the present zones on the main 
line, counting from Philadelphia, are as follows: First 
zone, 20,900 feet; second zone. 16,130 feet; third zone, 16.- 
320 feet; fourth zone, 17,475 feet; fifth zone, 16,355 feet; 
sixth zone, 17,060 feet. 

"All of these zones, it will be noted, except the first, 
cover practically the same distances. On the first zone, 
however,- are two branch connections, one running off 
therefrom at Upper Darby Junction, 5,070 feet from Sixty- 
third Street, to Collingsdale, 25,761 feet from said Junction, 
making a total distance from Sixty-third Street to Colling- 
dale of 29,831 feet; and another running off at Llanerch, 
14,259 feet from Sixty-third Street, thence to Ardmore, a 
distance of 17,270 feet, making the total distance from Six- 
ty-third Street to Ardmore, 31,529 feet. 

"The fare from Sixty-third Street to both Collingdale 
and Ardmore is 5 cents, and it is in comparison with the 
fare on these branch lines that the complainants find their 
principal ground of objection to the present arrangement 
of the zones throughout the main line. 

"On all such interurban lines the most equitable ar- 
rangement of the fare zones is that which makes them 
practically equal in distance, for it is for his transportation 
for such distances that the patron pays; but in practice it 
is almost impossible to make these fare zone distances abso- 
lutely equal, and in this case, with the exception of the first 
zone and the branch lines leading therefrom as aforesaid, 
the distances are as nearly equal as it is ordinarily possible 
to make them. 

"To account for the greater length of the first fare 
zone and for the length of the lines to Collingdale and 
Ardmore, it must be remembered that this zone and these 
branch lines are those located at the Philadelphia end of 
respondent's road, in the most thickly populated section of 
its territory, and reach points which are competitive by 
reason of their close proximity to the city. Because of 
these facts, roads of this character have found it necessary 
to make such fare zones, as a rule, longer than those which 
extend a greater distance beyond the limits of the centers 
of population. Moreover, in the statements which have 
been -furnished us by the respondent it appears that these 
operations of its road are those which bring it the greatest 
proportionate return for the services rendered. Trolley 
rates are largely determined by the density of travel in 
each particular section, so that the probability is that, if 
the travel beyond the first zone were at all commensurate 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

with that within that zone, the other zones would be so 
arranged as to make each include substantially the same 
distance as the first. 

"The complainants find no fault with the through rate 
from Philadelphia to West Chester, but because of what 
they conceive to be due to them from the company — largely, 
perhaps, in consequence of the location of the original fare 
zone termini — they would have the second zone extended, 
as it originally was, to Newtown Square, making it cover a 
distance of 23,600 feet, and then propose, in order to main- 
tain for the respondent the same through fare to West 
Chester, to make the zones between Newtown Square and 
West Chester considerably shorter than they now are, or 
have ever been; that is, they would make the third zone 
but 15,000 feet, the fourth zone 14,280 feet, the fifth zone 
13,420 feet, and the sixth — the last — 17,060 feet, as it is at 

"It is natural to suppose that if any such rearrangement 
of the zones were made to suit the convenience and desires 
of complainants, it would occasion more or less dissatisfac- 
tion and complaint on the part of residents all along the 
line between that place and West Chester, the result of 
which would be that the dissatisfaction would probably be 
greater than it is at present. 

"When the whole situation is thus considered, it does 
not appear that the commission would be justified in recom- 
mending the readjustment of these fare zones which the 
complainants desire." 

Recommendations Regarding Service in Pittsburgh 

The Railroad Commission of Pennsylvania on June 23, 
1910, issued the following recommendations regarding street 
railway service in Pittsburgh, based on the report on trac- 
tion matters in that city made for the commission by Emil 
Swensson, the letters to the commission by both Mayor 
Magee and President Callery of the Pittsburgh Railways 
and the report made about a year ago on the local street 
railway situation in Pittsburgh by Stone & Webster. Bos- 
ton, Mass.: 

"1. That 50 additional closed motor cars of 56-seat 
capacity be ordered at once for delivery as speedily as 

"2. That all cars be distributed over practicable routes 
according to the amount of travel, and during rush hours 
be scheduled to meet, so far as possible, the demands 
thereof; and that, outside of the morning and evening rush 
hours, a sufficient number of cars be run on all routes to 
accommodate the travel comfortably. 

"3. That hereafter there be annual additions to the rolling 
stock amply sufficient to provide for any increase in travel 
and to supply the loss from wear and tear. 

"4. That so far as the character of the various routes per- 
mits and the travel thereon requires, and as the wear and 
tear of the rolling stock demand its renewal, the old 28-seat 
cars should be replaced by the 56-seat or other equally good, 
large type of cars. 

"5. That routing and re-routing and the operation of 
short runs should be carefully studied, and, from time to 
time, experimented with, as the city, the other municipali- 
ties concerned, and the company may find advisable and 
practicable, until the best arrangement thereof is deter- 
mined, and that thereupon publication be made of the 
several routes and the service thereon for the convenient 
information and guidance of the patrons, and that wherever 
now practicable, or hereafter rendered so, the terminal 
loops be shortened, the number of stops thereon decreased 
and the crossings of loops by each other avoided. 

"6. That all cars be regularly and thoroughly cleaned, 
both inside and outside, each day, with such additional 
cleaning during the day as the circumstances demand and 
permit, and that ample provision be made for prompt and 
full repairs as they may be required. 

"7. That the roadbed be maintained in first-class condi- 
tion, and that the power plants be made sufficient for every 

"8. That persistent endeavor be made to keep the cars on 
schedule time. This is regarded as very important. 

"9. That the company promptly determine the additional 
franchise privileges it regards as necessary for the most 
satisfactory and efficient service, and then make application 

to the respective municipal authorities for the grant thereof, 
and persist in efforts to obtain the same until a definite con- 
clusion is reached. 

"10. That the endeavor to eliminate grade crossings of 
steam railroads be prosecuted vigorously. 

"n. That proper and adequate provision be made for the 
storage of cars near the terminal district, so that the cars 
can be readily run in for short trips and for the rush hour 

Freight Petition Granted in Massachusetts. — The Rail- 
road Commission of Connecticut has granted the petition of 
the Connecticut Valley Street Railway, Greenfield, Mass., to 
act as a common carrier in Hadley. 

Car License Suit in Milwaukee. — Emil Seidel, Mayor of 
Milwaukee, has begun action against the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company, Milwaukee, Wis., to recover 
$77,000 in car license fees which he claims is due the city. 

Special Seeing Buffalo Service. — The International Trac- 
tion Company, Buffalo, N. Y., operated a special seeing Buf- 
falo service during the recent conclave of the Knights 
Templars in that city, arranged especially to suit the con- 
venience of those in attendance at the conclave. 

Freight Over the Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Rail- 
road. — The Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Railroad, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., has filed tariffs with the Public Service Com- 
mission of the Second District of New York to provide for 
the transportation of freight locally over its lines here- 

Interurban Poultry Car. — The Evansville & Southern In- 
diana Traction Company, Evansville, Ind., proposes to run 
a poultry car over its Rockport line every Saturday, leaving 
Rockport at 7 a. m., and arriving in Evansville at 11 a. m., 
stopping at all the intermediate points to receive consign- 
ments of eggs, chickens, etc. 

Report on Elevated Loop Congestion in Chicago. — It is 
expected that Bion J. Arnold and the commission appointed 
to consider the reduction of congestion on the Union Ele- 
vated Railroad, operating the loop in Chicago, will report 
very soon. It is predicted that through routes and liberal 
transfers will be recommended. 

Proposed Abandonment of Part of New York State Line. 
— In connection with the petition of the Waverly, Sayre & 
Athens Traction Company, Waverly, N. Y., under section 
103 of the Railroad Law for an approval of a declaration of 
abandonment of a portion of its constructed route, the 
Public Service Commission of the Second District of New 
York has directed the company to present to the commis- 
sion a record of its passenger business arising exclusively 
from that part of its system which is involved in the matter. 

Pittsburgh Fare Ordinance Signed. — The Mayor of Pitts- 
burgh has signed the city ordinance which provides for 
transfers on all lines operating within the city which cross, 
intersect or run within a radius of 250 feet. Transfers are 
to be issued upon transfers, the intention of the law being 
that, for a single fare, any passenger shall be entitled to a 
single continuous ride over the lines of the railway system 
within the limits of the city. J. D. Callery, president of the 
Pittsburgh Railways, says that the legality of the ordinance 
will be tested on the ground that it is illegal and unjust, 
and that Councils have no right to order or regulate the 
issuing of transfers. 

Arbitration in Albany. — Two of the three arbitrators have 
been chosen who will consider the question of the wages of 
the employees of the United Traction Company and the 
length of the new agreement between the company and its 
employees in regard to terms of service. C. Gordon Reel, 
formerly second vice-president and general manager of the 
Kingston (N. Y.) Consolidated Railroad, has been selected 
to represent the company, and Joseph McLoughlin, presi- 
dent of the Troy division of the organization representing 
the employees of the company, has been selected to repre- 
sent the men. 

Increase in Wages on Toledo & Chicago Interurban Rail- 
way. — On June 1, 1910, the following wage scale for motor- 
men and conductors became effective on the Toledo & 
Chicago Interurban Railway, Kendallville, Ind.: First six 
months, 18 cents per hour; second six months, 19 cents per 
hour; third six months, 20 cents per hour; fourth six months, 

July 2, 1910.] 



21 cents per hour. Motormen and conductors on freight 
runs receive 2 cents per hour, in addition to the above. 
The old wage scale was: First six months, 17 cents per 
hour; second six months, 18 cents per hour; third six 
months, 19 cents per hour; fourth six months, 20 cents per 
Hour. No extra amount was received by motormen and 
conductors on freight cars under the old scale. 

Wage Agreement in Brooklyn. — The agreement between 
the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
and its employees regarding wages and terms of service 
expires on July 1, 1910. The man have been receiving 23 
cents per hour for swing runs, no swing run to pay less 
than $1.75, and a flat rate of $2.30 per day for straight runs 
of 10 hours completed inside of 11 hours. Some of the 
straight runs fell short of 10 hours and others extended 
over 10 hours. The men asked for an increase in pay to 
25 cents an hour, no swing run to pay less than $2, and 
straight runs to be paid for all time in excess of 10 hours. 
The company declined to increase the rate of wages or to 
guarantee $2 per day for swing runs so long as two-thirds 
of the runs on the table were straight runs, but agreed to 
pay 23 cents an hour for all time made by straight runs in 
excess of 10 hours. On this basis an agreement has been 
signed for another year. 

Decision in Oregon Fare Case. — The Supreme Court of 
Oregon in an opinion written by Justice Slater on June 1, 
1910, denied the application of the Portland Railway, Light 
& Power Company, Portland, Ore., for a rehearing of the 
case of the company against the State Railroad Commission 
of Oregon in the matter of the fare over the Milwaukee line 
of the company. The company contended that the act of 
the Railroad Commission and the decision of the court are 
confiscatory. The court states that it finds itself unable to 
assent to the conclusions of the company's attorneys, and 
concludes with an answer to the contention that the State 
has no power to regulate fares in Portland. The opinion 
concludes: "Assuming that these claims , are well founded, 
still we do not see that the order of the commission at- 
tempts to regulate fares within Portland, for the decision 
operates only upon traffic reaching or extending beyond 
the boundaries of the corporate limits." 

New Transfers in Portland, Ore. — B. S. Josselyn, presi- 
dent of the Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, 
Portland, Ore., has announced that the company will adopt 
a new style of transfer. In connection with the proposed 
change, Mr. Josselyn issued a statement in which he said: 
"The new transfers will have the date printe^d in red across 
the face and in large, bold type, so that there can be no 
mistake about it. At present the conductor punches the 
•date, and no doubt mistakes sometimes creep in. On the 
ether hand, there are passengers who will present transfers 
that they know have outlived their usefulness, but it is 
difficult for the conductor to refuse to accept them because 
the conductor who issued them might have made a mistake. 
The new transfers will also be better equipped for giving 
the time of transfer. Along one side of the slip will be 
printed the even hours, while on another will be the figures 
I 5? 30, 45. This will make it easy for the conductor to 
punch the exact time. The transfers cannot be used for any 
other date but that indicated in red." 

More Brooklyn Rapid Transit Advertisements. — The 
Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company has recently pub- 
lished in the Brooklyn newspapers a number of advertise- 
ments setting forth features of the company's work. As 
typical of these advertisements there were two, one on 
the power system of the company, and one on the em- 
ployees' training school, which indicate their scope and 
purpose. Each contained less than 100 words, and both 
were illustrated, the one about the power station with an 
exterior view of the company's Kent Avenue plant, and the 
one about the employees' school with a view of the motor- 
men's instruction room. The advertisement about the com- 
pany's training school for employees follows: "Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit was one of the first systems in the country 
to develop the training of its motormen. In its fully 
equipped schoolroom, at Second Avenue and Fifty-eighth 
Street, and in the actual operation of school cars all pros- 
pective motormen are first trained, and then required to 
pass strict efficiency tests before being permitted to break 
in on cars in regular service." 

Personal Mention 

Mr. William G. Smith has been elected president of the 
Denver & Inter-Mountain Railroad, Denver, Col., to suc- 
ceed Mr. C. F. Propst. 

Mr. Fred Moffat has been elected treasurer of the Denver 
& Inter-Mountain Railroad, Denver. Col., to succeed Mr. 
William F. McDermott. 

Mr. James H. Brown has been elected secretary of the 
Denver & Inter-Mountain Railroad, Denver, Col., to suc- 
ceed Mr. James F. Gaule. 

Mr. A. Katterheinrich has been appointed assistant 
auditor of the Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway, 
Michigan City, Ind. Mr. Katterheinrich was formerly gen- 
eral passenger and freight agent and auditor of the Fort 
Wayne & Springfield Railway, Decatur, Ind. Mr. Katter- 
heinrich entered electric railway service in 1906 as a stenog- 
rapher with the Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway, and was 
appointed chief clerk of the company on Sept. 1, 1908, and 
on Jan. 1, 1909, was appointed general passenger and freight 
agent and auditor of the company. He subsequently relin- 
quished the duties of general passenger and freight agent 
of the company to Mr. J. R. Fink, but upon the retirement 
of Mr. Fink from the company he resumed the duties of this 
position. In the meantime he acted as auditor. 

Mr. E. P. Clark, until recently president of the Los 
Angeles-Pacific Railrway, Los Angeles, Cal., has acquired 
traction interests in and near Portland, Ore., and has iden- 
tified himself with the Mt. Hood Railway & Power Com- 
pany, in the management of which he proposes to take an 
active part, although he does not intend to give up his 
residence in Los Angeles. Mr. Clark and his associates, 
some of whom are Southern California capitalists, have 
invested several million dollars in the vicinity of Portland. 
An electric railway is now in process of construction to 
Mt. Hood. Gen. M. H. Sherman, who is a brother-in-law 
of Mr. Clark, although still vice-president of the Los 
Angeles-Pacific Company, is also interested in the Mt. 
Hood Railway & Power Company. Mr. Clark still retains 
a financial interest in the Los Angeles-Pacific Company. 

Mr. William Walker has been appointed assistant super- 
intendent of the Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Rail- 
way, Milford, Mass., and the Interstate Consolidated Street 
Railway, North Attleboro, Mass., which are controlled by 
the New England Investment & Security Company. Mr. 
Walker's first electric railway experience was with the 
Schenectady (N. Y.) Railway as conductor and then as 
motorman. He was later made an inspector of the com- 
pany, which he served in all about 10 years. Mr. Walker 
next became connected with the Berkshire Street Railway, 
Pittsfield, Mass., as motorman, but soon after entering the 
employ of the company he was made train dispatcher. Sub- 
sequently he was transferred to Westfield as inspector of 
transportation, and later was transferred from Westfield to 
Springfield, where he was located about two years. Finally 
he was again transferred to Westfield. 

Mr. K. K. Garrick has been appointed general traffic 
agent of the Seattle-Everett Traction Company, Everett, 
Wash. In September, 1902, Mr. Garrick entered the service 
of the Everett Improvement Company as assistant book- 
keeper. At that time the Everett Improvement Company 
controlled and operated the Everett Railway & Electric 
Company, the Everett Water Company, the Everett Theatre 
Company, the Everett Dock & Warehouse Company and 
was interested in the townsite of Everett. About June, 
1903, Mr. Garrick was made assistant cashier of the company 
and in January, 1904, he was appointed bookkeeper. In 
July, 1904, Mr. Garrick was made chief clerk of the com- 
pany, and about January, 1906, the duties of purchasing 
agent were added to the office of chief clerk. In August, 
1907, the Puget Sound International Railway & Power Com- 
pany, managed by Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass., leased 
the properties of the Everett Railway, Light & Water Com- 
pany, and Mr. Garrick continued with the lessee company as 
chief clerk and purchasing agent until recently, when he 
was placed in charge of the freight and passenger traffic 
of the Seattle-Everett Traction Company, which is being 
managed at the same offices in Everett as the Puget Sound 
International Railway & Power Company. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

Mr. C. Gordon Reel, who retired early in the year as first 
vice-president and general manager of the Kingston (N. Y.) 
Consolidated Railroad, after holding that position since 
1902, when the Colonial 
City Traction Company 
and the Kingston City 
Railroad were consolidat- 
ed, was elected secretary 
of the Street Railway As- 
sociation of the State of 
New York at the meeting 
which was held at Coop- 
erstown on June 28 and 
.29, to succeed Mr. J. H. 
Pardee, who has been 
elected president of the 
association. Mr. Reel has 
been appointed as arbitra- 
tor to represent the 
United Traction Company, 
Albany, N. Y., in settle- 
ment of a schedule of ^ ee ^ 
wages for three years, to be determined by a representative 
of the company, of the men and by a third person to be 
chosen by the two other arbitrators. Mr. Reel is also one 
of the commissioners of appraisal in the land condemnation 
proceedings in connection with the Ashokan dam. which 
is being built to hold the water supply of New York City. 
He is making his headquarters in Kingston as a consulting 
engineer. Mr. Reel was formerly first vice-president of the 
Street Railway Association of the State of New York. 

Mr. J. E. Gibson has been appointed assistant to Mr. J. 
M. Egan, president of the Metropolitan Street Railway, 
Kansas City, Mo. Mr. Gibson was born in Kansas City, 
Mo., on Aug. 20, 1881, and was educated in the public 
schools of Kansas City and at the Missouri State University 
at Columbia, Mo., from which he was graduated in 1902. 
From 1902 to 1904 Mr. Gibson served as private secretary to 
Mr. W. S. Cowherd, Congressman from the Fifth Missouri 
District, in Washington. In 1904 he entered the service of 
the Metropolitan Street Railway as a clerk in the office of 
the auditor. On Jan. r, 1905, Mr. Gibson was appointed 
secretary to Mr. Bernard Corrigan, who was then president 
of the company, and he continued in this capacity until 
March 1, 1909, when he entered the service of the operating 
department of the company as a division superintendent. 

Mr. J. H. Pardee, who has been secretary of the Street 
Railway Association of the State of New York since 
November, 1906, was elected president of the association 
to succeed Mr. E. F. Peck, 
at the meeting of the as- 
sociation which was held 
at Cooperstown on June 
28 and 29, 1910. Mr. Par- 
dee has been connected 
with J. G. White & Com- 
pany, Inc., New York, 
N. Y., since January, 1907, 
as operating manager of 
the public utility compa- 
nies which are controlled 
by that company. Mr. 
Pardee was born at Ly- 
sander, N. Y., in 1867, and 
in 1889 was graduated 
from Hamilton College. 
In 1891 he was admitted j H Pardee 

to the bar of New York 

and began to practice as a member of Retrie, Zimerman 
& Pardee, with whom he continued until 1898. Meanwhile 
Mr. Pardee perfected the reorganization of the railway, 
lighting and gas company at Canandaigua, N. Y., and was 
appointed general manager of the Ontario Light & Trac- 
tion Company and the Canandaigua Gas Light Company. 
In 1898 he was appointed general manager of the Roches- 
ter & Eastern Rapid Railway, and continued in this posi- 
tion until he became connected with J. G. White & Com- 
pany, Inc. Mr. Pardee has been connected with the Street 
Railway Association of the State of New York as an officer 
since 1903. 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously 


*Butte & Plumas Railway, Oroville, Cal. — Application for 
a charter has been made in California by this company to 
build a 30-mile railway to connect Oroville and Stanwood. 
Surveys are now being made. Capital stock, $500,000. In- 
corporators: O. C. Hasslett, E. S. Dunbar and J. L. Smith. 

♦Forest City & Mason City Railway, Forest City, la. — 
Incorporated in South Dakota to build a 30-mile railway^ 
to be operated either by steam or electricity, from Forest. 
City, via Fertile to Mason City. Capital stock, $400,000. 
Headquarters, Watertown, S. D., and at Forest City. In- 
corporators: P. O. Koto, C. N. Christopherson, C. S.. 
Isaacs, Forest City; A. M. Sheimo, Baldwin, Wis.; A. L. 
Sherin and M. J. Hawley, Watertown, S. D. 

*Niobrara Investment Company, Omaha, Neb.^Applica- 
tion for a charter has been made in Nebraska by this com- 
pany for the purpose of constructing an interurban railway 
between the Niobrara River and Sioux City. A power plant 
will be built on the Niobrara River. Capital stock, $1,200,- 
000. F. Jaeggi is interested. 

♦Riverside Traction Company, Trenton, N. J. — Incorpo- 
rated in New Jersey to succeed the Camden & Trenton> 
Railway. Capital stock, $1,500,000. Common, $20,000; pre- 
ferred, $8,000. Officers: Thomas Haydock, Philadelphia,, 
president; Dietrich Debuys, Camden, secretary, and Robert 
Long, Philadelphia, treasurer.. 

♦Washington-Virginia Railway, Vienna, Va. — Incorpo- 
rated in Virginia to build a 50-mile electric railway fromj 
Vienna, Fairfax County, to Bluemont, Loudoun County. 
Maximum capital stock, $1,000,000. Officers: M. E. Church,, 
president; G. B. Fadsley, vice-president; F. B. Parker, sec- 
retary; L. L. Northrop, treasurer, all of Falls Church, Va. 

Ontario & Northern Railway, Ontario, Wis. — Chartered' 
in Wisconsin to build an 8-mile electric railway from On- 
tario to Wilton. Capital stock, $75,000. Directors: V. A. 
Stoddard, C. W. Lord, A. T. Saunders, L. R. Abbott, F. G. 
Bredlow and Levi Wallace, all of Ontario. [E. R. J., June 
4, '10] 


Point Grey, B. C. — The British Columbia Electric Rail- 
way, Ltd., Vancouver, has applied for a 40-year franchise to- 
build a street railway in Point Grey.. 

Berkeley, Cal. — The Oakland Traction Company has been 
granted a franchise by the Council for the extension of its- 
Euclid Avenue line. 

Martinez, Cal. — A. W. Maltby, representing the Antioch 
& Oakland Electric Railway, has asked the Board of Su- 
pervisors for a franchise to build a railway over the county 
roads between Martinez and Pachoco. 

Carbondale, 111. — The Murphysboro Electric Railway,. 
Light, Heat & Power Company, Murphysboro, has applied 
to the Council for a franchise to build a street railway over- 
certain streets in Carbondale. 

Hammond, Ind. — The Indiana Northwestern Traction; 
Company, Monticello, has been granted a 50-year franchise 
by the City Council to build a railway in Hammond. This 
proposed line will connect Cedar Lake, Hammond, Crown 
Point and Chicago. Eugene Purtelle, 222 La Salle Street,. 
Chicago, president. [E. R. J., Dec. 25, '09.] 

Grand Ledge, Mich. — J. W. Ewing, J. S. Mudge and asso- 
ciates have been granted a franchise by the Council to build 
an electric railway between Lansing and Grand Ledge. 
R. E. Olds is said to be financing the proposition. [E. R.J.,. 
June 18, '10.] 

Billings, Mont. — At a special election held in Billings on- 
June 30, the Eastern Montana Electric Railway was voted' 
a 50-year franchise to build a railway over certain streets 
in Billings. This is part of a plan to build an electric rail- 
way to connect Laurel, Bearcreek, Billings, Red Lodge, 
Rockvale, Belfry and Fromberg. F. A. Kesselhuth, chief." 
engineer. [E. R. J., June 4, '10.] 

July 2, 1910.] 



Lincoln, Neb. — The Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Company 
has asked the Council for a franchise to extend several of its 
lines in Lincoln. 

Cairo, N. Y. — The Catskiil (N. Y.) Electric Railway has 
been granted a franchise by the Town Board to extend its 
railway from Leeds to Cairo. 

Columbus, Ohio. — The Fifth Avenue Railway & Light 
Company has asked the Council for a franchise to build a 
street railway on Fifth Avenue, Columbus. A. C. Wolfe is 
interested. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Morristown, Pa. — The Philadelphia & Western Railway, 
Philadelphia, has been granted a franchise by the City 
Councils to build a railway in Morristown. This completes 
the preliminary work for connection with the Lehigh Valley 
Transit Company. 

Cleburne, Tex. — Daniel Hewett and associates have been 
granted a franchise to build a street railway in Cleburne. 
[E. R. J., June 18, '10.] 

Barnstown, W. Va. — The Fairmont & Northern Traction 
Company, Fairmont, has been granted a franchise by the 
Council to build a railway over certain streets in Barns- 


Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, Birming- 
ham, Ala. — This company has recently completed and 
placed in operation the extension of its railway to Corey. 

British Columbia Electric Railway, Ltd., Vancouver, 
B. C. — This company has awarded the contract to Chris- 
tian & Hartney, Vancouver, for building the Richards 
Street extension in Vancouver. 

Los Angeles-Pacific Company, Los Angeles, Cal. — This 
company will proceed at once with the proposed four- 
tracking of its line between Venice and Retondo. The 
borings for the company's new subway have also been be- 
gun. By next winter the latter improvement will be under 
full headway, and will likely be completed by the end of 

*Modesto, Cal.— J. C. Mehling, G. S. Schuler, J. H. Wal- 
lace and L. Eddinger, are said to be interested in promot- 
ing an interurban railway project to connect Modesto and 
Stockton, via Escalon. 

*Monterey, Cal. — A. G. Metz and H. M. Bergine, Mon- 
terey, are said to be interested in a plan to build an electric 
railway to connect Fresno and Monterey, via Coalinga. 

St. John's Light & Power Company, St. Augustine. Fla. — 
This company has prepared plans for the construction of 
several extensions to its street railway in St. Augustine. 

Burley, Idaho. — Isaac N. Powell, Chicago, advises that 
he is not interested in the proposed electric railway to con- 
nect Albion and Burley. [E. R. J., June 11, '10.] 

Kankakee & Urbana Traction Company, Kankakee, 111. — 
This company is securing right of way in Urbana for its 
proposed 125-mile railway to connect Kankakee, Urbana, 
Villa George, Camargo and Charleston. It is expected that 
construction will be started at an early date. W. J. Brock, 
Kankakee, president. [E. R. J., Nov. 27, '08.] 

Peoria Railway Terminal Company, Peoria, 111. — This 
company states that it is now building 2.3 miles of double 
track within the city limits, making a total of 4.6 miles, 
which will be complete and in operation in about 90 days. 

Evansville, Mount Carmel & Olney Electric Railway, 
Evansville, Ind. — This company is said to have nearly com- 
pleted the preliminary arrangements and construction will 
soon be started by the Burns Construction Company, Chi- 
cago, on its proposed 65-mile interurban railway to connect 
Mount Carmel, Highland, Darmstadt, Cynthiana, Owens- 
ville, Friendsville, Lancaster, Berryville and Olney. J. J. 
Burns and M. A. Peoples are interested. [E. R. J., 
June 4, '10.] 

Evansville (Ind.) Railway. — In connection with the ab- 
sorption of the Owensboro (Ky.) City Railroad and the 
Henderson (Ky.) Traction Company by interests identified 
with the Evansville Railway, it is planned to build a bridge 
across the Ohio River between Evansville, Ind., and Hender- 
son, Ky., and to connect Evansville, Henderson and Owens- 
boro. Other lines are planned from Henderson to Union- 
town and Morganfield, Ky., and from Owensboro to Cal- 
houn into the Green River territory. This company has 

recently awarded a contract to the Tennis Company for the 
construction of 6y 2 miles of track between Rockport and 

*South Bend, Ind. — M. H. Lane, president of the Chicago 
& Kalamazoo Terminal Railroad; H. Bennett, president of 
the Chicago, Kalamazoo & Eastern Railroad; Edward G. 
Folsom, M. P. Reed and R. W. Reynolds are said to be 
interested in the construction of a proposed line from 
South Bend, Ind., to Kalamazoo. Mich. 

Central Kentucky Traction Company, Frankfort, Ky. — 

This company is said to be considering plans for building 
an extension from Frankfort to Owenton. 

*Henderson, Ky. — J. P. Porter is said to be promoting 
a plan to build an electric railway to connect Uniontown, 
Smith Mills, Dixon, Corydon, Morganfield and Hender- 
son, Ky. 

Grosse Isle Railway, Detroit, Mich. — This company has 
completed surveys of Grosse Isle, and is now securing right 
of way around it. It is expected that construction will be 
started within a few weeks. Frank Whitehall and P. N. 
Jacobsen are interested. [E. R. J., May 28, '10.] 

Menominee & Marinette Light & Traction Company, 
Menominee, Mich. — This company has completed prelimi- 
nary arrangements and construction will soon be begun on 
its ij^-miles extension to Henes Park. 

*Winona, Minn. — John E. Hanson, St. Paul, is said to be 
promoting an electric railway to connect Rushford, Chat- 
field and Spring Valley. 

Kansas City, Lawrence & Topeka Electric Railway, Kan- 
sas City, Mo. — This company is building a 5-mile extension 
to its railway. 

United Railways, St. Louis, Mo. — This company plans to 
rebuild 4 miles of its McPherson line, using white oak ties 
and new 120-lb. rails. This line will be extended to the 
western city limits. It will also build an extension of its 
De Givernville Avenue line to the city limits. 

Jersey Central Traction Company, Keyport, N. J. — This 
company has placed a contract with the Standard Bitulithic 
Paving Company, New York, for paving Perth Amboy. 

Elmira, Corning & Waverly Railroad, Elmira, N. Y. — 

This company has secured rights of way through Chemung 
County, and as soon as the Steuben County negotiations 
have been closed it will begin construction of the extension 
between Elmira and Corning. The line will connect Waver- 
ly, Elmira and Corning. 

Hudson Valley Railway, Glens Falls, N. Y. — This com- 
pany has applied to the Public Service Commission of the 
Second District for permission to construct an extension of 
its lines in Saratoga Springs, through East Avenue and 
crossing Union Avenue. Saratoga Springs has granted a 
franchise for the proposed extension. 

Union Railway, New York, N. Y. — This company has ap- 
plied to the Public Service Commission of the First Dis- 
trict for permission to extend its lines from Fordham Road 
and Sedgwick Avenue, across the University Heights Bridge 
at 207th Street, to Amsterdam Avenue, and through Emer- 
son Street to Broadway. This extension will connect the 
Union Railway and the Third Avenue Railroad. 

Alliance-Akron Railroad, Alliance, Ohio. — It is reported 
that this company has awarded a contract to the B. & M. 
Engineering & Construction Company, Cleveland, to build 
the proposed 26-mile railway between Alliance and Akron. 
L. C. Marble, Schofield Building, Cleveland, engineer in 
charge. [E. R. J., June 11, 'io.] 

Wheeling, Cadiz & Tuscarawas Traction Company, Cadiz, 
Ohio. — This company is reported to have succeeded in 
financing the first section of its projected railway from 
Cadiz to New Athens, a distance of 8 miles. This pro- 
posed 60-mile railway will connect Wheeling, Cadiz, 
Uhrichsville and Cleveland. A. E. Townsend, Cadiz, presi- 
dent. [E. R. J., June 18, '10.] 

Fifth Avenue Railway & Light Company, Columbus, 
Ohio. — This company announces that construction will start 
on its proposed 7-mile railway from East Columbus to 
Marble Cliff, Columbus, as soon as the company can obtain 
a franchise. A. C. Wolfe is interested. [E. R. J., June 
22, '10.] 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. i. 

*Enid, Okla. — J. M. Spaulding is said to be interested in a 
plan to build a four-mile electric railway between Enid and 
North Enid. Press reports state that work has been be- 
gun on the line. 

Monaca & Ambridge Street Railway, Monaca, Pa. — This 
company has nearly completed the surveys for its pro- 
posed railway to extend through Monaca, Moon and Hope- 
well Townships. [E. R. J., Dec. n, '19.] 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways. — This company has awarded 
the contract to Wm. Pickett & Company for building an 
extension of its railway from East Maiden Street to Wash- 
ington Park. 

Galveston-Houston Railway, Houston, Tex. — The Stone- 
Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, Mass., which is 
building this 50-mile railway between Galveston and Hous- 
ton, has ordered 5700 tons of 80-lb steel rails from the 
Pennsylvania Steel Company. 

Milwaukee Western Electric Railway, Milwaukee, Wis. — 
This company reports it expects to commence building from 
Milwaukee to Beaver Dam this year, a distance of 70 miles. 


Athens (Ga.) Electric Railway. — This company reports 
it has started construction of its new reinforced concrete 
car house and repair shop, to cost approximately $20,000. 
Work is being done by the Foy-Proctor Company, Nash- 
ville. [E. R. J., June 4, '10.] 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway, Chicago, 111. — This 
company will build a 3-story brick railway station and of- 
fices, 40 ft x 120 ft. 

Grafton (W. Va.) Traction Company. — This company re- 
ports that during the summer it will build a new brick car 
house in Grafton. [E. R. J., Apr. 30, '10.] 

St. John's Light & Power Company, St. Augustine, Fla. — 

It is stated that this company will install a new engine at 
its power plant in St. Augustine, which will increase the 
capacity of the station by 1,200 hp. Additional generators, 
motors and other machinery will also be installed. 

Chicago, Aurora & De Kalb Railroad, Aurora, 111. — This 
company is building a new substation at Cortland. 

Peoria (111.) Railway Terminal Company. — This company 
has under construction a new power house, 72 ft. x 200 ft. 
The building will also contain a machine and blacksmith 
shop. The company is preparing plans for increasing its 
power generating capacity, which will cost nearly $60,000. 

Evansville (Ind.) Railway. — This company has awarded a 
contract to the General Electric Company for apparatus for 
two 300-kw substations and 21 miles of high-tension lines. 
[E. R. J., June 18, '10.] 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company, Indianapolis, 
Ind. — This company has awarded the contract to the Bed- 
ford Stone & Construction Company to build its new power 
house in West Tenth Street, west of White River, in Indian- 
apolis. The Brown-Ketcham Iron Works have the contract 
for steel construction. Work has been started. The stack 
at the new power plant will be 995 ft. high and will be 45 ft. 
square at the base. 

Kansas City, Laurence & Topeka Electric Railway, Kan- 
sas City, Mo. — This company is now installing a 150-kw 
generator and a 250-hp gas engine in its power house at 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo. — This 

■company is constructing a five-story steel and brick addi- 
tion to its present building on Fifteenth Street and Grand 
Avenue in Kansas City. The structure will be 115 ft. x 
90 ft. The addition will cost, it is estimated, $75,000. 

Wheeling, Cadiz & Tuscarawas Traction Company, Cadiz, 
Ohio. — It is reported that this company will soon build a 
power house at Cadiz. A. Evans Townsend, president. 

Corpus Christi & Interurban Railway, Corpus Christi, 
Tex. — This company, which at present rents power from 
the local electric light plant, expects to soon erect its own 
power plant. 

Milwaukee Western Electric Railway, Milwaukee, Wis. — 

This company will build a power house at Hustisford hav- 
ing a capacity of nearly 20,000 hp. J. W. Barber, secretary. 

Manufactures & Supplies 

Selma Street & Interurban Railway, Selma, Ala., is in the 

market for three new cars. 

Milwaukee Western Electric Railway, Milwaukee, Wis., 

expects to purchase several new cars and trucks. 

Mason City & Clear Lake Railway, Mason City, la., ex- 
pects to purchase two 60 or 70-ton electric freight locomo- 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway expects 
to purchase 12 28-ft. closed cars complete with motors, 
trucks, etc. 

Interurban Construction Company, Wichita, Kan., is in 

the market for several standard interurban passenger cars 
for August delivery. 

Chippewa Valley Railway, Light & Power Company, Eau 
Claire, Wis., expects to purchase one double-truck closed 
car, either new or second-hand. 

Charleston Consolidated Railway, Gas & Electric Com- 
pany, Charleston, S. C, is said to be considering the pur- 
chase of eight semi-convertible cars for 1911 delivery. 

J. H. Clark, Boise, Idaho, is asking prices on combina- 
tion passenger and baggage cars and passenger cars for a 
25-mile line in Idaho. The cars are to be equipped with 
four motors each. 

New York & Queens County Railway, Long Island City, 
N. Y., which was noted in the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 11, 1910, as contemplating the purchase of 25 60-hp, 
double-motor equipments, including air brakes, has placed 
the order for this equipment with the General Electric 

Springfield (111.) Consolidated Railway has placed an 
order with the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company for five 22-ft. 
closed car bodies with 5-ft. 9-in. platforms at each end so 
arranged as to be easily converted for prepayment opera- 
tion. These car bodies will be mounted on Brill No. 21-E 
single trucks and equipped with two GE-54 motors. 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., which 
was noted in the Electric Railway Journal of May 14, 
1910, as having issued specifications for 25 cars, has placed 
an order with the Cincinnati Car Company for 25 cars of 
the prepayment type, with an option of increasing the order 
to 50 cars. The company is rebuilding at its shops in Kan- 
sas City 25 trail cars. These cars are now being fitted with 
motors and will also be of the prepayment type. 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, 
Ore., mentioned in the Electric Railway Journal of 
March 26, 1910, as having purchased 40 pay-as-you-enter 
cars from the American Car Company, has specified the 
following details for 10 of these cars, which are to be 
narrow-gage and of the closed type: 

Length of body. .. .28 ft. 8 in. Destination signs .... Hunter 

Over bumpers 45 ft- Gongs Brill Dedenda 

Width over sills 7 ft. 4 in. Hand brakes Brill 

Over posts at belt 8 ft. Headlights . . . . Crouse-Hinds 

Sill to trolley Journal boxes Brill 

base 12 ft. 2% in. Motors, type GE 

Height from top Push button Brill 

of rail to sills.. 2 ft. 7V2 in. Roofs monitor 

Body wood Sanders De Witt 

Interior trim bronze Seats Brill 

Axles Brill Seating material rattan 

Brakeshoes Brill Side bearings Brill 

Bumpers Brill Springs Brill 

Car trimmings Brill Step treads Universal 

Couplers, Trucks, type Brill 22 

Brill, with Van Dorn head Varnish Murphy 

Curtain fixt...Curt. Sup. Co. Ventilators Brill 

Curtain material .. .Pantasote Wheels Griffin 

Rail Joint Company, New York, N. Y., has moved its 
office in London, England, to the Egypt House, 36-38 New 
Broad Street. 

Pennsylvania Steel Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has 

moved its offices to the Morris Building, 1421 Chestnut 
Street, Philadelphia. 

July 2, 1910.] 



Northern Engineering Works, Detroit, Mich., have re- 
cently installed two 25-ton, 40-ft. span cranes and one 10-ton 
Northern traveling crane in the power stations of the 
Pennsylvania Tunnel & Terminal Railroad, New York, N. Y. 

Crocker-Wheeler Company, Ampere, N. J., announces 
the election of the following officers, who will serve during 
the ensuing year: Schuyler Staats Wheeler, president; 
Gano Dunn, first vice-president and chief engineer; Arthur 
L. Doremus, third vice-president; Rodman Gilder, secre- 
tary, and W. L. Brownell, treasurer. 

J. B. McClary, formerly general manager of the Sheffield 
Company, Sheffield, Ala., has been elected vice-president 
and general manager of the Yolande Coal & Coke Company 
and the New Connellsville Coal & Coke Company, and 
president of the Abernant Coal Company, with headquar- 
ters in the Brown-Marx Building, Birmingham, Ala. 

C. W. Hunt Company, New York, N. Y., builder of coal 
handling, conveying and hoisting machinery, has opened 
offices at the State Bank Building, Richmond, Va., and at 
607 Rhodes Building, Atlanta, Ga., with W. F. Lee, for 
several years preliminary engineer to the company, in 
charge. The C. W. Hunt Company also announces the 
appointment of C. T. Anderson as manager of its Chicago 
office, at 1616 Fisher Building. 

Kean, Taylor & Company, New York, N. Y., has been 
formed by Hamilton F. Kean and Moses Taylor to continue 
from July 1. 1910, the business of Kean, Van Cortlandt & 
Company, which expired by limitation on that date. Joseph 
R. Swan, formerly treasurer of the Union Trust Company, 
Albany, N. Y., has been admitted to partnership in the new 
firm. The business of Kean, Taylor & Company will be 
carried on at the same address, 30 Pine Street, New York. 

Parmenter Fender & Wheel Guard Company, Boston, 
Mass., has received a second order from the Metropolitan 
Street Railway, New York, N. Y., for 550 wheel guards; 
also from the Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I., 
for 160 wheel guards, and the Washington Railway & Elec- 
tric Company, Washington, D. C, for 100 wheel guards and 
50 fenders. In addition the company has an order from 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company for 500 wheel guards. 

Penberthy Injector Company, Detroit, Mich., on March 
29, 1910, numbered its 600,000th Penberthy automatic in- 
jector. The combined capacity of these injectors is so 
great that the Penberthy Injector Company has compared 
this capacity to the water going over Niagara Falls, as esti- 
mated in the "Encyclopedia Americana," and finds that 
600,000 of its size GG injectors would handle about one- 
third of the supply of water, or approximately 2,520,000,000 
gals, per hour. 

Peter Smith Heater Company, Detroit, Mich., on July 1 
will move its Eastern sales office in New York from 30 
Church Street to Room 2065, 50 Church Street. The com- 
pany announces the appointment of Walter E. Hinmon, 
who will have charge of the central and Western territory. 
Mr. Hinmon was formerly connected with the Cooper 
Heater Company. The Peter Smith Heater Company re- 
ports that the contract which it secured from the Cleve- 
land (Ohio) Railway was for 250 Peter Smith forced circu- 
lation hot air equipments instead of hot water equipments, 
as noted in a recent issue. 

Columbia Machine Works and Malleable Iron Company, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., entertained about 120 electric railway 
officers and supply men on Saturday afternoon, June 25, 
1910, on the occasion of the completion of an extensive addi- 
tion to its works in East New York. The guests were trans- 
ported in automobiles from the Flatbush Avenue terminal 
of the subway in Brooklyn to the works, and at 2 o'clock 
a beefsteak luncheon was served in the new building, which 
was elaborately decorated. Among the railway officers who 
occupied seats at the head of the long tables with J. C. 
Buehler, president of the company, were W. O. Wood, 
president and general manager, New York & Queens County 
Railway; Edward A. Maher, manager, Third Avenue Rail- 
road; J. S. Doyle, superintendent car equipment, Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company; H. H. Adams, superin- 
tendent of rolling stock and shops. Metropolitan Street 
Railway; W. T. Dougan, engineer maintenance of way, 
Metropolitan Street Railway; J. S. McWhirter, superin- 
tendent car equipment, Third Avenue Railroad; F. T. Wood, 

assistant to general manager, Metropolitan Street Railway, 
and L. H. Palmer, superintendent of transportation, Metro- 
politan Street Railway. After luncheon the guests were 
conducted through the shops and shown the variety and 
quantity of the work which the company is doing. The 
new building will be used largely for the manufacture of 
sheet steel gear cases, and by moving this department from 
its present location the foundry can be greatly enlarged. 
Later in the afternoon a hard-fought baseball game was 
played by teams made up of supply men and railway men. 
The score was tied when the game was called to permit a 
number of the players to take part in a golf tournament over 
the Forest Park links. Eight handsome silver cups were 
competed for. At the conclusion of the golf tournament 
Mr. Buehler was presented a large loving cup, the gift 
of his many friends, who joined in wishing him continued 
success in conducting the business which he has built up 
in the electric railway field. 


Dorner Railway Equipment Company, Chicago, 111., has 

published list C for 1910, of cars, power plant equipment, etc, 
which it has on hand for immediate shipment. 

Weir Frog Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, has issued a 208- 
page catalog, No. 8, in which are listed and illustrated the 
different types of frogs, switches, crossings, etc., which it 

Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis., has issued 
bulletin No. toy I, describing and illustrating type C jet 
condensers; also the second edition of bulletin No. 1070, 
which is descriptive of type B barometric condensers. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has issued a complete catalog on Westinghouse 
direct suspension line material. The catalog contains 200 
pages, and cancels special publication No. 7060. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has issued its an- 
nual catalog, No. 8, on electric railway and mine haulage 
material. The book is copiously illustrated, and lists a 
variety of overhead line material and many other specialties 
made by this company, such as the car signal system, arc 
headlights, radial couplers, sander equipment, hose bridge, 
etc. The publication also contains a large number of wire 
and other tables of value to line and power engineers. 
Owing to the extensive development of its catenary line 
material, the company has published catalog No. 20 to cover 
that subject exclusively. In addition the Ohio Brass Com- 
pany has issued catalog H, which is descriptive of the com- 
plete line of Ohio valves and steam specialties. 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., prints in the 
Brill Magazine for June a biographical sketch of Thomas E. 
Mitten, president of the Chicago (111.) City Railway. The 
sketch is accompanied with an excellent portrait of Mr. 
Mitten as a supplement. Among the feature articles are 
the following: "Conditions Which Govern the Type of 
Car for City Service — Glasgow, Scotland"; "Pay-As-You- 
Enter Type Cars for Roanoke and Lynchburg," "Cars for 
Akron Lines of Northern Ohio Traction & Light Com- 
pany," "More Pay-As-You-Enter Cars for Chicago" and 
"Cars for the Toledo Railways & Light Company." The 
J. G. Brill Company has also issued a new catalog, entitled 
"City and Interurban Car and Trucks," in which are listed 
and illustrated the various patented types of cars, trucks 
and car parts which it manufactures. The publication con- 
tains 58 pages, and is printed in English, Spanish and 


Railway Special Work. By Walter E. Silsbee and Percy 
E. Blood. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company; 
107 pages; flexible leather. Price, $2 net. 
Track engineers will find this book a useful pocket guide 
for the calculation of frog work and special curves. The 
authors have used approximate methods for clearance curve 
problems, as absolute exactness would not lead to better 
practical results. A valuable feature of the book is the in- 
sertion of such adjuncts to calculation as tables on the re- 
duction of inches to decimals of a foot, and on common 
logarithms, so that the engineer can get all needful data 
from one handy volume. A simple explanation of the use 
and value of the Mannheim slide rule also is included. 




Notice: — These statistics will be carefully revised from month to month, upon information received from the companies direct, or from official sources. The table 
should be used in connection with our Financial Supplement, "American Street Railway Investments," which contains the annual operating reports to the ends of the 
various financial years. Similar statistics in regard to roads not reporting are solicited by the editors. "Including taxes. t Deficit. Jlncludes dividend on preferred stock. 



AKRON, O. Northern 
Ohio Tr. & Light Co. 

gor Ry. & Elec. Co. 

Baton Rouge Elec. 

WASH. Whatcom 
Co. Rv. & Lt. Co. 

Illinois Traction 

Aurora, Elgin & 
Chicago Railroad. 

Cleveland South= 
western & Colum- 
bus Ry. 

Dallas Electric Cor- 

Trac. Co. 

ILL. East St. Louis 
& Suburban Co. 

El Paso Elec. Co. 

Fairmont & Clarks- 
burg Trac. Co. 

TEX. Northern Tex= 
as Elec. Co. 

Elec. Co. 

MICH. Grand Rap- 
ids Ry. Co. 

Central Penn. Trac. 

Houghton County 
Trac. Co. 

FLA. Jacksonville 
Elec. Co. 


Kansas Citv Ry. & 
ILt. Co. 

Milwaukee Elec.Rv. 
& Lt. Co. 



ing Ex- 





1 1 1 



1 " 






5 " 






5 " 














1 " 

'0 C ' 





1 1 " 






1 1 " 













1 " 






12 " 






12 " 













1 " 






12 " 






12 " 












1 77,507 

1 " 







4 " 






4 " 













1 " 






10 " 






10 " 













1 " 












4 " 













1 " 






12 " 



















1 " 






S " 






5 " 













1 " 





7 5,534 

5 " 



. 493 



5 " 













1 " 






12 " 






12 " 





1 72,834 








1 " 






5 " 






5 " 













1 " 






12 " 






12 " 






lm., Apr. 






1 " 






12 " 






12 " 













1 " 






5 " 






5 " 













1 " 






5 " 






5 " 













1 " 






12 " 






12 " 













1 " 






12 " 






12 " 













1 " 






1 1 " 






11 " 













1 " 






5 " 






5 " 







Less Op- 




















01 1 







1 14,570 














J 18,41 7 
































































Milwaukee Lt., Ht. 
& Traction Co. 

MINN. Twin City 
Rapid Transit Co. 

Montreal St. Ry. 

Nashville Ry. & Lt. 

New Orleans Rv. & 
Lt. Co. 

Oklahoma City Ry. 

Paducah Trac. & 
Lt. Co. 

Pensacola Electric 

15,785 I PA. American 
66, 1 7 7 1 Railways. 








Brockton & Ply- 
mouth St. Ry. Co. 

Portland Ry., Lt. & 
Power Co. 

St. Joseph Ry., Lt., 
Ht. & Power Co. 

CAL. United Rail- 
roads of San Fran- 

Savannah Elec. Co. 

Seattle Electric Co. 

Puget Sound Elec- 
tric Ry. 

Cape Breton Elec. 
Co., Ltd. 

Tampa Elec. Co. 

Toledo Rys. & Lt. 

Washington, Balti- 
more & Annapo- 
lis Elec. Ry. 

1 " 


5 " 
5 " 

1 " 


5 " 
5 " 

1 " 

8 " 


8 " 

1 " 


4 " 
4 " 

1 " 


4 " 
4 " 


1 " 


5 " 
5 " 

1 " 


12 " 
12 " 

1 " 


12 " 
12 " 

1 " 


11 " 
11 " 

lm , 
1 " 


12 " 
12 " 

1 " 


5 " 
5 " 


1 " 


5 " 
5 " 


1 " 
4 " 
4 " 



1 " 


12 " 
12 " 

1 " 


12 " 
12 " 


1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


1 " 


12 " 
12 " 

1 " 


5 " 
5 " 

1 " 


11 " 
11 " 

•10 20,389 

'09 18,352 

'10 234,796 

'09 223,638 

ing Ex- 

130,404 54,677 

115,924 41,583 

586,270 238,948 

528,522 198,350 

























140,3 71 


Less Op- 





























; 139,694 




































Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



McGraw Publishing Company 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 
James H. McGraw, President. 
Hugh M. Wilson, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President. 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. 
Associate Editors: 
Rodney Hitt, Frederic Nicholas, Walter Jackson. 
News Editors: 
G. J. MacMurray, Frank J. Armeit. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. .. .Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 
For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere: United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per 
year. Single copies, 10 cents. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our 
European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 


Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 1910, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal, 8500 copies 
are printed. 



Summer Uniforms 63 

City Planning and .Transportation Systems 63 

Policing the Power Consumption on the Car 64 

Peak Load Congestion and Its Remedy 64 

Accident Instruction for School Children 65 

Engine Room Illumination 65 

Construction and Operating Features of Winnipeg Electric Railway.. 66 

Power Economy in Electric Railway Operation 7 2 

Census Report on Municipal Electric Lighting Stations 72 

Coasting Tests on the Manhattan Railway, New York 7- 

The Design of the Electric Locomotive 76 

Economy of Car Operation 79 

Minimum Headway for Cars in Congested Streets 80 

Discussion of Railway Papers by American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers 81 

Data on the Construction of Schedules and Time Tables Si 

Pittsburgh Subway Report 8j 

Unit Costs of Electric Railways 84 

Summer Convention of Wisconsin Electrical Association 86 

An Economical Oil Cup 87 

The Use of Commutating Pole Motors 88 

Prices of Commodities 88 

Association Bulletin on Atlantic City Hotels 88 

News of Electric Railways 89 

Financial and Corporate 91 

Traffic and Transportation 93 

Personal Mention 94 

Construction News 95 

Manufactures and Supplies 97 

Summer Uniforms 

The advent of hot weather again brings to the front the 
question of a comfortable costume for the platform men. The 
sentiment that the dignity of a railway company requires each 
of its conductors and motormen to wear his usual tight-fitting 
coat, regardless of the temperature in summer, has largely 
disappeared in those cities which are visited by periods of 
almost tropical heat during July and August. Even in New 
York a variety of costumes can be observed on the front and 
rear platforms of cars just as it can in the office buildings and 
on the streets of the city. One metropolitan company has 
authorized its men to discard coats and wear a shirtwaist, the 
trousers being supported by a belt. A .second provides its motor- 
men with a blouse, which renders the use of a coat unnecessary. 
A third provides khaki uniforms which are lighter and cooler 
than the usual blue cloth suits, while another permits the men 
simply to discard the standard coat during very hot weather. 
The men of still another road, with the permission of the 
management, have substituted straw hats for the standard caps. 
The variety in practice thus exemplified in one city suggests 
the desirability of a further study of this question, preferably 
by a committee of the association, which would have an op- 
portunity of learning the practice and obtaining the opinion of 
companies in different parts of the country. The problem is 
more serious with the conductor than with the motorman be- 
cause the former requires pockets for h ; s transfers, punch, 
and so forth. Khaki has many qualities to recommend it, as 
its efficiency as a non-heat absorbent has been shown by its 
extended use in the United States Army, both for home and 
tropical service, and as it has become associated with military 
affairs, it gives the car men a desirable soldierly appearance. 
It is not necessarily, however, the most desirable costume to 
adopt, and the experience of other companies on the general 
subject of summer uniforms should prove very instructive. 

City Planning and Transportation Systems 

When Napoleon III improved Paris by cutting avenues 
through city blocks, widened narrow streets, spanned the Seine 
with new bridges and laid out squares to beautify the city, he 
was but setting an example which has been followed in other 
cities, although perhaps not on so extensive a scale. Abroad, the 
question of city planning has become a definite science, in 
wdiich the transportation needs of the territory to be served 
are very carefully considered. In this country the subject is 
left largely to the whims of real estate promoters and specu- 
lators and the transportation companies are often obliged to 
install their tracks as best they may after the rest of the work 
is completed, or at least decided upon. Pittsburgh, however, 
hopes to prove an exception to the usual careless method of 
city development in this country and the report of the Pitts- 

6 4 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

burgh Civic Commission on city planning, just published, in- 
dicates at least a serious attempt to make the city more con- 
venient, more economical and more healthful, as well as to 
improve it esthetically. The methods of accomplishing these 
results are outlined in a report adopted by the commission and 
prepared in collaboration by Bion J. Arnold, of Chicago ; John 
R. Freeman, of Providence, and Frederick Law Olmsted, of 
Boston, whose recommendations are divided into nine topics, 
among which the future functions of the electric railway sys- 
tem form a conspicuous part. The experts did not attempt to 
outline a complete course of precedure, as that would have 
required a more thorough study than they were able then to 
give it, but the further data required for this purpose are out- 
lined in the report. The plan of the commission and of its 
experts is a commendable one and if the step is taken up with 
the earnest spirit for which Pittsburgh is famous and is car- 
ried out with the enterprise which has distinguished the com- 
mercial undertakings in that city, it may be that Pittsburgh 
will eventually be known as the City Beautiful of the American 
continent, as well as what is equally or more important, the 
City Useful, Economical, Convenient and Healthful. 

Policing the Power Consumption on the Car 

The vast differences in the skill and care of motormen run- 
ning over the same routes, as regards the economical use of 
power, are clearly brought out in Mr. Putnam's A. I. E. E. 
paper on the Manhattan Railway coasting clock tests. This 
paper and the ensuing discussion are abstracted elsewhere in 
this number. Taking the Manhattan Elevated Railway system 
as a whole, it was found that the average car acceleration of 
different motormen varied from 0.9 m.p.h.p.s. to 1.47 m.p.h.p.s., 
and the corresponding times spent in coasting varied from no 
per cent to 40.5 per cent of the time spent in making the trip. 
In terms of energy, this difference in practice corresponded to 
a saving of the most economical motormen over the most 
wasteful motorman of 36 per cent. Of course, these figures 
represented extremes, but even the average result on the 
Second Avenue line showed that a power economy of 25 per 
cent was attainable. According to a statement made in the 
discussion by Mr. Stillwell, who checked the original tests 
for the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the last percent- 
age represents a money saving of $1,000 a day. Perhaps the 
most interesting feature of the tests is that these astonishing 
results were obtained with such a comparatively simple device 
as the coasting clock described. Formerly it was believed that 
some power measuring device like an ampere-meter or watt- 
meter was needed for this purpose, but experience proved that 
they were not only unnecessary but less desirable than the 
simple time registering device. In a way, the New York con- 
trivance is the converse of that used on the Berlin and other 
German street railway systems. In the latter, a shunt circuit 
operates an ordinary clock only when power is passing through 
the controller, whereas in New York the clock runs only when 
the car is coasting. In Berlin, the use of these clocks enabled 
the company to increase the schedule speed 10 per cent be- 
sides securing an appreciable reduction in power consumption. 
Moreover, comparisons of the records of these current-hour 
instruments with watt-hour meters used on the same service 
showed remarkably like results. Apparently, the policing power 
of instruments of this character is sufficient to attain the de- 
sired comparisons of running skill and of saving in power. 


The first step in securing a reform in public matters is to 
call attention to the abuse ; the second is to find the remedy, 
and the third is to keep everlastingly talking about both the 
trouble and the remedy until the latter is adopted. For a 
long time the only remedy for the street railway congestion 
problem, in the minds of the public, was the operation of 
more cars, but the part which the public itself can do in 
relieving congestion is becoming more generally appreciated. 
A continuous line of cars would be insufficient in number to 
give every one a seat in most of our manufacturing towns if 
all the employees in the various factories wish transportation 
at the same time. The suggestion was made in this connection 
a few years ago by Mr. Fassett, general manager of the 
United Traction Company of Albany, that the manufacturers 
in Troy should so arrange the working hours of their em- 
ployees that the latter would not all have to go to work and 
would not stop working at exactly the same time. Mr. Fas- 
sett's efforts to induce the Troy manufacturers to adopt this 
plan did not prove successful, as both employers and employees 
had become so used to certain working hours that it was not 
considered possible to alter them, even by a few minutes. But 
it is interesting to note that this remedy for traffic congestion 
was strongly indorsed in a speech made last week at the 
banquet of the New York State Street Railway Association 
by John N. Carlisle, Public Service Commissioner of the 
Second District of New York. 

The Pennsylvania State Railroad Association, in its opinion 
just rendered upon the condition and situation in Pittsburgh, 
has also called attention to the necessity of some action on 
the part of the public to reduce traffic congestion. This opin- 
ion was based on the report recently submitted to the com- 
mission by Emil Swensson. According to the report, during 
the crowded period in Pittsburgh, every one insists upon taking 
the first car. Continuing, the Commission says : "For those 
whose day's work has been hard and long, and whose hours 
at home are necessarily limited, there is some excuse for such 
insistent haste ; but those who can control their own time and 
movements should ordinarily set a better example by the 
exercise of a little patience, and thus contribute to the comfort 
of themselves and others. A complaint of overcrowding comes 
with bad grace from such persons, for by their action in 
boarding a crowded car they but intensify and augment the 
trouble about which they complain." 

The commission likens the congestion problem in Pitts- 
burgh, and the example applies equally in other cities, to a 
three-legged stool, and says that unless the three necessary 
factors in the situation, the company, the public and the 
municipality, do their duty, the whole attempt at reform will 
fall to the ground. The part of the company is to furnish 
the cars when needed, but it alone cannot solve the problem. 
The duty of the public has already been described. The duty 
of the municipality is partly to grant authority to the railway 
companies to make such changes in routes as may be necessary 
to simplify and expedite the operation of cars, partly to facili- 
tate car operation through the widening of streets and improve- 
ment of the street surface and partly through the police depart- 
ment to insure a regulation of street traffic, so that car opera- 
tion will not be impeded. The trouble in the past has been that 
people unthinkingly have assumed the stool had only one leg 

July 9, 1910.] 



and that the railway companies should supply all the cars 
necessary to give every one a seat at all times of the day, and 
should then be able to carry passengers quickly to their 


We have already referred to the notable paper on acci- 
dent prevention presented at the March 24 meeting of the 
Central Electric Railway Association by E. F. Schneider, 
general manager of the Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus 
Railway. As our readers will recall, Mr. Schneider told how 
the injuries and claims account on his lines had been cut down 
from an average for 10 years of 6.35 per cent of the gross 
receipts to 1.25 per cent, partly through talks to the trainmen, 
but principally through a campaign of education among the 
school children on methods of avoiding accidents. By inaugu- 
rating this course Mr. Schneider attacked the accident prob- 
lem at its root. Warnings to adults, whether patrons or em- 
ployees, are well enough in their way, but at best it is not an 
easy matter for grown-up folk to change set habits readily. 
The woman who gets off a car backward and the man who 
makes a flying leap for the running board usually have done 
so too long to pay much heed to the counsel of anybody. In- 
struction of this kind most properly should begin with the 
child before it has formed the careless habits of its elders. 

The most obvious method of conveying this instruction is 
through the school teachers. Mr. Schneider tried this method 
first, but soon learned the truth of the adage "If you would 
have a thing well done, do it yourself." It must not be in- 
ferred, however, that the teachers really were indifferent or 
unwilling to help. The average pedagogue has too many direct 
duties to leave much time or enthusiasm for matters which are 
not in the curriculum drawn up by his or her superiors. The 
school-room talks by Mr. Schneider or his aides usually varied 
in length from 10 to 20 minutes during which the, children were 
told many important points about the need for care on the 
streets and on the cars. The effect of these talks may be 
judged from the fact that during last year not a single acci- 
dent occurred to a child on a total of 217 miles of city and in- 
terurban track. In all, some 360 addresses were made to 42,000 
pupils from kindergarten to high school age. It is needless to 
add that the parents of these children cordially appreciated 
this evidence of "soul" on the part of this corporation. 

Our object in directing attention to this particular case is 
to point out that campaigns of this character can be followed in 
other localities. Thus the Portland (Ore.) Railway, Light & 
Power Company has been giving lectures to public school chil- 
dren and stimulating their interest by prizes for essays on acci- 
dent topics. Last month, the Cincinnati Traction Company co- 
operated with the local boards of public service and education 
in the preparation and distribution of an accident instruction 
pamphlet for school use. The United Railways & Electric 
Company of Baltimore has also gotten out for the same pur- 
pose a poster which illustrates most effectively the right and 
wrong way of getting off a car and is suitable for permanent 
display on the school-room walls. The publication of such 
literature is greatly to be commended and should assist in 
reducing accidents. It is especially valuable when combined 
with a lecture system, for it helps to strengthen and fix in 
the minds of the children the impression made upon them by 
the oral instructions. 


Adequate lighting plays an important part in the operation 
and maintenance of engines and turbines. The increasing size 
of prime movers renders it more and more necessary to avoid 
mistakes in handling generating equipment and to forestall 
impending trouble by close and frequent inspection. The larger 
the engine room, the more difficult it is to secure a good dis- 
tribution of light at moderate cost. Much can be accom- 
plished by breaking away from the old practice of attempting 
to light the engines and turbines by a large number of carbon 
filament lamps placed high up on the roof trusses, with the 
usual accompaniment of dull-finished walls and enamelled tile 

Two plants, recently visited, illustrate the point that the 
amount of electrical energy expended in illumination of the 
engine room is not always a measure of the effectiveness of 
the illumination. In the first station the engine room was 90 
ft. long and 50 ft. in width, the bottom chords of the -roof 
trusses being about 35 ft. above the floor. The lighting was 
accomplished by about 100 16-cp carbon incandescent lamps, 
located 24 in. apart on the underside of the trusses, a few 
side lamps on the walls, and twelve 16-cp incandescent lamps 
on each of the three engine and generator units. The energy 
expenditure was about 1.6 watts per sq. ft. of floor area. 
The resulting illumination, however, was poor on account of 
the absence of reflectors above the lamps on the truss chords, 
the constant accumulation of dust and dirt on the relatively 
large number of small lighting units employed, and the com- 
paratively wide spacing between trusses in proportion to the 
size of the room. The machinery was painted black, and the 
walls were not tiled. 

The second station had a turbine room 112 ft. long by 43 
ft. wide, the height from the floor to the roof girders being 
53 ft. Here 56 tungsten lamps were installed, with concen- 
trating reflectors on the underside of the roof trusses. The 
lamps were suspended in rows of eight, spaced 60 in. apart 
on the girders, which in turn were spaced 14 ft. apart. The 
side walls were painted a dull red color, and the expenditure 
of energy for the room was only 1.17 watts per sq. ft. of 
floor area. The diffusion was excellent, and shadows were 
practically eliminated. The smaller number of lamps installed 
facilitated their being kept clean and the reflectors utilized 
a large proportion of the light rays, which in the first plant 
was either absorbed by the ceiling, or scattered at all angles, 
without definite direction toward the machinery. 

The use of high efficiency lamps with reflectors in general 
gives much better results for the same expenditure of energy 
than using carbon lamps with an efficiency of but 3.5 watts per 
cp. With walls completely finished with enameled tile the 
results can be still further improved. Broadly speaking, it 
is better to spend money for first-class tiling than to attempt 
to secure the same intensity of illumination by increasing the 
number of lamps used in connection with dull finished walls. 
It also pays to subdivide the lighting circuits where a con- 
siderable number of lamps is used, the usual plan being to 
arrange each alternate line of lamps on the trusses on the same 
circiit. Economy of operation can be secured in this way, 
since there are many times each year when suitable illumina- 
tion can be obtained by burning only half the engine room 
lamps. Whatever the system, the results are dependent upon 
clean globes, perhaps, more than upon any other single factor. 



[Vol.. XXXVI. No. 2. 


The Winnipeg Electric Railway was one of the first roads in 
Canada to be operated by electricity. Service was started in 
June, 1892, after the horse-railway property of the Winnipeg 
Street Railway, built some years before, had been re-equipped. 
The growth of the city and community has been steadily ac- 
celerating until now the population increases at the rate of 

10,000 new inhabitants per annum. In 1908 at the taking of the 
last official census Winnipeg had a population of 123,250 ; less 
than 40 years before it was a trading post of 200 people. The 
railway company's property likewise has grown from a short 
horse-car line with two cars in 1888 to a system now including 
104.5 miles of track, a 30,000-hp hydroelectric station and 65- 
mile transmission line, and the residence and commercial gas, 

While the city grows at a remarkable rate, nevertheless the 
stores and residence buildings are handsome and substantial 
structures. The property of the Winnipeg Electric Railway 
Company, likewise, is of interest because during its rapid ex- 
pansion the management has designed and built the roadway 
and other structures with an eye for permanency and low cost 
of operation and maintenance. 

The statistical statement below shows the growth of the 
property in a financial and traffic way during the last five years. 

A single organization handles the operation of the railway, 
electric light and power and gas properties. The officers of 
the Winnipeg Electric Railway Company are: William Mac- 
kenzie, president; William Whyte, vice-president; F. Morton 
Morse, secretary-treasurer; manager of all properties, Wilford 
Phillips, who also is chief engineer. The manager is assisted 
in the engineering work by Wilson Phillips, who has the title 
of superintendent. The inter-relations of the operating organi- 
zation are shown by the accompanying chart. 


The Winnipeg Electric Railway Company operates 104.5 
miles of track owned by the following companies: Winnipeg 
Electric Railway Company, 64.5 miles ; Winnipeg, Selkirk & 

Winnipeg System — Organization Chart 

Lake Winnipeg Railway, 21 miles; Suburban Rapid Transit 
Company, 19 miles. With the exception of the suburban and 
interurban lines, practically all of the mileage is double- 
tracked. The construction of the Selkirk interurban line will 
be described in a later article. 

W innipeg is located on a broad, level plain at the junction of 
the Red and Assiniboine rivers. The city is laid out with 

„ . 1909- 

Gross receipts $2,623,731.41 

Increase 1909 over 1908 — 18.93 per cent $417,636.53 

Operating expenses $1,320,665.09 

Increase 1909 over 1908 — 21.29 per cent $231,792.59 

Operating expenses, per cent of earnings 50.34 

Net earnings $1,303,066.32 

Increase 1909 over 1908 — 16.63 P e >" cent $185,843.94 

Net income per cent of capital 14.39 

1909, $6,000,000. 
1908, $5,669,541 .average. 
1907, $4,664,200 average. 
1006, $4,144,480 average. 
1905, $4,000,000. 

Passengers carried 26,382.773 

Increase 1909 over 1908 4,363,266 

Transfers 8,925,849 

Railway earnings per capita 10.03 

electric lighting and power services for the entire community. 
In 1900 the railway carried 3,000,000 passengers ; last year the 
total was approximately 26,383.000. 

The following statistics showing the importance of Winni- 
peg may be of interest : 

Area of city, acres 13,990 

Miles of paved and graded streets 300 

Park acreage 316 

Building permits for January- April, 1910 1,006 

Total assessment city property, 1908 $116,101,390 

Railwav lines serving city 22 

Grain handled yearly, bushels 200,000,000 

Banks and branches 59 

Bank clearings, 1908 ..$614,111,801 

Bank clearings, January, February, March, 1910 $182,448,550 

£2, 206, 094. 88 

f 1,088,872.50 












3,109 094 

Si, 1 19,768.85 




wide streets. On boulevards the double tracks are built along 
a parkway in the center. The generous width of the streets 
permits intersecting curves of long radius ; also, this road is 
perhaps unique in that all its track is on level grades, except at 
subways under steam railroads. These features have assisted 
in the building up of an excellent track system. Another fea- 
ture, however, which has called for particularly careful work 
and heavy construction in building track is that of soft soil. 
The prairie on which Winnipeg is located is covered with a 
deep layer of loam and has practically little fall for natural 
drainage. The city has 300 miles of paved and graded streets, 

July 9, 1910.] 



the major portion of the surfacing having been done with 
asphalt. On unpaved streets, however, the railway company 
has been obliged to use special care in constructing its tracks 
so that the substructure will be well drained. All double-track 
lines, with the exception of two, are laid with 12-ft. track cen- 
ters. On Main and Portage streets, the principal business 
thoroughfares, the tracks are laid with a center distance of 25 
ft. 3 in. These streets have the remarkable width of 132 ft. 

in. below the bottom and 4 in. above the tops of the ties. Be- 
neath this concrete foundation is a 3-in. layer of broken stone 
extending the full width of the trench and draining into a 4-in. 
tile line, also laid in broken stone, and extending under the 
entire city trackage. The tile subdrains discharge into the 
city sewerage system. Between the inside ends of the ties a 
foundation for the pavement of the devil strip is made by 
placing a 10-in. layer of concrete on 3 in. of broken stone. 

Winnipeg System — A Scene in the Retail Section of Winnipeg 

Winnipeg System — View of Double-Track Parked Boulevard Construction 

An illustration on the next page shows the design of track 
structure which has been found satisfactory. The rail adopted 
as standard is a 7-in. 80-lb. high T-section with a 2^-in. head. 
These are laid on large tamarack ties, which cost from 50 cents 
to 60 cents each. Tamarack ties have been found to be good 
after having been underground for seven years. The tics are 
supported and enclosed in a layer of concrete, which extends 6 

The major part of the pavement is asphalt surface and 
binder 3 in. thick. The city has its own asphalt plant and is 
employed by the company to put down the street surface be- 
tween the rails and in the devil strip. The company has a 
granite quarry near its hydroelectric station from which stone 
is obtained for stretcher and filler blocks. Kettle River sand- 
stone also is used, and the railway company now has on hand 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

an order for vitrified clay blocks, 6 in. x 6 in. x 8 in. in size, 
which will be laid as an experiment. The stone setts are 6 in. 
deep and grooved to fit under the heads of the rails so that they 
come in contact with both sides of the web. In some of the 
earlier track construction stretchers of wood, dressed to fit 
the contour of the rails and provide flangeways, were used in 
asphalt paved streets. Criticisms of this construction are that 
it admits water to the substructure and does not wear as long 
as the pavement. 

The special track work used is built partly of 90-lb. and 

Winnipeg System — City Car 

partly of 80-lb. section rails. Some all-manganese intersections, 
built by the Montreal Steel Company, are used, but the larger 
part of the special track work has been furnished by the Lorain 
Steel Company and the Pennsylvania Steel Company, embrac- 
ing the designs with manganese wearing pieces known as 
"Guaranteed" and "Manard." Continuous six-hole plates are 
used at joints. Several types of rail bonding are in use. The 
first rails laid were bonded with round wire and bonding caps. 
On later construction American Steel & Wire flexible bonds 
with pins and Ohio Brass Company all-wire bonds with com- 
pressed terminals were employed. At the present time all new 
track is being bonded with one No. 0000 flexible copper bond 
electrically welded to the rail by a bonding car supplied by the 
Electric Railway Improvement Company. The track near sub- 
stations is double-bonded, and all special track work is passed 
with 500,000-circ. mil cable electrically welded to the rails. 
Cross-bonds also are welded to the rails at intervals of 1000 ft. 


The Suburban Rapid Transit line extends 12 miles directly 
west of Winnipeg, serving the rifle range, race track, country 
club and the town of Headingly. Six miles of this suburban 

Winnipeg System — Car Storage at Repair Shops 

line between the race course and Winnipeg are double-tracked. 
An extension of 10 miles west of Headingly is under consid- 
eration. Another extension now being planned is that to the 
new shops of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railroad, 6 miles east of 
Winnipeg. The track construction department has as a stor- 
age yard a part of the 35-acre tract of land on which the car 
construction shops are located. The material yard here is 
laid out according to a definite plan and is provided with a 
large derrick for transferring heavy freight from steam to 
electric cars. 


For the most part the trolley wires of the Winnipeg Electric 
Railway are carried by span wires. The poles used are cedar 
and tamarack from British Columbia. The company now is 
planning to use steel center poles on some of the wider streets. 
No. 00 wire is standard, and this is supported by uninsulated 
hangers protected by strain insulators in the steel-strand span 


The Winnipeg Electric Railway regularly operates 106 cars 
in its week-day schedule, except at the morning, noon and 
evening rush hours, when 150 cars are required. During the 
summer months open cars and trailers are used in addition to 
large double-truck closed cars, so that the total number of 

' 1 ^ y<\ — Stone ^ etts ^~^~-~^i^__ ^ ^ 5 ~™ 

tft?-;; ( . <-.<;••,. - -* 3 ' Skmc , ■ ■ « <- : • ; ^n~ 

.y,--/t. .-.-.•.=.:.■'.•:.-.; „ I ' ■ : • ■: q 3 Broken Stone 

S Broken Stone M Concrete \ 4 "Tile 

Winnipeg System — Track Construction 

units in service reaches nearly 200. No service is given be- 
tween 2 a. m. and 6 a. m. Practically all of the lines in the city 
run over some portion of the Main Street track through the 
retail district, and thus the traffic passing the intersection of 
Main and Portage streets reaches 185 cars an hour. The trans- 
portation organization includes 600 motormen and conductors 
and 18 supervisors. 

The rates of fare are: Cash fare, 5 cents; tickets six for 
25 cents and 25 for $1 ; workingman's tickets, eight for 25 cents, 
good week-days from 6 to 8 .30 a. m. and 5 to 6 130 p. m. and all 
day Sunday; school children's tickets, 10 for 25 cents. In 1906 
the company was first granted permission to operate its cars on 
Sundays and the low fares for tickets resulted from the negotia- 
tions for Sunday operation. About three-fourths of the re- 
ceipts are received for tickets. The cash fares last year 
amounted to $663,000 out of the total gross receipts of $2,623,- 
731. Universal transfers are issued. Each line has a transfer 
of different color identified by the month, date and a serial 
number. The distinguishing feature of this transfer, which was 
illustrated in the issue of Oct. 16, 1909, on page 882, is the use 
of three vertical columns, one containing the names of the inter- 

Winnipeg System — Interior of City Car 

secting line, another the hour and the nearest 10 minutes with a 
space below to be punched for p. m. use, and a third column on 
the left-hand side of the transfer with a shaded space opposite the 
name of each connecting line. At the bottom of this column are 
spaces to be punched for the going direction. The purpose of the 
column of shaded blank spaces headed "via" is for the validat- 
ing the transfer for the second use. When a transfer is col- 
lectable on a car and the passenger is entitled to continue his 
journey on another line, the conductor does not collect the trans- 
fer and issue a new one, but indicates the second transfer by 

July 9, 1910.] 



a punch mark in the "via" column opposite the name of the line 
on which he is operating. Each conductor is supplied with 
tickets and change to the amount of $25. 


Fares are collected with the Coleman portable fare box. 
The executives of the company are fully satisfied with the re- 
sults from the use of this box, which is in line with the prac- 
tice of many other street railways of Canada. This fare box is 
about 2 in. x 4 in. x 8 in. in size. It has a substantial handle 
on one side and a protected slot in the top. Conductors are not 
allowed to insert fares in the box and are required to handle no 
money except in making change. Transfers are not put in the 
fare boxes. This method of fare collection meets with the 
approval of the riding public and is not thought to require as 
much time as would be needed to register fares. 

When a man starts on his run in the morning he signs for 
a fare box and retains it until his relief; then the box is turned 
in to the receiver and the conductor's signature made at the 
time of getting the box is checked by the cashier so that a 
record may be had of the return of all boxes. In turning in a 
box at his relief a conductor inserts in the hollow handle of 
the box a small report noting the route, car number, box num- 
ber, date and conductor's number. After relief, when the con- 
ductor starts on his next run, he signs for another fare box, 
which is checked off when turned in at the end of his run. At 
night he makes out his transfer ticket report and indicates 
thereon the identification numbers of the boxes which he has 
used during the day. When the fare boxes are received they 
are taken to counting tables where each is opened separately and 
a record is made of its contents in cash and tickets of various 
kinds. A force of 9 or 10 girls does the counting. 

The platforms of the Winnipeg cars are arranged with a 
dividing railing to separate the in-and-out traffic. When these 
railings were placed on the cars it was found possible to shorten 
the time on some runs because of the reduction in the length 
of stops. Smoking is not permitted on the cars and no pas- 
sengers are allowed to stand on the platform if there is room 
within the car body. 


The railway company owns a park of 200 acres located on 
the Red River at the south end of the city. This park has been 
developed to afford the usual amusement features and to en- 

Winnipeg System — Repair Shops 

courage picnic parties. No liquors are sold, but other refresh- 
tnents may be purchased and the railway company supplies hot 
water for making tea. One of the chief attractions of this park 
is the section devoted to wild animals. Here are found deer, 
buffalo, bear, Rocky Mountain goats and many other interest- 
ing animals of the Canadian Northwest. 


The rolling stock equipment of the Winnipeg Electric Rail- 
way includes 175 closed, double-truck, 40-passenger motor 
cars, 13 open cars, three sweepers, one Ruggles rotary snow- 

plow and a complement of line and work cars. The com 
pany is prepared to build all of its cars. Last year 30 double- 
truck city cars were built, and this year a similar order is in 
course of construction in the shops. The standard city passen- 
ger car is 32 ft. long over body, 45 ft. long over vestibules, 8 
ft. 454 in. wide over sheathing and 13 ft. high from top of rail 
to trolley base. The car body is carried on an underframe 
made up of two 7-in. I-beam center sills and two side sills of 
wood 6 in. x 8 in. in section. The needle beams are 7 in. deep. 
All bodies are built for single-end operation and have front 
platforms 4 ft. long and rear platforms 7 ft. long. The plat- 

Winnipeg System — Car Under Way in the Company's Shops 

forms are supported by four angle-iron knees in. x 5 in. x 

5 in. in section, which extend to the bolster. An accompanying 
illustration of one of these car bodies shows the step and plat- 
form arrangement. The steps leading to the rear platform are 

6 ft. long and are subdivided by a stanchion and pipe rail which 
serve to divide the incoming and outgoing passengers. The 
front vestibule is entirely enclosed, and is reached by the 
motorman through the usual bulkhead door and also a swinging 
side door. 

The general design of the upper structure of the Winnipeg 
standard car is illustrated. Large windows are provided on each 
side of the car body, which is framed of ash. The upper deck 
is supported by continuous steel carlins at each window post. 
Below the window rail the bodies are sided with narrow 
matched strips of cherry filled with oil, rubbed and varnished 
in its natural color. The belt rail and window posts and upper 
woodwork of the body are painted cream color. A guard rail 
of i%.-in. pipe is placed along the outside of the car close to 
the bottom of the sheathing. This pipe is supported firmly in 
malleable castings and serves to protect the varnished wood 
from being injured by wagons. 

Storm sash are provided for all the windows, including those 
of the vestibule. The glass in the window sash is 32 in. x 34 
in. in size. No curtains are provided in the city cars, except 
for the windows and door of the front bulkhead. The sash 
are arranged to drop in pockets. Wire net window guards are 
provided for the blind side of the car. The upper deck has 10 
hinged sash on either side. The deck rails are reinforced by 
yi-'m. truss rods extending from end to end of the body and 
supporting the clerestory structure from below by three queen 
posts. The car body is provided with a fir floor of single 
thickness covered with maple slats. The platforms have double 
floors of maple. 

Longitudinal seats are provided with deep cushions covered 
with dark-red plush, which presents an attractive appearance in 
combination with the cherry finish. The seating capacity is 
sufficient for 40 passengers, and within the unobstructed center 
of the car there is a large space for standing passengers. The 
interiors of the car bodies arc illuminated by 20 16-cp lamps 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

arranged 10 along the center of the upper deck and five above 
each sign rail. The interior hardware and fittings are bronze 
and were manufactured by the Ottawa Car Company. A push 
button is provided at each window post. 

The truck-center distance is 22 ft. and trucks of Brill, Bald- 
win and Curtis design are used. Those cars built within the 
last two years are mounted on Brill trucks. Steel wheels of 
Carnegie and Midvale manufacture are placed on axles 4 in. 

Winnipeg System — Armature Department 

and 5 in. in diameter. The wheels are 33 in. in diameter, have 
treads 3 in. wide and flanges 34 m - deep. The air-brake equip- 
ments used are manufactured by the National Brake & Elec- 
tric Company and the Westinghouse Traction Brake Company. 
K-6 and K-28 controllers are operated with the four GE-80 
motors. The fenders are of local design and manufacture. 
They are of the protruding type and are provided with an auto- 
matic trip. In addition to the fender a guard made of strap 
iron or heavy netting encloses the entire space under the front 
platform and ahead of the forward truck. Some of the special 
fittings and parts used on these cars are as follows: Roller 
designation signs ; Peacock hand brakes ; Consolidated electric 
heaters; Ohio Brass Company sanders, and Kalamazoo trolley 

Winnipeg System — Interior of 30,000-Hp Hydroelectric 
Station at Lac du Bonnet 

wheels. The type of car body here described weighs 20,000 lb. 
and the car complete weighs 47,000 lb. 


In addition to the car construction shops, which are located 
at the south end of the city on a property of 35 acres, the 
company has a large operating car house and repair shop close 
to the business district, and a car house with three tracks at the 
north city limits. The latter structure is now being increased 

in size so that it will have eight storage tracks within a fire- 
proof building of brick, concrete and steel. The car construc- 
tion shop is used only for building new cars and making ex- 
tensive repairs to old equipment. The group of shop build- 
ings includes divisions for carpenter, paint, wood and black- 
smith work and has an equipment of good tools. In connection 
with these shops, which are built of brick, is a sheet-steel car- 
storage house with nine tracks, each 300 ft. long. Forty men 
are employed in the car-building shops and the output for the 
last two years has been one double-truck city or high-speed 
interurban car every two weeks. A view of a double-truck city 
car body in course of construction is shown. 

Other illustrations present the interior and exterior appear- 
ance of the Fort Rouge operating car house and general repair 
shop. This building includes 12 storage tracks, 175 ft, long, at 
the front end, and machine and electrical shop, storeroom and 
an office section at the rear. The buildings are located on the 
same property with the steam relay station, which supplements 
the hydroelectric power equipment. The mechanical depart- 
ment employs 125 men, 40 of whom are engaged in car con- 
struction, and 85 in maintenance of equipment. 

The car repair shop subdivision devoted to electrical work 
also is illustrated. This is a well-lighted room equipped for 
testing and repairing motors and control apparatus. A chain 
block supported from an elevated runway encircling the room, 
serves for handling heavy parts. The equipment of the elec- 
trical shop includes a direct-driven American lathe used for 
general work, several home-made winding tools, field and arma- 
ture testing sets and a large bake oven. This oven is built of 
brick and is 10 ft. x 14 ft. in floor area and 8 ft. high. Its 
opening into the electrical repair-room is provided with double 
steel doors. The oven is heated with 10 car heaters and a ven- 
tilating duct is provided to carry away the gases. A steel truck 
has been built especially for carrying armatures and motor coils 
in and out of the oven. It is the practice to slot all commuta- 
tors to a depth of Y% in. This work is done by hand with a 
hacksaw. The freedom from grades and the high character of 
the repair and inspection work are illustrated by the fact that 
only three men are required to care for the electrical shop re- 
pair work on 750 motors. 

The machine shop equipment is in a bay at one side of the 
car repair floor. At this point the repair shop is 12 tracks wide. 
The tool equipment of the machine shop includes a large wheel- 

Winnipeg System — Main Sub-Station with Step-Down 
Transformers and Railway Motor-Generator Sets 

turning lathe, built by John Bertram & Sons Company, Dundas, 
Ontario. This lathe is direct-driven by a 15-hp motor. Three 
other lathes for general work, hydraulic wheel press, several 
drilling and boring machines and smaller tools are group-driven 
by an Edison bipolar motor. The blacksmith shop has four 
forges and a power hammer. 


In 1906 the Winnipeg Electric Railway put into service a 

July 9, 1910.] 



water-power generating station of 30,000-hp capacity located 
at Lac du Bonnet, on the Winnipeg River, 65 miles from Win- 
nipeg. Previously the railway and lighting power had been 
supplied from the central steam station, described later. This 
station is now held in reserve. The hydroelectric station is 
connected with a large receiving station in the city by a 60,000- 
volt, steel-tower transmission line carrying duplicate circuits. 
The normal daily peak load carried is 20,000 kw, including street 
commercial and residence lighting, six railway substations and 
both a. c. and d. c. power. Curves showing the afternoon and 
evening load for all these services except the d. c. commercial 
power, are presented. 

The transmission plant has furnished current for nearly four 
years with a total interruption of but 25 minutes, except at the 
time of an accident to one of the penstocks, which occurred last 
November. The continuity of service over a 65-mile line 
through an undeveloped territory is credited to the stability of 

nished for railway, lighting and commercial use. The street 
cars were operated from 6 to 8:30 a. m. and from 4:30 to 
7 130 p. m. The commercial power customers were furnished 
with current from 8 130 a. m. to 4 130 p. m. and from midnight 
to 5 a. m. Full lighting service was given from 7 until mid- 
night. The Board of Trade and City Council approved of this 
emergency schedule for furnishing current, which, it will be 
noted, was arranged to prevent the overlapping of the peaks of 






















1 1 
/ / 




\ \ 







/ / 






V / 


1 p 










1 =0 

. a 










— / 

— / 




6 7 

9 10 11 12 1 2 i 
a.m. Time 


7 8 9 10 11 12 

Winnipeg System — Main Receiving Station and Sub-Station Winnipeg System — Daily Load Curves of all Circuits 

heavy steel towers and to careful inspection. Two No. 000 
circuits are carried by the line of towers, and switch-over 
facilities are provided so that repairs can be made to one cir- 
cuit while the other is under load. The whole line is inspected 
daily by a crew of patrolmen. Each man is responsible for a 
12-mile section and rides over his section on horseback. Two 
pairs of telephone wires connect the generating station and the 
receiving station at Winnipeg. One line is carried on the steel 
towers and the other on wooden poles. The long-distance 
transmission line from the hydroelectric plant terminates at a 
large receiving station located close to the commercial center of 
the city. From this station current is distributed for railway, 
lighting and commercial services. 


The old steam generating station which furnished current for 
the railway and lighting service of the city before the con- 
struction of the hydroelectric plant burst and necessitated shut- 
ting down the whole plant for six days ; the steam railway sta- 
tion was called upon to handle a great overload Tn fact, the 

the railway, lighting and commercial services and thus permit 
the steam relay station to give nearly full service to each dur- 
ing its appointed hour. An account of the unusual accident at 
the water-power plant was published in the issue of the Elec- 
trical Railway Journal for Dec. 25, 1909. 

The steam relay station building is in three sections : a 
boiler house, an old engine-room and a new engine-room. The 
plant is located on the same property with the railway comr 
pany's general repair shop and is situated on the bank of the 
Assiniboine River, from which stream circulating water is ob- 
tained. The present boiler equipment is made up of 2800 hp 
in B. & W. and 1500 hp in Heine boilers. In addition to these 
six 500-hp B. & W. boilers are being installed so that the plant, 
will have a total of 7200 boiler-hp capacity. The older boiler 
equipment had two brick stacks and a Sturtevant induced draft 
fan equipment. The new boilers will exhaust into a new stack 
8 ft. in diameter and 125 ft. high. In the enlargement of the 
boiler plant and the rearrangement of the equipment, which is 
now under way, coal bunkers will be built over the firing aisle 

J I 

Winnipeg System — Downstream View of Hydroelectric Station 

power demand for railway, lighting and commercial use had 
become so largely in excess of the demand four years ago when 
the water-power plant assumed the load that it was impossible 
for the older relay station to generate sufficient current to 
handle both railway and lighting service simultaneously. The 
water-power plant was flooded and thus conditions had to be 
met as best they could with the old steam equipment. To do 
this set periods were announced when current would be fur- 

and a chain-belt conveyor will be installed to handle ashes and 

In the new engine-room are two direct-driven 800-kw, 60- 
cycle, 2200-volt generators connected to Goldie & McCullough 
cross-compound engines, which are operated condensing, and 
with an initial steam pressure of 125 lb. One of the generators 
is of Allis-Chalmers-Bullock manufacture and the other was 
built by the Canadian General Electric Company. Every two 



weeks these engine-driven units are brought up to speed and 
run in parallel with the Lac du Bonnet hydroelectric plant. 
The direct-driven units in the new engine-room are served by 
a 30-ton capacity Whiting traveling crane. 

The older part of the generating machinery includes the 
following lighting and railway apparatus : One 600-kw and 
two 325-kw, 2200-volt flywheel generators with marine engines ; 
one 400-kw, one 850-kw and one 500-kw direct-current railway 
generators driven by cross-compound engines manufactured by 
the Laurie Engine Company, Montreal. Another cross-com- 
pound engine drives a shaft fitted with a friction clutch to 
which are belted two 75-kw a. c. generators and four 50-kw 
d. c. generators. These machines are so arranged in connec- 
tion with the shaft and clutch that the engine can be discon- 
nected conveniently and the generators run as a motor-genera- 
tor plant to assist the a. c. or d. c. generating equipment accord- 
ing to load demands. 


The railway equipment at the main substation includes three 
800-kw General Electric motor-generators sets, shown in the 
interior view of the station. The rail distribution feeder and 
trolley wires are supplied with 550-volt current from the main 
receiving substation and from three smaller new substations 
which are built for railway use only. The smaller substations 
are located at the north, west and south city limits. Two of 
these stations are equipped with iooo-kw units and the third 
with an 800-kw unit. The substation at the north city limits 
supplies current for city lines and for the southern end of the 
Winnipeg & Selkirk interurban railway. The substation at 
the west limits supplies current for the Portage Avenue di- 
vision of the city system and for the 12-mile suburban line to 
Headingly. The substation at the south end of the city sup- 
plies current for the city lines only, and is located not far 
from the company's amusement park on the Red River. 

The park substation building is 24 ft. x 42 ft. in ground di- 
mensions and 21 ft. 6 in. high from machine-room floor to ceil- 
ing. The building has a basement under the entire structure 
and the machine-room is served by a 10-ton, hand-operated 
Whiting crane. Space is provided for two motor-generator 
sets, but one of which has been installed. This set is made up 
of a 2200-volt, 60-cycle synchronous motor driving a iooo-kw 
G. E. 500-volt interpole generator. Alternating current at 2200 
volts is fed to the substations by an overhead line from the 
receiving station. 

The railway substations were all designed and built by the 
engineers of the Winnipeg Electric Company. They are of a 
thoroughly fireproof construction employing reinforced con- 
crete for floors, foundations and roofs, yellow brick for walls 
and metal window sash and casings. The only combustible 
material in any of these structures is a single wooden door. 

[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 



Engineers have long recognized that a material saving in 
power could be realized in electric railway operation if the 
motormen could be induced or trained to operate the trains 
in a manner approximating the speed-time curve used in the 



Fig. 1 — Coasting Tests — Clock Mechanism 

preliminary calculations. It is proposed in this paper to de- 
scribe some tests made on the Manhattan elevated division of 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, in 
which a clock was used to record the amount of coasting 
employed in the operation of trains, the object of this device 
being to obtain from the motormen a better manipulation of 
the trains with the resulting economy in the use of power. 
The clock consists of a mechanism of the type manufactured 





According to the census report on central electric light 'and 
power stations there were in the United States in 1907, 1252 
municipal, electric light and power stations. Of these 150 were 
in the North Atlantic States; 158 in the South Atlantic; 727 in 
the North Central ; 166 in the South Central and 51 in the 
Western States. Most of these municipal stations are in places 
of small population, nearly seven-eighths of the total number 
being located in places of less than 5000 population and less 
than 3 per cent in places having a population of 25,000 and 
over. In the three divisions — the South Atlantic, the South 
Central, and the Western — together only one station was re- 
ported in 1907 for cities of over 100.000 population. In the North 
Atlantic division there were 16 cities of this class, with only two 
municipal plants in 1907 ; and in the North Central, 14 cities, 
with 9 municipal plants. The one station reported for the South 
Atlantic division was in Baltimore, while the four stations in 
the "500,000 and over population", class of cities in the North 
Central division were all located in Chicago. 


Fig. 2 — Coasting Tests — Clock Connections 

for recording the , time of employees. To th&. balance wheel 
escapement a braking device has been added, as shown in Fig. 
1, which is lifted free from the balance wheel by an electro- 
magnet which is energized only during the coasting of the train. 
This permits the clock to record the coasting time only. Each 
motorman has an individual key which he inserts on taking 
charge of the train and again on leaving. The turning of this 
key records his number or initials and the time as shown by 
the clock mechanism ; the difference in the time between the 
two records made by the key represents the total time of 

'Abstract of a paper presented at the Twenty-seventh Annual Conven- 
tion of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Jefferson, N. H., 
June 28-July 1, 19 10. 

July 9, 1910.] 



coasting during his run. The slip record is torn off by the 
motorman and turned in to the proper official. This is checked 
up with his running time, and the motorman is rated accord- 
ing to the percentage that the coasting time is of the total 
time of his run, allowance being made for schedule variation. 

The electric circuits controlling the clock are interlocked 
with the master controller and the brake mechanism and ar- 
ranged so that the coasting clock will start only after the two 
actions of turning the power on and then off. The connections 
used are shown in Fig. 2. The clock is stopped as soon as 
the air brakes are operated and the brake cylinder has started 
to move to the braking position. If, for any reason, after the 
brakes are applied, the air is released and additional coasting 
obtained before the train stops, this additional coasting is lost 
from the amount of coasting recorded unless power is again 
applied. This is not an important factor in normal operation 
as the actual amount of coasting of this character is small. 


While the principles involved in speed time curve calcula- 
tions are well understood, the following discussion of the fac- 
tors entering into electric operation is given to make clear the 
possible economies from better operation. 

Acceleration. The rapid acceleration of trains, providing 
the schedule speed is unchanged, results in an important saving 
of power for two reasons, first, the maximum speed reached 
is less with a high acceleration, and consequently the train 
resistance is somewhat less ; second, and of much greater im- 
portance, is the fact that with a high rate of acceleration, 
the speed at the start of braking is less than with a lower 
rate and, consequently, the energy absorbed and lost in brak- 
ing is less. A quick acceleration is one of the most feasible 
methods of saving power in such service as exists on the Man- 
hattan Railway. Fig. 3 shows the typical average run on the 
Second Avenue line, using the same rates of acceleration and 
braking and length of stop as in the original calculations 
for the electrification of the Manhattan system, but using the 
train resistance as derived from tests made in 1905. This 
run as shown is representative of the average run on the 
Second Avenue line where the coasting clock tests have been 
made, and is also representative of the average run of the 
entire Manhattan system. The distance between stations on 
the portion of the Second Avenue line tested, between Canal 
Street and 127th Street, is 1768 ft. as compared with 1763 ft. 
for the entire Manhattan system. In this typical curve the ac- 
cleration used is 1.33 m.p.h.p.s. and the schedule speed is 


BRAKING 1.75 «< " '» " " 



200 10 

10 80 80 40 00 60 "0 SO 


Fig. 3 — Coasting Tests — Typical Run 

based upon the printed schedule of the road. In Fig. 4 is 
shown the percentage increase in coasting time resulting from 
the increase in the rate of acceleration from 0.9 m.p.h.p.s. to 
2 m.p.h.p.s., and the resulting decrease in power consumption, 
based upon an average run on the Second Avenue line. In 
the tests on the entire Manhattan system conducted on March 
22, 1910, the acceleration of different motormen was found to 
vary from 0.9 m.p.h.p.s. to 1.47 m.p.h.p.s. Providing other 
factors of train operation remain the same (that is, the brak- 
ing, running time and time of stop) the increase in the rate 

of acceleration from 0.9 to 1.47 m.p.h.p.s. will result in an 
increase in the percentage of coasting time from o to 40.5 
per cent of the total time, and a saving of 36 per cent in 
energy consumption. A motorman on the Manhattan system 
on full runs will average about 600 car miles a day, and the 
power used at the car with 0.9 acceleration will approximate 
2.82 kw-hours per car mile. As between these two motormen, 
therefore, providing the scheduled speed is maintained, the 
motorman who accelerated his train at an average rate of 
0.9 m.p.h.p.s. will waste during the day 610 kw-hours at the 





' i 

i I 

i i 

5 1.0 1.5 2.0 


Fig. 4 — Coasting Tests — Influence of Acceleration J 

car. With 80 per cent efficiency to the power house, this be- 
comes 762 kw-hours. In practice the full saving of power 
resulting from better acceleration is not realized, owing usually 
to the better running time made by the good operator. This 
results frequently in his having to wait for the train ahead 
and by so doing, lose a large part of the savings in power 
which should follow his good operation. The clock should 
give, however, a material increase in coasting time under such 
circumstances, with a resulting saving in power. The men will 
learn to gage their trains, and instead of stopping for the 
man ahead, will utilize the surplus time in coasting. However, 
some penalty must be imposed to prevent the motorman from 
over-doing the coasting at the expense of the running time. 

Series Running. It was found that an increase in the per- 
centage of coasting obtained by reducing the amount of series 
running does not effect a corresponding saving in power. This 
is due to the fact that while the total time during which 
power is applied is increased and the time of coasting reduced 
by holding the controller in the full series position, say for 
four or five seconds, the actual power used remains practically 
the same because the additional power required on account 
of the longer time of power application is offset in large 
measure, if not entirely, by the saving in rheostat losses owing 
to the reduced time that the rheostat is in circuit in passing to 
full multiple. A limited amount of series running, therefore, 
is not objectionable, and under certain conditions it is better to 
run in series for a short time than to pass to the multiple 
position, especially where power is cut off almost immediately 
after the multiple position is reached as under certain con- 
ditions in approaching a station. The decrease in coasting 
time resulting from a moderate amount of series running 
does not, therefore, necessarily represent an increase in power 
consumption, unless the series running has been excessive. In 
this respect the coasting clock will give misleading results; 
but as under norma] conditions there is little occasion for 
running in series, excepting around curves, the error thus 
introduced into the record is not important. 

Braking. A high rate of braking results in a reduction in 
power consumption for reasons similar to those existing as 
to the rate of acceleration. Tt permits the power to lie cut 
off at an earlier point, a longer time of coasting introduced, 
power otherwise wasted in the brakes to be recovered and the 
train brought to a quick stop. Perfection in braking is much 
more difficult of attainment than acceleration, as the train 
must be stopped at the station within a space limited to a few 
feet. Many motormen feel their way into stations, with a 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

material increase in the power used if schedules are maintained. 

In Fig. 5 is shown the percentage of power saved on ac- 
count of the increased percentage of coasting introduced by 
increasing the rate of braking from 1 m.p.h.p.s. to 2.25 m.p.h.p.s. 
These limits are frequently found in the operation of Man- 
hattan trains. Carefully conducted tests have shown 2 m.p.h.p.s. 
to be entirely practical. An increase in the rate of braking 


P / 


/ / 


z If 

*r // 
n li 


I I 

1 1 i 1 I i i I 1 1 I I 2J 1 i i I i i I I I i i 

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 


Fig. 5 — Coasting Tests — Influence of Braking 

between the limits of i m.p.h.p.s. and 2 m.p.h.p.s. results in 
increasing the coasting to 48.5 per cent of the total time with 
a saving in power of 35.5 per cent. 

In the tests made over the Manhattan system on March 22, 
the trains were not equipped for getting the braking rate. 
The average time required by the motorman in bringing the 
train to a stop varied from 10.2 seconds to 20.2 seconds. 
This would indicate approximate braking rates of 1.15 and 
1.90 m.p.h.p.s. The higher rate would increase the coasting 
time from 26 per cent for the lower rate, to 47.5 per cent, 
and result in saving approximately 280 kw-hours per day. 

Station Stops. On the Second Avenue line, the average run 
is -335 mile and the maximum possible stop with the main- 
tenance of the schedule, and with no coasting, is 16.2 seconds, 
assuming an average run as typical. A reduction in the time 
of stop to 10 seconds results in an increase in coasting time 
to 45 per cent of the total time and a reduction of 40 per 
cent in the power used. 

Coasting. The amount of coasting which a motorman can 
obtain and still maintain his schedule, is obviously the result 
of the factors of operation. The theoretical coasting is 27.5 
per cent of the total time including stops. It is possible to 
obtain this amount of coasting and even to exceed it by 
changes in operation which are entirely within the range of 
practicability. In Fig. 6 is shown the percentage of change 
made in these operating factors, and the resulting percentage 
of coasting obtained, and the corresponding percentage of 
power saved. It will be noted that it makes but little differ- 
ence which factor is altered. The percentage of power saved 
is substantially the same, however the increased coasting is 
obtained. This, of course, is to be expected. It is well to 
point out the very large saving in power consumption which 
results in reducing the stop from say 15 seconds to 10 seconds, 
assuming that the schedule speed remains the same. This 
saves 25 per cent in power through increased coasting. 

After all trains on the Second Avenue line were equipped 
with clocks several tests were made, due allowance being 
made for heaters, lighting, wattmeter calibration, etc. The 
results obtained were necessarily approximate but were re- 
markably consistent and showed a material improvement in 
coasting and also a reduction in the power required for the 
car operation, namely, an increase in the time of coasting from 
10 per cent as it was prior to the installation of the clocks to 
38 per cent following such installation, resulted in a saving 
of 25 per cent in the power required for traction. 


In order to compare the operating conditions existing on 
the Second Avenue line with the conditions on the other lines 

of the Manhattan system, on March 22 a test train was run 
in actual service over all divisions of the Manhattan system. 
A seven-car train composed of four motor and three trail 
cars was used. Each trail car was equipped with one of the 
recording clocks. These clocks were connected as shown in 
Fig. 2. One clock was used to record the coasting time, the 
second the time of power application, and the third the time 
of braking. Stop watch records were also made of the time 
of series running and total power application, time of coasting, 
time of braking and time of station and signal stops. 

The results of the tests over the Second Avenue line re- 
duced to an average run are plotted in Fig. 7 and are given 
as "Running Charts" for each of the three tests on this 
division. These curves approximate speed-time curves in form, 
but naturally as the different factors which enter into the 
characteristics of the curve are averages, the resulting curve 
does not pretend to give the correct area and distance. It sim- 
ply pictures the average operating conditions of the run. 

It will be noted that motorman 5" in test No. 2 obtained 
50.5 per cent coasting, the largest amount recorded during the 
day. Of the three tests on Second Avenue, motorman O 
in test No. 5 obtained the smallest amount of coasting, 41.4 
per cent and carried power for the longest time, 31.6 per 
cent, yet he was the better operator of the two. If he had 
used the same time in making the run as motorman 5" in 
test No. 2, it would have been possible for him to obtain as 
high as 58.5 per cent coasting as shown by the broken line 














ACCEL. 0.90 H 
BRAK. 1.00 
STOP 16 





'ERSEC/ / 

10 20 30 40 50 60 


Percentage change in operating conditions and resulting 
percentage of coasting 



\J\ BY C 



\^BV 1 
BY 1 




10 20 30 40 50 60 


Fig. 6 — Coasting Tests — Influence of Various Factors 

on test No. 5, and he could have cut his power application 
down to 22.2 per cent with a saving of 8 per cent in power 
as compared with motorman 6" in test No. 2. The good 
results in test No. 5 were obtained with an acceleration of 
1.47 m.p.h.p.s. and braking of 1.85 m.p.h.p.s. (approximate") as 
compared with an acceleration of 1.35 m.p.h.p.s. and braking 
of 1.75 m.p.h.p.s. (approximate) in test No. 2 The rate of 
braking indicated on these curves is approximate only, as the 
average braking includes the signal braking between stations 
and at curves in addition to the braking at station stops. 
The slope of the braking curve, however, indicates quite ac- 

July 9, 




curately the relative rate of braking used by the motorman. 
The motormen who operated the trains in the tests on the Sec- 
ond Avenue line were selected men and the runs were made 
to illustrate what could be accomplished after a thorough 
training of several months. The average coasting obtained 
in the three runs is 45.2 per cent, corresponding to 1.70 kw- 
hours per car mile at the car. This indicates a saving in 












"n j 



,•> 1 






" STOPS f . {5,6 
5 STATION - *] |e- 

40 60 




NO. 2 



Q / 













40 60 



40 60 

No. 1. Typical running chart, 129th Street to South Ferry — 

8:01:20 a.m. to 8:40:43 a.m. — Motorman S — 

Schedule time 35 min. — 27 runs — Average run 1723 ft. — 

Average speed 12:3 miles per hour. 
No. 2. Typical running chart, South Ferry to 127th St. — 

8:45:20 a.m. to 9:24:23 a.m. — Motorman S — 

Schedule time 34.5 min. — 26 runs — Average run 1752 ft. — 

Average speed 13.2 miles per hour. 
No. 5. Typical running chart. 129th Street to South Kerry — 

1:23:15 p.m. to 2:0:45 p.m. — Motorman O — 

Schedule time 35 min. — 27 runs — Average run 1723 ft. — 

Average speed 13.9 miles per hour. 

Fig. 7 — Coasting Tests — Running Charts 

power consumption amounting to 34 per cent as compared 
with the conditions existing on this line prior to the installa- 
tion of the clocks. This, of course, is in excess of the average 
saving of all the men as these men were specially selected. 

In the Third Avenue tests, the run south was made with 
the motorman whose turn it happened to be. This run showed 
13.2 per cent coasting. The run north was made with an 
experienced man and showed 27.6 per cent coasting. The dif- 
ference was due mostly to the difference in the rate of ac- 
celeration, but partly to the braking rate and partly to an 
excessive amount of series running in the third test. These 
two runs showed an average of 20.4 per cent braking which 
indicates 2.22 kw-hours per car-mile at the car. These men, 
therefore, used 30.6 per cent more power than was used by 
the men on the Second Avenue test. 

For the two tests made on the Sixth Avenue line, the 
motormen were taken as they come, and their handling of the 
train was in fairly close agreement. On account of the num- 
ber of turns on this line, the amount of necessary series 
running was considerably in excess of that obtained on the 

other lines. The average coasting obtained was 22.3 per cent. 
This corresponds to a power consumption of 2.17 kw-hours 
per car-mile. As compared with the average obtained in the 
Second Avenue tests, this represented an excess consumption 
of power of 27.7 per cent. 

For the Ninth Avenue tests the motormen were taken as 
they came, and as in the Sixth Avenue tests, the trains were 
run very much alike. In both cases the acceleration was poor 
and the braking somewhat below the standard. Both used a 
large amount of series running. The Ninth Avenue line is 
an ideal one on which to obtain a large amount of coasting 
on account of the longer runs, easy schedule and long grades, 
yet the coasting obtained by these two men was but 18.9 per 
cent and 21.2 per cent, respectively, and averaged 20.1 per 
cent. As compared to the average obtained in the Second 
Avenue tests, this represents an excess consumption of power 
of 31.8 per cent. 


In the tests conducted on March 22, the motormen were 
conscious of being under observation by the test crew as 
well as by their own road officials, and under such circum- 
stances they naturally tried to do their best. The results ob- 
tained, therefore, cannot be regarded as representative of 
actual conditions, but can be taken as fairly representing the 
best that these men could do, and, therefore, as illustrating 
the knowledge of the motormen in general. The tests were too 
few in number, however, and the conditions under which they 
were made were such that they are not regarded as repre- 
sentative. To determine the fair average conditions as to 
coasting existing on all divisions of the system, tests were 
made on the Second and Third Avenue lines last fall and 
two trains equipped with clocks were put in regular service 
(his spring on the Sixth and Ninth Avenue lines. 

The average of these results should be fairly representative 
of the coasting conditions at present, as well as prior to the 
installation of the coasting clock on the Second Avenue line. 
The men soon become aware of the trains equipped with 
clocks, however, and consequently are more careful in the 
operation than usual. It is probable, therefore, that the coast- 
ing data obtained from these tests are above rather than under 
the average conditions. A coasting summary of the coasting 
data for all lines follows: 


Car miles Per cent 

per day. coasting. 

Second Avenue 28,863 10.0 

Third " 79.4°3 I0 - 2 

Sixth " 46,571 "-9 

Ninth " 33,826 19.1 

Average 188,663 (total) 12.2 

In the table below is given the average coasting obtained 
during five weeks on the Second Avenue line, where the 
coasting clock has been in service for slightly over three 
months. The average run on this part of the Second Avenue 
line, as already pointed out, closely approximates the average 
run for the entire Manhattan system. 


Average Average Per cent 

running time coasting time coasting 

Week ending March 5 28.7 10.5 36.8 

" " " 12 28.7 11. 1 38.8 

" 19 28.5 10.8 37.7 

" 26 28.5 10.6 37.0 

" April 2 28.4 10. 1 35.4 

Average 28.6 10.6 37.1 

The result of these calculations and tests shows that an 
increase in the percentage of coasting from 12 per cent to 
37.5 per cent as shown above, will effect a saving of 24 
per cent in the power required for traction. 

Coasting is the recovery of power already used, and, hence, 
is the key to the problem. The coasting clock, therefore, 
gives a direct measure of the power recovered by the motor- 
men and as this recovery can also only be made by cutting 
off the power application sooner, it is believed that it is the 
most effective element in train operation to measure. At the 
same time it concentrates the niotorman's attention on that 
operating element which is the direct reason for saving power. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 



The features to be embodied in an ideal electric locomotive 
depend entirely on the point of view. The man who is re- 
sponsible for hauling trains on schedule time sees in the elec- 
tric locomotive only a means for keeping trains moving on 
schedule time. His conception of efficiency is represented by 
the number of trips made on schedule time, divided by the total 
number of trips. He accepts an electric locomotive only as a 
last resort, and then recommends the incorporation of as many 
as possible of the features of successful steam locomotives. 
The eyes of the motive power man see much the same features 
as those of the operating man, but his eyes magnify details of 
design in a greater degree. Both will insist on the strength 
of all parts being ample to withstand every phase of the service 
such as bumping, speeding, overhauling, etc. Their ideal loco- 
motive will operate safely at high speed, in either direction. It 
will be able to make up a reasonable amount of lost time, and 
will always be ready for service. It will not require long lay- 
overs, and will be in the shop the least possible time. They 
would like, if possible, a single type of locomotive which would 
perform any service that might be required of it, from making 
up and hauling a 2500-ton freight train to making a high-speed 
run with a "limited." The amount of power consumed and the 
excessive weight involved in an interchangeable locomotive of 
this type are a matter of little importance to them. To the 
general manager or president the cost of the locomotives will 
appeal most strongly. 

At first sight it appears to be a very simple problem to trans- 
mit the power from rotating motor armatures to rotating 
wheels. However, there are more or less serious objections 
and limitations to every type of transmission that has Veen 
proposed. These include : 

a. General motor with armature pressed on driving axle. 
"New York Central." 

b. Gearless motor with armature carried on a quill surround- 
ing axle and driving the wheels through flexible connections. 
"New Haven passenger." 

c. Geared motor with bearings directly on axle and with nose 
supported on spring-borne parts of locomotive. "St. Clair 

d. Geared motor with bearings on a quill surrounding axle, 
and (1) nose supported on spring-borne parts of machine (New 
Haven motor car) and (2) motor, rigidly bolted to spring- 
borne parts of machine, the quill having sufficient clearance for 
axle movements. "Four-motor New Haven freight." 

e. Motor mounted rigidly on spring-borne parts, armature 
rotating at same rate as drivers, power transmitted to drivers 
through cranks, connecting rods and countershaft on level with 
driver axles. "Pennsylvania." 

/. Motor mounting and transmission as in (e), but motor 
fitted with double bearings, one part for centering motor crank 
axle and the other for centering the armature quill which sur- 
rounds and is flexibly connected to the motor crank axle. 
"Two-motor New Haven freight." 

g. Motors mounted on spring-borne parts, armature rotating 
at same rate as drivers, power transmitted to drivers through 
offset connecting rods and side rods. "Latest Simplon loco- 

h. Motors mounted on spring-borne parts, armature rotating 
at same rate as drivers, power transmitted to drivers through 
Scotch yokes and side rods. "Valtellina locomotives." 

;'. Motors mounted rigidly on spring-borne parts, power 
transmitted through gears to countershaft, thence to drivers 
through Scotch yokes and side rods. 

Further classification of electric locomotives on the basis of 
framing and wheel arrangement is also of assistance in gain- 
ing a c'.ear understanding of existing locomotives. 

a. Cab and framing an integral structure. All weight carried 

* Abstract of paper presented at the annual convention of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, Jefferson, N. H., July i, iqio. 

on drivers. Drivers contained in a single rigid wheelbase. "St. 
Clair Tunnel." 

b. Cab and truck framing separate structures, all weight car- 
ried on drivers. Drivers contained in two rigid wheelbase 
trucks. Draw-bar pull transmitted through center pins or 
through truck frames. "P. R. R. 10,001 and 10,002." 

c. Same as (b), but with added idle wheels for guiding and 
weight carrying. "Modified New Haven passenger and New 
Haven freight." 

d. Any of the foregoing forms permanently coupled in pairs 
or articulated. "Pennsylvania." 

c. Same as (a), but with added idle wheels for guiding and 
weight carrying. "Valtellina or New York Central." 

/. Cab and framing an integral structure. All weight carried 
on drivers. Driver wheelbase partly rigid and partly flexible. 
"Simplon Tunnel." 

From an operating standpoint it would be very desirable to 
have one locomotive which would be capable of handling at 
the desired speed any train from the heaviest freight to the 
fastest limited. While such a locomotive can be built, it would 
have a prohibitive cost. Where the weight of trains to be 
handled and the speeds at which they operate vary as widely 
as they do on most trunk lines, an absolutely interchangeable 
locomotive is impracticable. 


Iii switching service the locomotive operates to a great ex- 
tent over the curves and special work. This track construc- 
tion is expensive and hard to maintain. The locomotive should, 
therefore, embody primarily in its design such features as will 
enable it to negotiate this kind of track with the least effort. 
The features are : 

(<7) Short rigid wheelbase. 

(b) Minimum dead weight per axle. 

(c) Minimum total weight per axle needed for adhesion. 

(d) Concentration of weight near midlength of locomotive, 
and short cab overhang. 

(f) Effective equalization, preferably of the three-point type. 
(/) Flexibility of framing under longitudinal twist to assist 

equalizing system. 

(g) High center of gravity. While this is of helpful tendency 
it is probably not worth the expenditure of much money or 
weight on account of the slow speed of operation. 

These features tend to produce a locomotive whose wheels 
may be deflected by the rails with the least attendant move- 
ment of the mass of the locomotive. 

Most of the transcontinental railroads are to-day limited in 
their carrying capacity by long mountain grade divisions. The 
present practice is to run the heaviest freight trains that can be 
operated over these divisions. This service is now handled by 
consolidation or mallet steam engines, which haul 2000-ton to 
2500-ton trains at 8 m.p.h. to 10 m.p.h., and electric locomotives 
are expected to handle the same or heavier trains at higher 
speeds to increase the capacity on the line. 

The type of locomotive best suited for slow heavy freight 
service, with speeds of 12 m.p.h. to 15 m.p.h. is one having a 
motor geared to each axle. The feature of prime importance 
in the design of these locomotives is the absence of weight in 
excess of that necessary for adhesion. Every ton of excess 
weight in the locomotive means a ton less trailing load. A 
slow-speed freight locomotive should be designed with all 
weight on the drivers. A greater dead weight per 1 axle can 
probably be tolerated than is wise in switching service. If 
complete spring support of the motors can be achieved without 
excess total weight, then the decrease in maintenance charges 
should much more than offset the increased first cost attendant 
upon such spring support. 

The wheelbase of the slow-freight engine should be as flexible 
as possible so as to curve easily and prevent flange wear, and 
should take switches and turnouts without undue stress on the 
track. No idle leading or trailing truck axles are necessary. 
The remarks on high center of gravity, equalization, concen- 
tration of weight at midlength of engine and flexible framing 
apply almost equally on switching and slow-freight services. 

July 9, 1910.J 



Trunk lines which are able to operate freight trains at speeds 
of 30 m.p.h. to 40 m.p.h. require a locomotive with a range of 
speed from 30 m.p.h. to 60 m.p.h., which is well suited to handle 
both freight and all but the highest-speed passenger trains. 
The high speed makes it advisable to provide leading wheels 
of small size and light dead weight to assist in guiding and to 
iron the rails down gently to an actual bearing surface on the 
roadbed and thus avoid the knocks attendant on hammering the 
free rail down with the heavy drive wheel. 

The most important requisite of a locomotive designed to 
operate at 60 m.p.h. and over is its ability to run at the highest 
•speed without injury to the track. Extensive speed tests have 
shown that almost any kind of a locomotive will stay on the 
track at 40 m.p.h. without serious damage to tangent track. As 
the speeds increase the bad riding qualities rapidly appear, due 
principally to lateral forces set up. 

There are certain features that tend to reduce the intensity 
of the lateral forces on the track. First is "high center of 
gravity." The higher the mass of the locomotive is placed 
above the axles, the less will be its restraining influence against 
lateral motion on the part of the wheels. The mass of the 
locomotive may take the general direction of the track, while 
the wheels follow all the little irregularities in its surface and 

Assume that a locomotive is running at high speed on tan- 
gent track and that some rail defect imposes a sudden trans- 
verse movement upon the wheels. The mass of the wheels and 
axle and any other masses rigidly associated with them will de- 
liver a shock approximating a hammer blow to the side of 
the rail head. 

The blow delivered by the spring-borne parts of the locomo- 
tive is radically different from this in both low and high center 
of gravity machines. In the case of a locomotive whose center 
of gravity of spring-borne parts is at the same height as the 
•center of the transverse restraint, i.e., about the center of the 
axle, the transverse movement of the leading driver would im- 
pose a rotation of spring-borne parts about a vertical axis. 
The lateral force necessary to produce such a movement would 
"be very great, due to the great moment of inertia about this 
axis. In the case of a locomotive whose center of gravity is 
liigh above the center of transverse restraint, the, movement of 
the spring-borne masses by transverse movement of the lead- 
ing driver is a composite of two rotations, viz., about a vertical 
axis and about a horizontal axis parallel to the rails. As the 
moment of inertia about the latter axis is much less than that 
about the former, it is evident that the lateral forces involved 
in the high center of gravity machines will be less. The forces 
opposing rotation about the horizontal axis are provided by the 
semi-elliptic riding springs, which will transmit their resultants 
ultimately to the running face of the rail and will not aggra- 
vate flange pressures. Were it not for the dampening effect of 
the friction of the semi-elliptic springs and the internal friction 
of the machine, this rotation about a horizontal axis would be a 
simple harmonic vibration. The period and amplitude of this 
vibration would be functions of the characteristics of the semi- 
elliptic springs and of the polar moment of inertia of the 
masses moved. 

Suppose, for example, that with the low center of gravity 
locomotive first considered, some combination of lateral springs 
were applied which would impose on the spring-borne weights 
a vibration about the vertical axis of period and amplitude and 
dampening action identical with that occurring on the high 
center of gravity machines. There being no rotation about the 
horizontal axis, the forces required to control the vibration 
would be greater than with the high center of gravity machine, 
because of greater moment of inertia about the vertical axis : 
and, further, the transverse rail stresses would be greater be- 
cause the reactions of the controlling forces are transverse. 
Probably transverse springs as heavy and with as great ampli- 
tude of motion as the semi-elliptic riding springs would be nunc 
too powerful to perform the required service, and it should be 
noted that their friction is almost as important as their 
spring action. Production of an ideal high-speed, low center 

of gravity engine of the type noted, while perhaps theoretically 
possible, is attended by difficulties which are serious even if 
they are not insurmountable. 

Considering further the horizontal rotation of the spring- 
borne masses of a locomotive with medium height of center 
gravity, there is a zone that is neutral as regards transverse 
motion relative to the track. If in such a locomotive certain 
of the lower masses were hung from longitudinal trunnions 
located on the center line of the locomotive and in this neutral 
zone, it is evident that the rotation of the spring-borne masses 
would be more easily accomplished, due to the lessening of the 
masses moved. Possibly gearless concentric motors could be 
hung in this way, in connection with a drive of sufficient flexi- 
bility to allow free wheel play. 

This is not a combination that could be recommended solely 
because of good riding qualities. It is, however, entirely pos- 
sible for such a machine to have sufficient attendant simplicity 
to make it a better compromise than an engine where sim- 
plicity and mechanical efficiency are directly sacrificed to secure 
high center of gravity. The New Haven passenger locomotives 
have a motor mounting that approximates this condition. There 
is not as great amplitude of springs to allow unrestrained wheel 
play either vertically or laterally as might be desired, but there 
is enough to cushion all blows that the track receives from the 
mass of the motors, and the reports of track maintenance since 
the addition of the leading wheels eliminated ti e nosing ten- 
dency, are very gratifying. 

Almost equally advantageous with the high center of gravity 
is the concentration of the mass of the locomotive about the 
center of gravity, both vertically and longitudinally. It is 
conceivable that if the mass of the locomotive could be so 
concentrated longitudinally about the center of gravity as to 
decrease the radius of gyration about the vertical axis to a 
value well within the rigid wheelbase, there would be no more 
serious lateral disturbance on the track with a low center of 
gravity machine than with one having higher center of gravity, 
but with a much longer radius of gyration about the vertical 
axis. Every effort should, therefore, be made to locate the 
mass of the heavy parts of the locomotive as near the middle 
as possible. 

The action of a low center of gravity locomotive can be very 
materially improved by locating the point of side restraint be- 
low the level of the driving axles. Every inch that this point 
is lowered is equivalent to raising the center of gravity of the 
spring-borne parts by an equal amount. 


The most successful high-speed steam locomotives of to-day 
are designed with a three-point equalization, having one point 
ahead and two trailing. This is apparently a very desirable 
arrangement for any locomotive, and the electric locomotive 
designer is at once confronted with a new problem in adapting 
it to a locomotive which must be designed to operate equally 
well in either direction. The only means by which the actual 
three-point equalization can be secured on such an engine is to 
devise some means for shifting the equalization when the 
engine is reversed. Tt is possible to arrange air cylinders inter- 
locked to the reverse lever, which will automatically alter the 
equalization system, so that a single point of equalization will 
always lead and two points will always trail. This should, 
however, be reserved for a last resort, as it does not seem wise 
to accept such weight and complication unless it proves essen- 
tial. A symmetrical arrangement of wheels on the two ends 
of the locomotive has been criticised by some as lending itself 
to a nosing tendency in high-speed engines. While there is 
some evidence to support such contention, it is not regarded 
as absolutely proven. 

Whatever system of equalization is used, it is very desirable 
that the springs on an electric locomotive should be very flexi- 
ble. This in itself will tend to equalize the loads on the drivers 
without the complete three-point equalization system. Some of 
the best engineers contend that a four-point equalization sys- 
tem with flexible springs is better than the three-point equali- 
zation system. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 


The impracticability of performing all classes of service 
economically with a single machine is apparent. The locomo- 
tive for the heavy high-speed passenger train will require mo- 
tors of large capacity. This capacity, however, can be utilized 
only at the high speeds with a corresponding low tractive ef- 
fort. The electric locomotive is not so well suited for inter- 
changeable service as the steam locomotive because of the fact 
that its continuous tractive effort is practically constant re- 
gardless of the speed at which it is operated. An electric loco- 
motive designed to develop its continuous capacity of 60 m.p.h. 
if operated in freight service at 30 m.p.h. will be developing 
only one-half of its capacity. On account of the necessity of 
having the best riding qualities at high speed, the locomotive 
will be very much heavier than one designed especially for 
freight service having the same continuous tractive effort. The 
cost also will be much greater. An economical mechanical de- 
sign for a locomotive which is thoroughly satisfactory for 
freight service will not be at all suitable for the high-speed 
passenger service. 


While many types of transmission are in successful opera- 
tion, none is above criticism from some point of view. Gear- 
less motors in which the armatures are carried dead on the 
axle while having the simplest transmission of all are de- 
structive to roadbed when operated at high speeds. The mount- 
ing of the motor on a quill driving the wheels through springs 
is also objectionable from some standpoints, but it is open to 
less objection because its weight is all spring supported against 
both vertical and lateral shocks. There is a definite, though 
somewhat restricted field where the gearless concentric motor 
is most successful. High speed is essential to allow a rate of 
revolution sufficient to secure an economical power output per 
unit weight of motor. The gearless concentric motor for slow- 
speed operation cannot compete with the geared motor, as the 
weight and cost will be prohibitive. The power demanded per 
axle must not be so great as to result in wheel overloads. 


In the present state of the art, gears can be designed which 
will perform satisfactorily in any class of railway service. 
There should be no hesitancy on the part of the locomotive de- 
signer in recommending gears for service where a reduction 
from the armature speed is desirable, as in low-speed loco- 

An advantage of gearing the motor to a quill having large 
clearance around the axle, as in the New Haven geared freight 
locomotive, is that it enables the motor to be mounted rigidly 
on the truck, and directly above the axle, thus permitting the 
greatest economy of space by bringing the driving axles close 
together. It also raises the center of gravity of the spring- 
borne parts and brings the motor well above the dust and dirt 
of the roadbed. And as the motor projects through the floor 
into the cab, the commutator, brushes and oil boxes are rendered 
accessible at all times. It also facilitates the use of forced 
ventilation, which greatly increases the capacity of motors of 
the enclosed type. This type of transmission has been in use 
but a short time, but the performance thus far has been so 
satisfactory as to give promise of its success in a wide range of 
application. It is believed that on account of the extreme flexi- 
bility of the drive that the pitch line speed may be raised to a 
much higher value than has ever before been deemed possible. 
The flexibility effectually prevents the extreme shocks which 
are ordinarily received by the gear teeth of a high-speed loco- 
motive when the gear is pressed directly on the axle. 

The use of gearing which permits the armature to run at a 
higher speed of rotation than the driving axle places a limit 
on the speed of the locomotive. For economical designs it is 
not advisable to allow a maximum armature speed of more than 
2 or 2.5 times the continuous rating speed. If a greater ratio 
than this is required., the armature speed must be reduced. 
The weight and cost of motor for a given continuous capacity 
will increase directly with this ratio. 

With theoretically perfect gears a very high pitch line speed 

should be operative. In regular interurban mounting of motors 
heavy strains are imposed on gear teeth in high-speed opera- 
tion by sudden vertical displacement of wheels due to track 
irregularities, with attendant acceleration or retardation of 
armature. In such applications a maximum pitch-line speed of 
3500 ft. to 4000 ft. per minute is used. With complete spring 
support of motor and flexible connection to wheels, or with 
flexible gears, a higher speed will be permissible. There are in- 
sufficient data at hand to approximate the limit under these 
conditions. Even better results probably can be obtained by the 
use of helical gears which are now coming into use. The suc- 
ces: of this type of gear, which is used for the Melville- 
McAlpin steam-turbine drive, indicates a sphere of usefulness 
for gears which has scarcely been touched. 

Experience thus far indicates that a pressure of 1000 lb. per 
inch width of gear face is perfectly practicable for continuous 
rating of large gears. With special steel pinions and high- 
grade gears it is probably safe to exceed this figure. For 
short hauls pressures far above 1000 lb. per inch are now in 
daily successful operation. In the locomotives for the St. Clair 
Tunnel, for instance, the pressure is carried on a single gear 
having a 6-in. width of face. The normal loads at which the 
locomotive operates on the up-grade give a pressure of from 
1500 lb. to 2000 lb. per inch width of face on the gears. With 
this pressure the pinions have a life of 40,000 miles to 50,000 
miles, and none of the gears has yet worn out, although the 
locomotives have been in continuous operation for over two 
years. With twin gears there is a possibility of further increase 
in unit pressure as the absence of relative skewing of pinion 
and gear shafts produces a better application of the tooth load. 
Motors of 500-hp continuous rating are about as large as can 
be geared to a single axle. 


The wish to get the good riding qualities of the high-speed 
steam locomotive, and at the same time to avoid the difficulties 
and limitations imposed by mounting the motor concentric with 
the axle, had led to the adoption of side rods for transmitting 
the power from the motor to the wheels. There is a very strong 
tendency in this direction both in Europe and in this country. 
This type permits the use of a single powerful motor to drive 
two axles. The motor is mounted in the cab instead of under 
it so that all parts are readily accessible and are thoroughly 
protected from the dust, dirt and water from the roadbed. The 
location of the heavy motor so high in the cab raises the center 
of gravity of the locomotive to height corresponding to that 
of high-speed steam locomotives. It is susceptible of perfect 
mechanical balance and gives a uniform tractive effort. 

In case of a steam locomotive there are at least two inde- 
pendent sources of mechanical forces, viz., the cylinders. Each 
piston constitutes a "free end" of the transmission system. 
The distance from the center of cylinder to the center of main 
driver axle is not a hard and fast value. 

In an electric locomotive with a single motor crank and rod 
connected to a countershaft there are no "free ends." Great 
accuracy of tram and parallelism of motor shaft and counter- 
shaft are essential, any error being accompanied by serious 
stresses in the transmission with associated low mechanical effi- 
ciency and high maintenance charge, especially for bearing 
brasses. The motor exerts a constant turning moment or torque 
throughout the entire revolution. This constant torque must 
be transmitted to the driving axle without modification except 
for the losses in bearings. At certain points in the cycle all the 
torque of the motors is transmitted through one crank; at cer- 
tain other points it is transmitted through the opposite crank. 
At intermediate points it may or may not be transmitted through 
a single crank, as the interchange of work is different in differ- 
ent machines, being a composite function of journal and pin 
clearances together with bending and torsional deflections of all 
elements of the transmission and framing. All the driving 
effort is transmitted through four running pins in series before 
any useful work is performed. This results in considerable loss 
of mechanical efficiency. It may be noted that the use of 
knuckle pins would avoid one or possibly two of the running 

July 9, 19 10.] 



pins mentioned. Knuckle pins have caused so much trouble 
from breakage that they will have to be modified considerably 
before they will be acceptable. The trouble seems to lie in the 
twisting of the rods due to uneven track. 

The side-rod type of locomotive is at a disadvantage when 
compared with the high-speed geared type described, because 
of the fact that the mechanical parts of the locomotive and also 
the motor frames must necessarily be much heavier to with- 
stand the reciprocating stresses imposed on them. They will 
also require much more careful work in assembling and will, 
therefore, be more expensive. On the other hand, it would seem 
that after the side-rod locomotive is once completed, the 
mechanical parts should be very cheap to maintain. 

The Scotch yoke side-rod drive has been used to the greatest 
extent with the three-phase locomotives in Italy and has ap- 
parently given excellent results. The motors, being flexibly 
attached to the spring-borne parts, are not subject to severe 
cranking strains and can therefore be made light mechanically. 
The other parts also can be made considerably lighter because 
of the fact that no jack-shaft is required, and the crank- 
ing strains are taken directly on the armature shafts which are 
supported in bearings in the side frames. The design, how- 
ever, sacrifices high center of gravity, and some alternate plan 
for securing easy riding qualities must be adopted. One which 
has been suggested utilizes a plan somewhat in line with that 
suggested for the gearless concentric motors ; namely, having 
springs between the motor and side frames for cushioning 
lateral shocks. The mechanical efficiency of this type should 
be higher than that of the rod-connected design, because of 
the fact that the power is not transmitted through so many 
running pins. It has the objectionable feature of a sliding 
connection between the driving yoke and the pin on the middle 
driving wheel, but this apparently causes no trouble whatever. 
In fact, the locomotives as observed on the Valtellina Railway 
operate smoothly, and apparently with small friction loss. 
This may be ascribed in part to the fact that all bearings are 
kept flooded with oil. This type of drive will give probably a 
lighter locomotive than is possible with any other drive having 
motors operating at the same speed as the driving axles. It 
has thus far not met with favor in this country, but its merits 
will undoubtedly bring it into use for moderate* speed work 
where gearless motors are desired. 

Where slower speeds are desired than can be secured by 
the use of motors operating at the same speed as the axles it 
is sometimes more economical to use two motors geared to 
jackshafts and connected to the drivers by means of the 
"Scotch yoke" in the same way as just described. This scheme 
permits the use of large motors and gives much greater space 
for them than can be secured between the drive wheels where 
the motors are geared either to the axles or to quills surround- 
ing the axles. . The motor is mounted so that its center of 
gravity is high, and as it extends through the floor into the 
cab, the bearings and brushes are easily accessible. In this 
respect the motor has all of the advantages possessed by the 
rod-connected motor. Gears can be located outside of the 
driving wheel so that they can be replaced without dismantling 
the locomotive any further than required by the removal of the 
side rods. Locomotives involving this principle have been 
built in Europe, and a large one is now under construction for 
the Midi Railway in France. 

In the three-phase locomotives now in use in the Simplon 
Tunnel the motors are located as close together at the 
middle of the locomotive as possible, and their crank pins are 
connected together by a frame. From pins on this frame on 
a line with the center of the axle rods are carried to the 
nearest driving wheels, and thence other rods connected to 
the axles of the outer drivers, there being four pairs of driv- 
ing wheels. It is, of course, essential where side rods are 
used that all axles should remain substantially parallel, and 
in order to secure the radial motion of the wheels at the ends 
of the locomotives it is necessary to mount the wheels on 
quills which surround the axles and connect them together 
only at the middle point by a kind of universal joint. By these 

means the wheels are able to move in a radial direction, while 
the axles which drive them are kept parallel to the inside driv- 
ing axles. This seems to be operating very satisfactorily, and 
with some modifications will probably meet other conditions 
where all the weight is carried on the drivers, and a rigid 
frame locomotive with flexible wheel base is required. 

The possible combinations of locomotive framing, motors, 
and transmission between motors and drivers which have not 
been mentioned are almost limitless. 



The value of increasing the coasting time on a g'ven run is 
well illustrated by the experience of the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company on its subway and elevated division. As 
a result of installing coasting signs showing when to shut off 
the motors the energy consumption was reduced about one- 
third and the cost of brake shoes, which is one of the largest 
items of equipment maintenance, was reduced by almost the 
same amount. Recent tests made on the Atlantic City & Shore 
Railroad confirm this experience and also demonstrate the sav- 
ing in current made possible by the use of anti-friction journal 
bearings which cut down the bearing resistance during accelera- 
tion and increase the permissible coasting time. 

The interurban section of this road is 15.2 miles long, of 
which some 13^ miles are double track. Two series of tests 
were carried out, one making all, and the other only compul- 
sory stops. The tests were carried out with two cars, exactly 
similar, except that one had ball bearings on the main journals, 
and the other had ordinary brass bearings. Ten complete 
trips were made first with the plain bearing car. Conditions 
of running were then imitated as nearly as possible with the 
ball bearing car. The cars used in these tests weigh 36 tons 
empty and carry 8 tons of passengers when crowded. One 
long stretch of about 4^4 miles between stops exists, while the 
other stretches of track between stops are nearly equal and 
can be averaged to 2,900 ft. in one case, and 5,490 ft. in the 

For train resistance with ordinary brass bearings the Arm- 
strong formula has been generally accepted. It is required 
to give a formula that will represent equally well the train 
resistance of a car or train with anti-friction bearings. Con- 
sidering the Armstrong formula, the last term, referring to 
wind resistance, is independent of the type of bearing and, 
therefore, remains unchanged, while the first two terms, which 
represent track and bearing resistance (which have not so 
far been satisfactorily separated) will be decreased. One-third 
of the amount given by the Armstrong formula for the total 
of the first two terms has been found to be substantially ac- 

Acceleration curves for ball and plain bearing cars at 
first glance appear to have very little difference in the ac- 
celerations for the two types of cars, but during the first 
20 seconds, in which a speed of 25 m.p.h. (a little more than 
half speed ) is attained, the advantage of anti-friction bearings 
is less important than during the latter part of the acceleration 
period, which consumes the greater portion of the time. In 
this latter period the ball bearing car has an advantage of 
25 to 100 per cent over the plain bearing car. The benefits 
to be derived from coasting from an energy point of view 
are quite marked. With a plain bearing car making a run of 
2,900 ft. the least time in which the car covered the distance 
was 82 seconds, which admits of no coasting. Under such 
conditions the car consumes no watt-hours per ton-mile. If 
it is satisfactory to make this same run in 83 seconds, 
a 16-second coast is admissible, bringing down the energy 
consumption to 94 watt-hours per ton-mile or a saving of 17 
per cent. If, again, it is satisfactory to make this run in 85 

•Abstract of a paper read at the annual convention of the American In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers, Jefferscm, N. H., July i, ioio. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

seconds, 30 seconds coasting may be employed and a saving 
of 25 per cent attained in energy consumption. 

It is often claimed that it is impossible to make the motor- 
men carry out the coasting as desired. They should not be 
•expected to do it unless they are instructed. As to whether this 
instruction is worth while or not is readily borne out by the 
above statement of savings in reference to the Philadelphia 
.subway. This is also emphasized by the importance which the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company of New York is at- 
taching to it, by the employment of coasting registers on the 

Calculated runs with ball and plain bearing cars over a 
distance of 2,900 ft. in 83 seconds show that the increased 
coasting time of the ball bearing car is 11 seconds. This 
means that the controller is shut off that much earlier and, 
consequently, the motor losses, which are a high percentage 
of the motor output at high speed because of low current 
-consumption, are reduced. The greater saving, however, re- 
sults in the elimination of the bearing friction. The figures 
representing the elements of loss are given in the following 
table : 



Plain Ball 

Losses in bearings. bearings. Saving per cent. 

Starting resistance 200 190 5 

Windage 165 165 o 

Track and bearings 330 no 67 

Braking 905 850 6 

Motors 275 245 11 

Total 1,87s J,56o 17 

or 0.57 kw-hr. per 
car mile 

A comparative analysis of a longer run on the same railway 
is given below : 

2,625. WEIGHT OF CAR 36.3 TONS. 

Plain Ball 

Losses in bearings. bearings. Saving per cent. 

Starting resistance 170 165 3 

Windage 380 375 1 

Track and bearings 655 215 67 

Braking 780 830 6 

Motors 395 300 24 

Total 2,380 1,885 21 

or 0.48 kw-hr. per 
car mile. 

It will be noted that the saving in watt-hours per car-mile 
in each case is about 0.5 kw-hour irrespective of the number 
of stops, but that in short runs the amount represents 17 per 
cent and in the long runs 21 per cent. 

The following are the average results per trip over 15.2 
miles, the same motorman being employed for comparative 
runs : 



■r 41 

M S 


S c 

3 O 
I) V 

B 5 

O z o ° c 

H a <s J i-l ™ 

27.07 25.4 3.62 8. 11 

26. oR 25.2 3.30 7.04 

4% 1% 9% 13% 

Ball Plain Ball Ball 




Difference .. 
In favor of. 


u i 
S E 








Difference . . 
In favor of. 

S 3 


H p, 

. Ball 




1 .76 




H 2 


It will be noted that, with the greater distance between stops, 
the saving as an absolute amount is about the same, but 
that as a percentage it is increased. The amount of time 
with the current on is 9 per cent less with a ball bearing car 
than with a plain bearing car, while the speed of the former 
is slightly in excess of that of the latter. 


Long rollers for anti-friction bearings are unsatisfactory 
mechanically where continuous service is required. However, 
if the rollers are made short, they will become bent less 
easily, but will still tend to wear taper. Balls will neither de- 
form nor wear appreciably out of shape, with reasonable pro- 
tection from grit. The ball bearings on the Atlantic City 
car and other railway equipment, including mining and street 
railway motors, that have been equipped with this type of 
ball bearing, have not shown any appreciable radial wear after 
nearly two years' service, have not had any repairs and, with 
the exception of mining motors, have been lubricated some- 
thing less than twice a year. 

With regard to hot bearings city railways on account of 
their relatively low speed are not troubled much, but inter- 
urban roads finds such occurrences more common. Even 
though the hot bearings may not always result in delays, still 
when they occur on motors they prevent satisfactory radia- 
tion, producing defective insulation, especially in field coils. In 
a recent series of tests made by a railway company, the aver- 
age difference in temperature rise on field coils for motors with 
ball bearing armatures as compared with babbit bearing arma- 
tures was 6]/2 deg. Cent, or 20 per cent. These tests extended 
over nine test days with each type of car and continued for 
about eight consecutive hours each day. The ball bearings 
on the main journals of the Atlantic City car will operate 
continuously all day without a rise in temperature, due to 
heat generated within themselves, sufficient to be detected 
by the hand. 

The following statements of cost illustrate in a general way 
the commercial situation, for interurban cars of the Atlantic 
City type. 

From the tests it is evident that at least 0.5 kw-hour per 
car-mile can be saved, hence, with an annual car-mileage of 
60,000 (or 200 miles per day and nine weeks layoff per year) 
and assuming I cent per kw-hour at the power house with 
88 per cent efficiency of trolley line, this amounts to $340. 
The total cost of a set of bearings and boxes per car is $688, 
as against $120 for plain bearings. The interest on the differ- 
ence in cost and an allowance for depreciation amounts to $150. 
The net saving per year, therefore, is $190 in favor of ball 


In a paper read at the annual convention of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers, Jefferson, N. H., July 1, 
1910, R. W. Harris, field electrical inspector of the Wisconsin 
Railroad Commission, described the methods used in determin- 
ing the adequacy of the service given by the Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Company during the latter part of 1908. 
Some particulars of this investigation were included as an 
appendix to the annual report of the Wisconsin Railroad Com- 
mission for nc9 and were published in abstract in the Electric 
Railway Journal for April 9, 1910, page 664. 

The first step of the investigation was to compile "car de- 
mand" curves for each of the lines, showing the number of 
passengers carried during different periods of the day and on 
different sections of each line. These "car demand" curves also 
showed the comfortable load for each car. The excess number 
of passengers carried over and above the comfortable load 
determined the amount of additional equipment required to be 
operated in order to give adequate and satisfactory service. 

Following this part of the investigation a study was made of 
the schedules on each line to determine what, if any, additional 
equipment could he safely operated during the rush 

July 9, 1910.] 



hours in the congested districts. This led to a study of car 
delays. The minimum time spacing of cars is the determining 
factor which fixes the full-load capacity of any section of track. 
In determining the safe minimum headway from observed data, 
the following basic elements were considered separately : 

(A) The minimum safe practicable time spacing of cars when 
in continual motion, unaffected by any delay. 

(B) The average delay of cars due to causes arising from 
other cars operated over the same or intersecting tracks. 

(C) The average delay due to causes having their origin 
within the car under consideration — that is, delays due to pas- 
sengers boarding and alighting. 

A calculation for the safe headway between cars would re- 
quire an allowance to be made, first for the space covered in 
one section at full speed to allow the train's crew to act ; sec- 
ond, for the distance required to stop the car from an assumed 
or observed maximum speed with an assumed negative accelera- 
tion of i l / 2 miles per second; third, for a clear space of 15 ft. 
between cars when stopped. As an example, a headway of 
8 3/10 seconds would be calculated from the following ob- 
served data: Length of car, 41 ft.; safe space between cars 
with stops, 15 ft.; observed speed, 12.27 ft- per second; speed 
in miles per hour, 8.4; distance car travels after braking, 34.22 
ft. ; safe minimum spacing, 102.49 ft- ; number of cars passing 
a given point per hour, 433. The safe minimum spacing in feet 
is the sum of the length of the car, the space between cars 
when stopped, the observed speed in feet per second, and the 
distance traveled after braking. 

The delays specified under (B) include for a typical inter- 
section the following : 

(1) Car ahead going in the same direction upon approaching 
the intersection, but taking a curve. 

(2) A car taking the curve in nearest quadrant, but result- 
ing in going in the opposite direction. 

(3) One car crossing at right angles. 

(4) Two cars crossing at right angles, but going in opposite 

(5) Regular service stops. 

(6) Unusual vehicle or pedestrian traffic. 

(7) Delay due to hesitancy of motorman and signalman. 

(8) Delay due to hesitancy of cars approachin'g switches be- 
fore taking the curves. 

From observed data at a typical intersection 34 per cent of 
cars are delayed from cause 1 ; 34 per cent are delayed due to 
cause 2 ; 187 per cent due to cause 3, this percentage being 
used as a measure of the tendency to interruption ; to per cent 
are delayed due to cause 4; 100 per cent are delayed due to 
cause 5; 10 per cent are delayed due to cause 6; 50 per cent 
due to cause 7, and 75 per cent due to cause 8. Any car may 
be delayed approximately two seconds for other reasons. From 
a large number of observations the composite delay was calcu- 
lated by weighted averages and found to be 10 seconds. The 
minimum safe practicable headway, therefore, would be the 
safe headway for cars in continual motion unaffected by de- 
lays, plus the time due to delays, or 18.3 seconds. Data was 
obtained from other cities showing the operating speeds and 
average delays, and it was found that the operating speed in 
Milwaukee is somewhat faster than that in other cities. A 
minimum safe practicable headway of 20 seconds was, there- 
fore, selected in studying the problem involved in routing cars 
through the congested districts. 

The delays due to passengers boarding and alighting were 
shown for various cities by a curve published in the abstract 
of the report of the commission printed in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for April 9, 1910, page 665. 


The committee on construction of schedules and timetables 
of the American Street & Interurban Railway Transportation 
& Traffic Association has sent out, through Secretary Doneck- 
er's office, data sheet No. 58 asking for information on the 
methods used for the preparation of schedules and time- 
tables for different times of the day and different days of the 
week. The questions on interurban work are separate. 


The annual meeting of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers was held at Jefferson, N. H., June 28 to July I. At 
the session of Friday morning four papers on railway subjects 
were presented and discussed. Abstracts of these papers are 
printed elsewhere in this issue. 

electric locomotive design' 

A paper on "Electric Locomotive Design," by N. W. Storer 
and G. M. Eaton (see page 76) was first read. In opening 
the discussion on the paper, A. F. Batchelder, General Electric 
Company, said he believed that no bad effect on the track was 
produced by a moderate amount of dead weight on the axles 
provided the rotating parts were balanced. The height of the 
center of gravity of the locomotive was important, but the dis- 
tance between side springs was equally important. It was de- 
sirable to get the springs as close together as possible. Con- 
centrating the weight longitudinally near the center of the 
locomotive was good practice, but it was also necessary to in- 
troduce a dampening effect on the springs to prevent cumula- 
tive lateral oscillation. He exhibited a drawing of a new de- 
sign of heavy electric locomotive consisting of two units, each 
having a four-wheel guiding truck and two drivers, as is in the 
Pennsylvania tunnel locomotives. The locomotive had inside 
frames and each driving axle was connected to a separate 
motor with rods and gears on each side. 

Frank J. Sprague pointed out that the track and the locomo- 
tives are closely tied together and neither can be sacrificed for 
the other. He did not think that a high center of gravity was 
as important as the authors of the paper had claimed. What 
was vital was that every wheel should be free to move slightly 
either vertically or horizontally without affecting the mass of 
the entire locomotive. Nosing was due, in his opinion, largely 
to the coning of the wheels which caused them to tend to move 
first to one side and then to the other. The higher the speed 
the freer is this movement, and the blows delivered to the side 
of the rail are correspondingly more severe. He explained in 
this way the nosing tendency of the first New York Central 
locomotives when running on tangent track. When the side 
motion of the guiding trucks was dampened the nosing was 
largely stopped. He did not believe that the Woodlawn acci- 
dent was caused directly or indirectly by the effect of the low 
center of gravity of the locomotive. The use of four-wheel 
guiding trucks and lateral motion springs on the driving axle 
boxes effected a marked improvement in the riding qualities of 
these locomotives. Mr. Sprague referred to tests of a double- 
truck locomotive on the New York Central which had a de- 
cided nosing tendency when run with the two trucks not con- 
nected together. When the two trucks were connected with a 
link the nosing tendency disappeared. The speaker believed 
that a locomotive with a symmetrical wheelbase was superior to 
one with an unsymmetrical wheelbase. Under certain condi- 
tions it might be very desirable to build locomotives which 
could be used interchangeably in freight or passenger service. 
On most mountain grade divisions the use of pusher engines 
which can lie picked up or dropped off afford the most economi- 
cal method of operation. These engines should be equally suit- 
able for assisting freight and passenger trains up the grade. 

A. H. Armstrong, General Electric Company, also thought 
that there were many cases in which interchangeable freight 
and passenger locomotives would be very desirable. 

G. M. Eaton, in closing the discussion, spoke favorably of the 
use of plate frames for locomotives which provide some degree 
of flexibility. Referring to the speed tests of locomotives on 
the West Jersey & Sea Shore Railroad the speaker said that 
electric locomotives Nos. 10,001 and 10,002, which were of the 
coupled double-truck type with geared and gearless motors, re- 
spectively, proved very destructive to the track at speeds above 
60 m.p.h, The side-rod locomotive No. 10,003, which had a 
high center of gravity, rode easily at all speeds up to the maxi- 
mum of nearly 100 m.p.h. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 


H. St. Clair Putnam presented his paper on "Coasting Clock 
Tests" on the Manhattan Elevated Railway (see page 72). 

A. H. Armstrong asked if any change in the substation peak 
loads had been observed as a result of the rapid acceleration 
obtained by the motormen in striving for good records. It was 
possible to carry rapid acceleration so far that an unduly large 
investment in substation capacity was necessary. The best 
method of obtaining rapid acceleration was to increase the 
speed quickly whiTe running in the series position and thus re- 
ducing the rate of acceleration somewhat when the motor con- 
nections are shifted to parallel. This keeps down the peak 

N. W. Storer thought the coasting clock was a better device 
for saving current than the wattmeter. 

L. B. Stillwell referred to the statement in Mr. Putnam's 
paper that the increase in coasting time on the Second Avenue 
division from 12 per cent to 35 per cent resulted in a sav- 
ing in power consumption of 24 per cent. He said that the cost 
of power for this division, including overhead charges, was 
about $4,000 a day, and that the saving of 24 per cent repre- 
sented nearly $1,000 a day. Answering Mr. Armstrong, he said 
that the use of current clocks had resulted only in increasing 
the coasting time up to the economical point which the engi- 
neers had used in designing the electrical equipment. 

Frank J. Sprague said the coasting clock apparently had 
worked as great an improvement in braking as the use of 
automatic relays had improved acceleration. It removed the 
motorman's last chance to waste power. 

C. J. Hopkins asked if any inducements were offered to the 
train and platform guards to shorten the station stops and thus 
permit of longer coasting periods between stations for the 
same running time. N. W. Storer said it was perfectly feasible 
to arrange the automatic control as Mr. Armstrong suggested 
so as to accelerate at a high rate in the series position and at 
a lower rate in the parallel position. 

Mr. Putnam in closing the discussion said that the mechan- 
ism and connections of the current clocks had been worked out 
very carefully so as to prevent any tampering. Each motor 
car is equipped and as there are usually three motor cars in 
a train, each clock would have to be manipulated separately to 
obtain a false record. The point raised by Mr. Armstrong re- 
garding excessive peak loads was not serious on a system with 
as dense traffic as is handled on the Manhattan elevated. The 
great saving obtained with these clocks was due not so much to 
improvement in acceleration, but in manipulation of the trains 
when running close together. The ordinary motorman would 
run up close behind a preceding train, stop, and then pull up 
again when the preceding train moved ahead. The motorman 
who is trying to make a good coasting record, however, will 
drift cautiously up to a preceding train and if the latter pulls 
out of the station before the following train has stopped the 
motorman of the following train will drift into the station 
without using power. Nothing is gained by running up too 
close to a preceding train. Referring to the matter of induce- 
ments to train guards to shorten station stops, Mr. Putnam said 
the motormen, who were held responsible for their own coast- 
ing records, were quick to report a guard who caused any delay 
which would shorten the possible coasting time. Station stops 
have been reduced materially on this account as the train men 
do not like to be reported. Failures of the clocks have been 
few, and when a failure does occur the faulty record is 
thrown out. 


C. J. Hopkins presented a paper entitled "Economy in Car 
Operation," which is abstracted on page 79 of this issue. 

A. H. Armstrong asked why advantage had not been taken 
of the opportunity to use a lower gear ratio on the car 
equipped with ball bearings which could have been done owing 
to the reduction in friction. N. W. Storer thought the author 
of the paper went too far in claiming for ball bearings all the 
advantages which accrued from an increase in the coasting 
time. The motors could be pushed a little harder to give the 

same acceleration with plain bearings as with ball bearings and 
the only actual saving was that due to the difference in fric- 
tion. By eliminating all bearing and track friction the gain 
would not exceed 20 watt-hours per mile. 

Frank J. Sprague predicted the future use of ball bearings on 
railway motor armatures. He thought the saving to be effected 
there was greater than in the journal bearings. 

Mr. Putnam said that the only proper credit to be given to 
ball or roller bearings was the difference in the number of foot- 
pounds of energy required to move the car from one point to 
another. Any other saving was due to a change in the speed 
characteristics of the motors. The effect of using roller bear- 
ings in the tests cited by Mr. Hopkins was to increase the 
maximum speed from 43.5 m.p.h. to 47 m.p.h., and the obvious 
thing to do in such a case would be to reduce the gear ratio. 
The method of applying Armstrong's formula for train resist- 
ance as used by Mr. Hopkins, he believed, was erroneous, and 
the reduction in bearing resistance claimed for ball bearing he 
thought was excessive. The maximum rolling friction found 
by test on the New York subway and elevated lines was less 
than 5 lb. per ton, and the speaker did not think that the first 
term of the Armstrong formula should be reduced by as much 
as two-thirds. 

A paper by R. W. Harris on "A Method of Determining the 
Adequacy of an Electric Railway System" was read but not 
discussed. This paper is abstracted on page 80 of this issue. 


Under date of June 29 B. J. Arnold submitted to Mayor 
Magee, of Pittsburgh, a report on a proposed subway line in 
that city. The report first states that topographically the city 
is not well adapted for elevated railways, but that a subway be- 
tween the downtown business district and certain centers in the 
outlying districts appears to be a natural development and 
eventually will be a necessity. An abstract of the principal 
parts of the report follows : 


The first cost of a double-track subway, fully equipped, may 
be estimated as between $1,000,000 and $2,000,000 per mile of 
single track, depending upon the physical difficulties, size, elabo- 
rateness of design, number of stations, amount of rolling 
stock and other equipment, value of real estate necessary for 
stations, terminals, shops, yards, etc. A subway system for 
Pittsburgh should hardly be undertaken unless an expenditure 
of at least $30,000,000 is contemplated, half of this amount, at 
least, to be spent for the sections first built. 

The ratio between operating expenses and gross earnings 
under subway conditions varies between 40 per cent and 60 per 
cent, with a fair average at 50 per cent. The average operating 
expense of a surface system is from 60 per cent to 70 per cent 
of passenger earnings, and it is owing to the fact that subways 
can be operated at a relatively less percentage that justifies the 
larger investment in situations where the density of traffic is 


The annual earnings from operation should amount to not 
less than 10 per cent of the first cost, and seldom it will amount 
to more than 15 per cent, for before reaching this latter figure 
there would no doubt arise demands for extensions. These fig- 
ures indicate on what narrow margins enterprises of this char- 
acter must be financed. Under Pittsburgh conditions I believe 
that an average annual earnings from passengers equal to at 
least 12 per cent of the first cost of the system will be neces- 
sary to make a subway practicable. 

If the first section of the subway must earn an amount equal 
to $12 per cent on $15,000, or $1,800,000 per year, when will it 
be possible to build it? 

The earnings per capita of the surface system is now about 
$10 as an average, but certain residence sections of the city 
run as high as $28 per unit of "sleeping population" of the 

Earnings per capita increase at a rate not less than the rate 

July 9, 1910.] 



of increase in population, and often at a faster rate, depending 
on the riding habit of the community. Therefore, at $10 per 
capita, the subway must serve 180,000 people to earn $1,800,- 
000 yearly, or at $20 per capita only one-half this number, or 
90,000 people would be required. A conservative estimate 
would be that if a subway can be designed to serve 150,000 
people contributing $12 each per annum to the subway in addi- 
tion to their use of the surface system, then an initial invest- 
ment of $15,000,000 would be justified or at the rate of $100 
per person served. 


At present the maximum density of population in Pittsburgh 
over any considerable area is about 100 persons per acre. In 
New York the density per acre for the lower "East Side" is 
about 700 per acre, and in Harlem, which is the best con- 
tributing district for the New York subway, the density is 150 
per acre, which is the same as the average for the entire 
Island of Manhattan. At 100 per acre, 150,000 people would 
occupy 1500 acres, or 2.35 sq. miles, while at 50 per acre the 
district required for 150,000 people would be twice as much, or 
4.7 sq. miles. It is very probable that, with the opportunities 
which Pittsburgh has of spreading out, that there will not be 
sufficient increase in land values to justify whole blocks of 
high apartment buildings such as are found in New York City. 
But there will be, no doubt, considerable development in the 
line of apartment dwellings, which will raise the present aver- 
age density of population in many sections, although it will not 
be safe to count on large contiguous residence areas where the 
average density will reach as high as 100 per acre. This would 
indicate that the first section of the subway would be designed 
to serve an area of about 4 sq. miles. 


To reach the amount of territory to secure a patronage which 
will justify a subway it will be wise to count on a combined 
system using the subway as a main trunk line and the surface 
railway as a means of collecting and distributing the passengers 
over a wide area. Furthermore, in order to use the tubes to 
best advantage, they should be located and designed so as to 
accommodate suburban trains coming into the city over the 
various lines of the present railroads, which eventually may be 
electrified. With these two auxiliary systems contributing to 
the earnings of the subway, it would be unnecessary to be so 
dependent on the earnings of the territory directly contiguous 
to the main trunk line. 

However, to secure this "transfer" and "through" business 
it would be necessary to design a subway for real rapid transit 
by eliminating the stops in the short-haul territory just outside 
the business center- of the city and to operate trains instead of 
single car units. 


Any public transportation utility to be permanently success- 
ful should be able to carry the following financial burdens : 

First. — Operating expense, including taxes, damages, insur- 
ance and maintenance which will vary from 40 per cent to 60 
per cent of the passenger income, depending upon the volume 
of traffic. 

Second. — Depreciation fund, which will vary from 3 per cent 
to 5 per cent annually upon the cost of equipment only. 

Third. — Amortization fund, which at 1 per cent per year on 
cost of construction (compound at 2.5 per cent) will retire 
the investment in structure in 50 years, or at per cent per 
year would amount to the first cost of construction in 75 years. 

Fourth. — Contingent reserve fund to take care of extraordi- 
nary accidents and other unforeseen contingencies, which should 
accumulate and be kept invested until it reaches about 5 per 
cent of the total cost. 

Fifth. — Interest on cost, which may vary from a maximum 
of 8 per cent with private capital down to 4 per cent with 
municipal credit. 

Sixth. — Discount fund, which should offset the discount on 
bonds or other similar indebtedness in about 20 years. 

Seventh. — Surplus profits, which in case of private ownership 
should be divided with the city or used to build extensions. 


The earnings and net returns will depend on the following : 

(1 ) The density of the population to be served and upon the 
rides per capita. 

(2) Equitable arrangement for exchange of transfers be- 
tween the subway and the collecting and distributing surface 

(3) Use of subway as a downtown terminal by the electrified 
branches of present steam lines. 

In my opinion a subway in Pittsburgh will pay eventually, 
but there will be a loss during the first years of operation, and 
particularly if it is built too soon or upon too large a scale. 
To insure the stability of the enterprise, this deficit must be 
offset by the profits made during subsequent years and there- 
fore in order that the turning point when earnings exceed 
operating expenses plus annual fixed charges be not too long 
deferred, the subway should not be constructed until definite 
arrangements have been made with existing transportation sys- 
tems for the joint use of the subway to the mutual advantage 
of the companies and the traveling public. 

The operating expenses may be controlled to a certain extent 
as the service rendered may be made to suit within limits the 
traffic available, but the annual fixed charges will be the result 
of preliminary arrangements which cannot be reduced without 
financial loss to the original investors. 

For instance, the first cost will depend upon : 

(a) The actual cash cost of the property. 

(b) The profit to be allowed the contractor. 

(c) The interest paid during construction. 

(d) The discount for underwriting funded debt. 

(e) The profit to be allowed the promoter. 

And the annual fixed charges, after paying operating ex- 
penses (including maintenance, taxes, damages and insurance) 
will depend on what is allowed for : 

(a) Interest on funded debt. 

(b) Depreciation. 

(c) Sinking fund for retiring cost of construction. 

(d) Reserve fund for contingencies. 

(e) Discount fund to offset discount on bonds. 

(f) Dividends to reward enterprise or to cover a fair return 
on the investment. 

(g) Percentage, if any, to be paid the city for its share of 
gross or net earnings. 


To determine more definitely the prospects of building a 
subway in advance of actual needs, so that it may become an 
important factor in influencing the extent and character of the 
growth of the city and district, it will be desirable to proceed 
along the following lines of inquiry : 

(1) Ascertain the "best terms" which private capital will 
offer or accept for building, equipping and operating the sub- 
way and giving the city the right to purchase. 

(2) Secure by legislation the right for the city to issue 
bonds, of a type self-supporting and independent of the debt 
limit, so that money for purchasing or constructing a subway 
and possibly for equipping it also, can be secured by means of 
the city's credit, and thus reduce to a minimum the fixed charge 
for interest. 

(3) Determine what the present street surface railway com- 
pany will do in regard to interchanging transfers with the 
subway. ' 

(4) Determine what the steam railroad companies will do in 
regard to electrification of their suburban tracks and renting 
the use of the subway as a downtown terminal or for a through- 
passenger connection for suburban trains. 

(5) Determine by comparing the present census with others, 
the rate of growth of the sections which may be affected by 
rapid transit development. 

(6) Ascertain the probable increase in value of the real 
estate in the districts to be served in order to determine whether 
or not this increase in value of land will justify the building of 
apartment houses in sufficient numbers to result in a density 
favorable to subway operation. 

8 4 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 


In a paper to be read at the joint meeting of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers and the British Institute of 
Mechanical Engineers in London, July 29, 1910, W. B. Potter, 
of the General Electric Company, gives some interesting esti- 
mates of cost of equipping steam railways and interurban rail- 
ways with electric apparatus. Table I, reproduced herewith, 
relates to trunk line electrification. In discussing the relative 
merits of the four systems Mr. Potter says in part : 

"Direct-current at either 600 volts or higher may be con- 
sidered the most economical for city and interurban service, 
and for the electrification of steam railways where the density 
of traffic is sufficient to require a relatively large investment 
for rolling stock, as compared with that required for the sec- 
ondary distribution system and the substation apparatus. Sin- 
gle-phase and three-phase rolling stock equipments are ap- 
plicable only to exceptional conditions. The reason for this is 
the greater first cost of such equipments. This is especially 
true when comparing single-phase with direct-current. The 



600 V. 1200 V. 

D. C. D. C. 

First cost per kw, complete $26 $28 

Comparison of installed kw, % 200-250 100-125 

Load factor, machines in service, % . 20-40 3570 

Average efficiency, % 78-88 87-92 

Yearly operation and maintenance, 

each station $5000 


Third Rail 

First cost, per mile $5000 $5500 

to $7000 to $7500 

Efficiency, % 88-92 90-96 

Maintenance per mile per year.. $75-$i25 $ioo-$i5o 


600 V. 1200 V. 

D. C. D. C. 


First cost, each $44,000 $47,500 

Weight, tons (2000 lb.) 125 125 

Average efficiency, locomotive 

wheels of trolley, % 85 

Maintenance per locomotive per 

mile, cents 4 

Motor Cars (Complete) 

First cost, each $12,000 $13,500 

Weight, tons (2000 lb.) 43 44 

Average efficiency, wheels to 

Trolley 82 81 

Maintenance per car mile, cents 2 2.2 

1 1,000 v. 1 1 ,000 v. 
i-Phase 3-Phase 



$5000 $2500 $2500 

$3500 $4500 
to $7000 to $8000 
93-97 93-97 

$I00-$20O $I25-$250 


I 1,000 V. 

1 -Phase 





1 1 ,000 v. 


*Variation in cost of third rail due to different weights of rail which 
may be required. Variation in cost of overhead due to variation in the 
class of construction, such as wooden poles or with steel bridges. 

tOther weights of locomotives will cost more or less about in proportion 
to their weights. With gearless direct-current locomotives, the average ef- 
ficiency of locomotive wheels to trolley is approximately 88 per cent. 

type of equipment used on the rolling stock may well be a 
more important factor in the economy of investment and opera- 
tion than the scheme of power distribution. 

"Under the conditions which exist in America, direct-current 
and single-phase are applicable to either level or grade work ; 
while three-phase will probably be limited to the latter where 
its regenerative feature of returning energy to the line may be 
of value. The relative economy of the different systems of 
electrification is dependent on the density of traffic and the 
character of power available, rather than on the length of the 
railway. In cases where purchased power is used, or is de- 
pended on as a reserve, the frequency of the current supplied 
by the power company will have a bearing on the cost of sub- 
stations, and will thus affect the choice of the system. For 
direct-current operation, rotary apparatus is used for convert- 
ing the alternating into direct current, and the frequency of 
the supply is therefore relatively unimportant. For single- 
phase operation under the usual conditions, a frequency of not 
more than 15 cycles is desirable; and to provide this frequency, 
rotary frequency-changers are as necessary as are rotary con- 
verters in the case of direct current, since the frequency of 
existing power companies ranges from 25 to 60 cycles. With 
power supplied at the proper frequency for single-phase opera- 
tion, permitting the use of static transformers and dispensing 
with frequency changers, the amount of energy required for a 
given trunk line service is in many cases nearly the same as for 

direct current, the greater weight of the equipped rolling stock, 
and the lower efficiency of the single-phase equipments, off- 
setting the rotary converters and trolley-line or third-rail 
losses of the direct current." 

"In the selection of the electrical system best adapted to a 
particular set of conditions there are three items to be con- 
sidered: (a) substations, (b) contact conductors, (c) rolling 
stock. A comparison of these items determines the relative 
economic values of the systems." 

Mr. Potter gives the following outline of the effect of differ- 
ences in the physical characteristics of the road and the oper- 
ating requirements : 

"From a level country to a limiting grade of 1 or ij^ per 
cent there will be little difference in the relative values of the 
systems. With steeper grades the conditions will be more 
favorable for alternating current. 

"Heavy individual train units favor the alternating-current 
system with the exception of the locomotives ; light trains or 
multiple-unit operation favor the direct-current system. 

"Infrequent service with a relatively small number of loco- 
motives favors the alternating-current, frequent service the 
direct-current. With increase in number of trains, the direct- 
current systems gain relatively faster than the alternating- 
current in economy of operation, due to relatively decreased 
substation operation, increased substation efficiency, and lower 
cost of equipment maintenance. It is therefore well to con- 
sider what the ultimate traffic density may be and select the 
system best suited to meet these requirements. 

"Variations in the distance between stops and schedule re- 
quired will not affect the relative value of systems unless 
extreme requirements, such as high schedule speed with short 
runs, make the. use of direct current imperative. 

"For a similar character of service throughout, the railroad 
may be of any length without affecting the relative desirability 
of the various systems. What is suitable for the first 50 miles 
will be equally suitable for any extension." 

In the author's opinion the single-phase system, by reason 
of the apparent simplicity of its elements and the utilization of 
higher potential for the contact conductor than is possible 
with direct current, is admittedly very attractive. There is the 
other side of the question, that it is impossible to build a 
single-phase commutating motor comparable in first cost and 
maintenance with a direct-current motor. Comparative results 
obtained up to the present time are in favor of direct current. 

Referring to the establishment of a standard system Mr. 
Potter says : "Desirable as would be a standard system for all 
classes of service, we cannot hope to establish such a standard 
should it impose an additional expense without adequate re- 
turn. A summing up of all the elements of each electrical 
system will generally lead to a definite showing of which 
system is most desirable to meet specific conditions. For 
trunk line service a higher potential than 600 volts will un- 
questionably be used ; 1200 volts direct-current will prove 
economical in some cases, but a still higher voltage is required 
to provide economically for the heavier intermittent service. 
Whether this potential will be 1800 or 2400 volts direct current 
or 11,000 volts alternating current cannot be settled arbitrarily." 


Mr. Potter discusses the interurban railway situation in the 
United States with regard to the various available schemes of 
electrification. These are, 600-volt direct current, 1200-volt 
direct-current, and single-phase, the three-phase being debarred 
on account of the complications of the necessary double over- 
head-distribution system. He says: 

"The application of single-phase to new projects has been 
practically abandoned, there having been but one or two new 
installations in the last three years. This arrested develop- 
ment of a system which for a short time held forth consider- 
able promise has been brought about by a general recognition 
of its limitations which experience has shown to be: 

"(a) Excessive weight of rolling stock." 

"(b) Excessive cost of rolling stock." 

"(c) High cost of equipment maintenance." 

July 9, 1910.] 



"(d) Increased power consumption." 

"(e) Rapid depreciation of motor." 

"(f) Rapid depreciation of car bodies and trucks." 

"(g) Increased cost of maintaining track and roadway." 

"Moreover it is recognized that any interurban road in the 
United States must be capable of operating over existing city 
tracks from 600-volt direct-current trolley, a condition which 
hampers the single-phase system on account of increased com- 
plications in the control system. . .. 1 


. 600 v. 1200 v. 66o'o v. 

D. C. D. C. A. C. 

Number of cars 15 15 18 

Seating capacity, passengers 60 60 60 

Distance between stops, miles , 3 3 3 

Schedule speed, miles per hour 33 33 33 

Maximum speed, miles per hour 48 48 55 

Weight each car, tons (2000 lb.) 35 36 43 

Car miles per day 3000 3000 3000 

Miles per car in service per day 300 300 300 

Miles per car per day, average* 200 200 166 

Estimated maintenance per car mile, cents: 

a Electrical 0.70 0.77 1.50 

b Mechanical 1.00 1.00 1-25 

Total car barn expense 1.70 1.77 2 .75 

Amperes starting car 520 280 75 

Amperes running car 174 94 24 

Kilowatt hours per car mile at car 2.8 2.88 3-78 

Cost each car complete $10,000 $11,500 $17,000 

*On 12 American single-phase interurban roads the average miles per 
day called for on the published time tables, divided by the number of 

cars owned, is 138; on four 1200-volt roads which have been operating 
over a year this number is 237, the larger number of alternating-current 
cars being required on account of the fact that a greater number are 

necessarily held in the barn for inspection and maintenance purposes. 

This explains why in the table above 18 alternating-current cars are 
assumed and 15 direct-current cars. 


600 v. 1200 v. 6600 V. 

D. C. D. C. A. C. 

Number of substations 942 

Estimated momentary demand: 

Cars starting 1 1 2 

Cars running 1 1 o 

Peak load, kilowatts 416 448 670 

Average load, each substation, kilowatts.... 52 120 275 

Size each unit, kilowatts 300 300 300 

Number of units 223 

Load factor (machines in service) 0.17 0.40 0.46 

Average efficiency 0.76 0.87 0.96 

Cost each substation complete $24,000 $26,400 $10,000 


600 v. 1200 v. 6600 v. 

D. C. D. C. A. C. 
Maximum momentary demand midway be- t 
tween substations: 

Cars starting 1 1 2 

Cars running 1 o 

Amperes 520 374 150 

Distance between substations 11. 8 28 66.6 

Equivalent stub-end feed 2.9 7 16.6 

Feeder required addition to 4/0 trolley.... 4/0 1/0 none 
Cost overhead construction per mile, includ- 
ing both trolley and feeder $2,300 $2,100 $1,900 

Bonding taken as $400 per mile of track. 

Transmission line taken in each case at $840 per mile of track and as- 
sumed to run entire length of right of way. 

Power house: No power house is included, but it is assumed that 
power is purchased at the power station bus at one cent per kw-hr. and 
fed at any convenient point into the transmission line. 

sidering operation, maintenance and fixed charges. An exami- 
nation of the elements which enter into the first cost and opera- 
tion of a system will show at once that as the density of traffic 
increases there is a rapid gain in the relative advantage of the 
direct-current over the single-phase system." 


Total kilowatt-hours per day at cars 

Efficiency, secondary distribution 


Transmission line and power house step 
up transformers 

Combined efficiency 

Kilowatt-hours per day at power house 13.100 

First Costs 

600 v. 
D. C. 

Transmission $84,000 

Substations 216000 

Secondary distribution 230,000 

Bonding 40,000 

Cars 150,000 

Total $720,000 

6")o v. 

1200 v. 

6600 v. 

D. C. 

D. C. 

A. C. 



1 1,400. 


. 90 




. 96. 




. 64 




1 1 ,700 


1 200 V. 
D. C. 
2 1 0,000 

6600 v. 

A. C. 



512,500 $694 000- 

Annual Fixed Charges 

Life, Annuity 

Depreciation years 5% 

Transmission 20 30.34 

Substations 20 30.34 

Secondary distribution 15 46.34 

Bonding 10 79.50 

Cars (A. C.) 12 62.83 

Cars (D. C.) 15 46.34 

600 v. 

D. C. 



1200 v. 
D. C. 

9 700 


Total depreciation $29,700 

Interest and Taxes 
Interest 5%. taxes 1.5% of cost of electrical 

material $46,000 


1.5% of substation and car costs $5, 500 

6600 v. 
A. C. 




$26,600 $37,700 


Total fixed charges. 

1,200 $70,600 

Annual Operation and Maintenance 
600 v. 
D- C. 

Transmission $3,500 

Substations 17,000 

Secondary distribution, including bonds.... 9.000 

Cars 18,500 

Power at one cent per kw-hr 47,800 

Additional cost maintenance of track and 
roadway, shops and supervision, due to 
heavier cars and more expert supervision 
required for the single-phase 

Total $95,800 

1 200 v. 

D. C. 






6600 v.. 
A. C. 
io, 000 

10 goo- 


600 v. 1200 v. 

D. C. D. C. 

1 First cost $710,000 $612,500 

2 Fixed charges 81,200 70,600 

3 Operation and maintenance 95,800 82,300 

6600 v. 
A. C. 
104 000 

4 Annual cost (Item 2 plus Item 3) $176,000 $152,900 $192,400 

.1 o 3.6 

Based on 1,095,000 car miles per year, addi- 
tional annual charge per car mile above 
the cost for 1200 volts, in cents 

"To show clearly the relative merits of the systems an analysis 
is made of an interurban railroad 100 miles long with cars 
operated in each direction every hour. This condition repre- 
sents practically the minimum car requirements in the United' 
States, and is therefore favorable to the single-phase. Any 
increase in traffic density will be relatively mure favorable to 
the direct-current system on account of the lower first cost of 
cars, lower car maintenance and relatively lower cost of sub- 
station operation." The general data required are approxi- 
mated in Tables II to VII on this page. 

Commenting on these data Mr. Potter says: "There will 
be an additional cost of operation and maintenance with the 
single-phase system for the items of track and roadway, due to 
additional weight of cars, car shop expenses in providing 
greater facilities for shop inspection and repairs, and greater 
skill in superintendence of equipment. In a number of in- 
stances this has been found to amount to several cents y.vr car- 
mile. A conservative estimate would require at least r cent 
per car-mile to be added for these items. 

"The comparison in Table VII brings out the fact that even 
for conditions selected as favorable to the single-phase system, 
the 600-volt direct-current system is the more economical con- 

In conclusion the author says that the saving effected by the 
1200-volt direct-current system is so marked that a great in- 
crease in the adoption of this potential for this class of inter- 
urban railroading may be anticipated. On the other hand, it 
will not be surprising if the single-phase interurban system is 
entirely discarded in America, unless some improvement is made 
in the art and a more economical equipment made available.. 

WEEKS IN JUNE 1909 AND 1910. 

The Tramway and Railway World states that the official 
tramway traffic returns of 64 of the principal undertakings of 
the United Kingdom for the week ending June 4, 1010, amounted 
to £199,330, or £18,665 less than for the corresponding week last 
year, while the track mileage was 2462, or 124 more than for the 
corresponding week. The receipts were at the rate of £80 19s. 3d. 
per track mile, a decrease of £12 5s. 6d. per mile as compared 
with last year. The receipts from the London County Council 
and Liverpool Corporation tramways included in the above re- 
turn are for the preceding week, as these two corporations 
issue their returns later. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 


While the attendance was not large, and extremely warm 
weather was encountered, the summer convention of the Wis- 
consin Electrical Association at Oshkosh, Wis., on June 28 and 
29, well repaid those who attended, owing to the practical 
nature of the discussions. There was no formal program and 
no papers were prepared in advance. Two sessions were held, 
and the principal subject for discussion was rates, both for 
electric railway and electric service plants. Some other matters 
received attention, however. A fair-sized delegation of supply 
men was in attendance, but there were no exhibits. The meet- 
ings were held at the handsome house of the Oshkosh Yacht 
Club, fronting the broad expanse of Lake Winnebago, and the 
Wisconsin Electric Railway Company placed special cars at the 
disposal of the visitors to transport them between the hotel 
and the place of meeting. The president of the association, 
Clement C. Smith, of Milwaukee, was unable to be present 
owing to illness, and Irving P. Lord, of Waupaca, vice-presi- 
dent, occupied the chair. An account of the discussions on 
railway matters follows : 


The first speaker was C. N. Duffy, comptroller of the Milwau- 
kee Electric Railway & Light Company. He referred to the 
effort of the city of Milwaukee to compel the company to carry 
people on the local street railway system for 3 cents each. At 
present six tickets are sold for 25 cents. The question has 
been argued exhaustively, and it now rests with the Wisconsin 
Railroad Commission to decide the matter on the evidence sub- 
mitted. In the presentation of the Milwaukee case it became 
.apparent, according to Mr. Duffy, that under existing condi- 
tions, including the high cost of labor and material, the de- 
mands of the public in relation to service, and the demands of 
the municipality, it is a grave question whether the average 
city electric railway can haul people at 5 cents a head and 
secure a reasonable return on the investment, this return to 
include proper operating expenses, the due share of city taxes, 
and a proper provision for reserves of all character, especially 
depreciation and amortization of the franchise, so that the in- 
vestment made by the stockholders may be held intact. 

In the old days electric railway companies boasted of operat- 
ing for 40 per cent, 50 per cent or 60 per cent of the gross re- 
ceipts, but they did not know how to keep their accounts. 
Such matters as setting aside a proper amount for depreciation, 
amortization and unknown contingencies were not taken into 
account, or only dimly and partially taken into account. Com- 
pared with other industries, a very high proportion of the 
actual values of public utility companies is on the tax books. 

The speaker alluded to the history of the Chicago City Rail- 
way Company, with which he was formerly connected. In 1905 
this company operated 220 miles of track and was earning from 
12 per cent to 15 per cent on $18,000,000 of capital stock and 
paying 9 per cent. The company had no bonds, and it was consid- 
ered that from the standpoint of transportation and of earning 
power no other company in the United States approached it. 
In the year mentioned, J. P. Morgan & Company, of New York, 
supposing the company had .t long franchise, bought and paid 
$200 a share for the stock. The next year the courts decided 
that the franchise did not run until 1959, as was supposed. What 
happened? The famous Chicago traction settlement ordinance 
was adopted, and after the owners had put about $40,000,000 into 
the property, for there had been some betterments since $36,- 
000,000 was paid for the stock, the company was allowed 
$21,000,000 in the franchise settlement. This instance shows the 
necessity of preserving the investment in public utility com- 
panies — the investment not only in the physical property, but in 
intangible things, which may be affected by unforeseen con- 
tingencies. This possibility must be taken into account, just as 
the wages of conductors and motormen are taken into account. 

It takes very careful management for a street railway com- 
pany to operate for a 5-cent fare or for an interurban com- 
pany to operate at 2 cents a mile. These should be the mini- 

mum rates, or rather, the basic rates. It is of the greatest im- 
portance that the companies study the situation and find out 
the true cost of conducting their business. Electrical operating 
companies are producers of rides and electrical energy. They 
must at all hazards find out all the elements entering into the 
cost in order to determine the proper rates. 

Mr. Duffy spoke of the Cleveland street railway situation. 
He knew Tom Johnson, and gave some account of his early 
career when Mr. Johnson was in the street railway business, 
but did not operate on a 3-cent fare. Mr. Duffy was of the 
opinion at the time of the Cleveland agitation that Mr. John- 
son could not do so in Cleveland, and especially as at that time 
Mr. Johnson was operating a company in Allentown, Pa., on a 
5-cent fare. The speaker was emphatic in saying that street 
railway companies cannot carry passengers for 3 cents. He 
does not believe they can do so for 5 cents, really, although it 
is a fact that, including transfers, people are being charged 
only 3.15 cents in Milwaukee. Statistics were given of the Mil- 
waukee street railway systems, and it was shown that, exclu- 
sive of provisions for contingencies, it costs 3^ cents a passen- 
ger to carry the people. 

Unless the cost of carrying passengers can be reduced, Mr. 
Duffy does not believe that the street railway companies of the 
United States can continue to do business at the present prices. 
Something must be done — either for the establishment of a zone 
system of fares, the readjustment of the transfer system, or 
something else. The companies themselves are to blame for the 
situation. Until very recently they did not themselves know 
what their cost actually was. 

Turning to Massachusetts it was remarked that if the com- 
panies in that State had not made their rates too low there 
would be no necessity of raising them. The same observation 
applies to Oshkosh, Wis., where the interurban company has 
asked the State commission for an increase of rates. The 
steam railroads have uniformly tried to uphold their passenger 
rates, and Mr. Duffy admired them for it. In concluding this 
portion of his address, he again asserted with emphasis that 
electric railway companies should not consider anything less 
than a basic rate of 2 cents a mile on interurbans, with a 5-cent 

Mr. Duffy concluded his interesting address by a discussion 
of rates for electric light and power. In this service the speaker 
believed in a liberal and flexible schedule as well as a com- 
paratively simple scale of rates, and referred to the rates in 
use in Milwaukee, where the price for electricity used for 
lighting varies from 12 cents to 4 cents a kw-hour, depending 
on the consumption, and the rate for electricity used for power 
varies from 8 cents to 3 cents per kw-hour. The fundamental 
question is to make a cost analysis covering all elements that 
enter into the service. Still, it is essential to put out a prac- 
tical, flexible schedule of rates for electric service. The com- 
pany ought to have such an installation in the power house and 
such a rate schedule that nobody shall have an excuse for 
making his own electrical energy. 


Thomas Higgins, president of the Manitowoc & Northern 
Traction Company, of Manitowoc, Wis., agreed with Mr. 
Duffy that a mistake was often made in the early days of elec- 
tric railroading in establishing too low rates on interurban 
lines. For instance, on the line connecting Manitowoc and 
Two Rivers a 10-cent rate was made in the early days, with a 
5-cent rate in the city of Manitowoc. A year ago it was de- 
cided to increase the interurban rate to 15 cents. There was 
no objection on the part of the citizens generally, but some 
politicians got busy and secured an injunction. The case came 
up in court and the judge recommended that it be taken to the 
Supreme Court. The city refused to give an appeal bond to 
indemnify the company in case the decision was favorable to 
the latter, and therefore the case was dismissed. The increase 
in rates has been established, and the travel has not diminished. 

Commenting on the general situation, Mr. Lord said there 
was something like a mania for reducing rates, both for elec- 
tric service and in the electric railway business. The people 

July 9, 1910.] 



sometimes clamor for reduction ; public utility companies are 
good targets, and too often they give way to the pressure of 
the public. In this rate situation the companies should be very 
careful, not arrogant or grasping, but safe. The holders of the 
securities have a right to expect payment in full. This expec- 
tation cannot be realized unless there is an adjustment of rates 
on a policy involving 100 cents on the dollar. 


J. P. Pulliam, of Oshkosh, manager of the Wisconsin Elec- 
tric Railway Company, told how his company had raised its 
interurban rates within the last few months. The company 
operates several interurban lines. One of them, between Osh- 
kosh and Neenah, is 15 miles long. The rate of fare has fluctu- 
ated rather curiously. Originally it was 20 cents, then it was 
increased to 25 cents, then decreased to 20 cents and recently 
has been again increased to 25. With the increased rate the 
actual amount of traffic has shown increase also. The line 
from Oshkosh to Fond du Lac is 18 miles long and the rate 
here has been raised from 30 cents to 35 cents. The rate of 
fare on the line to Omro has also been increased. In every in- 
stance the traffic has increased following the increase in rate of 
fare. In Oshkosh there is a straight 5-cent fare, with univer- 
sal transfers. A workingman's rate of 3 cents is made between 
the hours of 6 and 7 a. m. and 6 and 7 p. m. The local condi- 
tions are such that the street railway system is badly laid out, 
and the rate of fare should be 6 cents, or really 7. In Fond du 
Lac the conditions are such that the company can make a 
fair profit at a 5-cent fare. 


After adjournment on Tuesday afternoon some of the dele- 
gates enjoyed the bathing 'facilities provided. 
In the evening there was an enjoyable open-air 
concert at Electric Park, the Wisconsin Elec- 
tric Railway Company supplying a special car 
for the trip and making all other arrangements. 

At the Wednesday morning session an invi- 
tation was received from William Wallen, 
manager of the Oshkosh Gas Light Company, 
to inspect the Oshkosh central station, which 
this company owns. Later in the day several 
of the visitors availed themselves of this invi- 

Vice-President Lord and Secretary Allen 
brought up the question of the payment of 
dues. The dues of active paying members are 
one-twentieth of 1 per cent of the gross busi- 
ness of the preceding year, or of the electric 
light, power and railway departments of joint 
companies. There was a general discussion on 
the scope of the association. It was pointed 
out that its educational work is very important. 
It should educate the people and the legislators 
of the State on the real conditions of the electric light and rail- 
way business. Ernest Gonzenbach, of Sheboygan, moved that a 
pamphlet be prepared giving the constitution and by-laws and 
list of members of the association, together with other informa- 
tion about the organization, to be printed for general distribu- 
tion. This motion was adopted. 


Secretary Allen said that his office receives many requests 
for information, and he might undertake to furnish the mem- 
bers the important rulings of the State Railroad Commission 
if desired. The secretary might also establish a sort of employ- 
ment exchange, bringing unengaged men and open positions 

Mr. Allen also mentioned the fact that the Madison Gas & 
Electric Company, of Madison, Wis., has been most helpful to 
the association in days past, and that it would be an act of 
simple justice for the association to show its appreciation in 
some manner. On motion, the matter was made a special order 
for the annual convention of this association to be held in Mil- 
waukee next January. 

The thanks of the association were extended to the Wiscon- 

sin Electric Railway Company, and particularly to Mr. Pulliam, 
of that company, the Oshkosh Gas Light Company, and par- 
ticularly to Mr. Wallen of that company, and also to the Osh- 
kosh Yacht Club for extending the courtesies of its beautiful 


The accompanying illustrations show the "Economy" oil cup, 
made by the Economy Oil Cup Company, Augusta, Ga., to elim- 
inate grease lubrication. The cup is of the felt base type, and 
was invented by E. M. Crozier, now superintendent of the 
Augusta-Aiken Railway. Before the cup was tried the cost of 
motor lubrication on the Aiken division was as much as $1.14 
per 1000 car-miles. The new cups were first placed on a num- 
ber of trial cars during May and June, 1908, and by their use 
Mr. Crozier succeeded in reducing the charge of lubricating to 
about 70 cents per 1000 car-miles, with less than one-third of 
the cars on this division using this cup. In view of this result 
the Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Company at once 
equipped its entire system with the new cup, thereby reducing 
the lubricating cost to 18 cents per 1000 car-miles. The con- 
dition of armatures 

and bearings is re- . 
ported to be better to- 
day than any other 
time in the history of 
this railway. 

The accompanying 
cuts show the method 

Oil Cup with Felt Base, Showing Application to Bearing 

of installing the cup and the simplicity of its construction. The 
body is composed of block tin shaped to fit the old grease box 
and made in various sizes to conform to different style motors. 
The felt base fits the bearing slot and rests upon the shaft to 
which it conveys the oil. The weight of the cup causes it to fol- 
low the shaft as the felt wears, thus assuring a free and con- 
stant uniform feed of oil. The base is made of one piece of 
sheet felt extending up into the body of the cup, as shown in 
one of the cuts; all oil passes through this base direct to the 
shaft, thus preventing dirt, grit or dust from entering the bear- 
ing. There is no drip from the bearing when the cars are 
standing in the car-house or stations along the road, as the cup 
feeds oil only when the shaft is in motion. The oil does not 
leave the cup until the shaft is reached. It cannot leak out 
around loose bearings, as the cup rides the shaft at all times 
with the felt base below the top of the bearing slot. The re 
movable feature of this cup permits inspection of the bearing 
at all times simply by lifting the grease box lid. It has been 
found that an oiling of one-half gill per bearing will furnish 
perfect lubrication for operating over 37 hours, or 275 miles to 
300 miles. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 


The General Electric Company has just issued some statistics 
on commutating pole railway motors, which were introduced 
about four years ago. The sales of this type by the largest 
two railway equipment manufacturers in this country were 17 
per cent of the total number of railway motors sold by them 
in 1907, while in 1908 and 1909 this increased to 51 per cent. 
These motors, varying in size from 50 hp to 275 hp, are operat- 
ing successfully in all parts of this country and Europe under 
various service conditions. It is held that the improved com- 
mutation and protection against flash-overs afforded by commu- 
tating poles has made possible the very satisfactory results in 
decreased maintenance of commutators, brush holders, brushes 
and windings. 

The average non-commutating pole motor cannot be relied 
on for more than 50 per cent to 75 per cent current overload 
when the car is required to make up lost time, accelerate on 
heavy grades or meet other emergency conditions. On the 
other hand, the commutating pole motors as a type will take 
care of from 150 per cent to 200 per cent overload for emerg- 
ency intervals without apparent injury. 

The following data on the performance of recent locomotives 
will illustrate to what extent these overloads have proven 
practical. It is assumed that in the great majority of in- 
stances the locomotive starts are made at the slipping point of 
the wheels. 


Type Amp. per Amp to slip 

Road motor rating driver 25%coef. 30% coef 

Detroit River Tunnel GE-209 400 50,000 525 610 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.. GE-209 400 45,000 650 750 
Chicago & Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway GE-205 144 18,000 310 360 

Some of these locomotives have been in operation over two 
years, and as far as known these overloads have shown no in- 
jurious effects. Less wear of commutator might reasonably 
be expected with the decreased sparking as the etching effect of 
the spark is largely accountable for this wear. The following 
figures are taken from car equipments in actual service: 


Road Motor voltage per motor 

Indianapolis &: Louisville Traction Company. GE-205 600/1200 200,000 
Pittsburg, Harmony, Butler & New Castle 

Electric Railway GE-205 600/1200 200,000 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York GE-210 600 70,000 

Chicago Railways GE-216 600 50,000 

On none of the'se roads has the commutator wear been 
enough to be distinguishable by the eye or enough to enable 
one to feel any indication of a ridge on the commutator. It 
is safe to say that the life of the commutators is at least five 
times as long as that of non-commutating pole motors. The 
life of brushes has also been greatly increased owing to the 
smoother commutator and decreased burning of the brush. 
The local current on the face of the brush may amount to as 
much as the actual line current, and is largely responsible for 
the deterioration of the bearing surface; this local current is 
greatly reduced in commutating pole machines. 

Records of brush wear on the same roads and motors men- 
tioned above indicate 1 in. wear for about 150,000 miles run- 
ning for the city equipments and 750,000 miles for the inter- 
urban equipments. Non-commutating pole motors showing 
one-half of these mileages might be considered as doing very 
well. This represents a material saving in cost of brushes as 
well as in time saved in inspection. With less copper and car- 
bon dust it follows conclusively that a cleaner, safer motor 
and one requiring less attention is obtained. 

The first General Electric 1200-volt motors were put in opera- 
tion on the Indianapolis & Louisville line in October, 1907, and 
since that time about 40,000 hp in 1200-volt motors have been 
installed on some eight different roads. These motors and the 
entire equipment are operating in a manner which seems to 
indicate the entire practicability of the higher voltage for 
railway work, though the commutating pole becomes a prac- 
tical necessity with motors designed for use on this voltage. 


The American Street & Interurban Railway Association has 
issued Convention Bulletin No. 2, which describes the arrange- 
ments for the Atlantic City convention with particular reference 
to the hotels. As in 1908, Young's Million Dollar Pier will be 
used for exhibits and most of the convention meetings will be 
held there. The Marlborough-Blenheim has been selected as 
the headquarters of the American Association and the Manu- 
facturers' Association. The Accountants will establish head- 
quarters at the Chalfonte, the Engineering Association at the 
Dennis, the Claim Agents and Transportation & Traffic Associ- 
ations at the Traymore. A list is published of the principal 
hotels in Atlantic City, together with rates for the different 
classes of rooms. Hotel reservations should be arranged di- 
rectly with the hotels, and to avoid error statement should be 
made that the reservation is desired in connection with the con- 
vention. The special rates made by the hotels have been given 
with the understanding that the hotel charges will be for the 
full time of reservation. The hotels have agreed to provide a 
detailed list of their room numbers and respective rates, which 
will be in the hands of a committee as a check-up in registra- 
tion hours during the convention. If information of this kind 
is desired prior to the convention week it may be obtained by 
communicating with the secretary's office for the American and 
affiliated associations and with W. L. Conwell, 165 Broadway, 
New York, for the Manufacturers' Association. 

The present bulletin includes illustrations of Young's Pier 
and a plan of the boardwalk and vicinity showing the location 
of the hotels and piers. It is announced in conclusion that de- 
tails of transportation, programs, meeting halls and other con- 
vention subjects will be treated in subsequent bulletins. 


Bulletin No. 87 of the Bureau of Labor of the Department 
of Commerce and Labor, giving prices of a large number and 
variety of raw and manufactured commodities, has just been 
published. This bulletin is supplementary to bulletins 71, 77 and 
81 issued by the same bureau, and brings the records of prices 
quoted up to March, 1910. The figures are particularly interest- 
ing because of the effect of high prices of commodities on the 
operating expenses and cost of construction of electric railways. 

[Average price (or 1890 to 1899=100.0! 






■t. .1 

in. A 

ir. .1 


Ij (i 

:t. J 

in. A 


pr. J\ 



u J 

»n. A 


jr. Ji 


i. J 


in. Apr. J i 



t. J a 














Electric Ry. Journal 

Relative Prices of all Commodities by Months from 
January, 1905, to March, 1910 

Bulletin 87 contains a chart, from which the accompanying 
diagram is reproduced, and gives in graphical form the figures 
quoted on page 25 of the last issue of this paper. As shown, 
the prices were higher in March, 1910, than at any other period 
shown on the chart and this includes the entire period since 1890 
for which records have been compiled. Prices were higher even 
than in October, 1907, which constituted the period of highest 
prices up to that time. 

July 9, 1910.] 



News of Electric Railways 

The Detroit Situation 

Mayor Breitmeyer, of Detroit, Mich., is preparing a spe- 
cial message to the City Council which will review the 
traction situation in Detroit and contain suggestions to the 
Council for action looking toward a settlement of the minor 
controversies that have seriously interfered with the prog- 
ress of the negotiations between the city and the Detroit 
United Railway. Frederick T. Barcroft, who appraised the 
property of the company in the interest of the city, but 
refused to defend his figures, has been in communication 
with the Mayor, and has now stated that when the Council 
is a party to the proceedings he will permit the organiza- 
tion which assisted him in his original work to resume 
its labors on behalf of the city. In response to the request 
of the Mayor that he outline some procedure for the Mayor 
to submit to the Council for approval, Mr. Barcroft has 
written the Mayor a letter in which he says that the city 
should decide definitely upon the following: 

"1. Council should state what the city wants; then, being 
advised by its legal department, the disposition of the mat- 
ter will be proper, sane, legal and just. 

"2. A purpose having been established to which the valu- 
ation is to be applied, it can be kept constantly in mind 
in its application and the subject ended. 

"3. Is more than a scrap value to be given the lines upon 
which franchises have expired? 

"4. Are the original costs to be applied on this property 
or the 1909 prices on the few lines where the franchises 
have not expired? 

"5. Are all the old cars in operation to be included, or 
just the modern ones? 

"6. Are the power houses to be included? If so. is their 
present usefulness to be the basis of judgment of their 

"7. Are all the buildings the company owns to be in- 
cluded, or only those of modern construction, used for rail- 
way purposes? fc 

"8. Are both shops to be included precisely as they are 
without analysis of what they are used for, or is the fact 
to be recognized that two-thirds of their force and equip- 
ment is utilized for the care of interurban and small subur- 
ban town cars in the vicinity of Detroit? 

"9. Are overhead charges to be considered at all on lines 
where franchises have expired? Are overhead charges to 
be figured on a basis of the original cost of the Pack-Ever- 
ett lines applied to the D. U. R. system, or a basis of 1909 

"10. Is the real estate to be charged at its value when pur- 
chased, or 1909 prices?" 

According to Mr. Barcroft, to carry out the work based 
on these questions would involve a further outlay by the 
city of $10,500. 

The company has replied to the communication from the 
city which contained the two resolutions adopted by the 
City Council, one under date of June 14, 1910, requiring the 
company to pay $50 a day additional to the city, and one 
under date of June 2T, 1910, requiring the company to make 
a further payment of $100 per day for the privilege of op- 
erating on streets on which the franchises are said to have 
expired. The company said substantially: 

"We are compelled to advise you that we deny the state- 
ment contained in the preamble in each resolution to the 
effect that the rights of the company have expired on the 
streets mentioned in said resolution. We are also advised 
that the requirements to pay said sums of money are illegal 
for other reasons. We are therefore compelled to advise 
you that we must decline to pay said sums. 

"Perhaps it may not be inappropriate to say to you that 
the increase of the ad valorem tax which has been made 
this year, added to the excessive demands now being made, 
has prevented us from completing our arrangements for 
borrowing the money necessary to make all (he extensions 
required by your recent resolutions which we accepted. 
These resolutions, with other necessary improvements and 

betterments which we have contemplated, call for the ex- 
penditure of nearly $2,000,000. The addition of such bur- 
dens as you seek to impose upon us and the threat to add 
still others puts it beyond our power to raise the money for 
the purposes above indicated. 

"When your honorable body adopted the resolution re- 
garding the payment of $300 per day, we then advised you 
that we did not regard the requirement as a legal one, but 
in the hope of avoiding litigation and further friction be- 
tween us, and without waiving our legal rights, we have 
paid that sum, and for the present will continue to pay it, 
under the conditions named in our letter advising you that 
we would. This was with the belief that no further burdens 
would be added. 

"We do not believe that you have fully considered the 
necessary effect of the imposition of these heavy financial 
burdens upon the company, and therefore respectfully call 
your attention to it. 

"We believe we should again call your attention to the 
failure of the city to maintain the track properly, and paving 
foundations, and the paving on the lines known as the De- 
troit Railway system, and in this connection we beg to call 
your attention to our letter to his honor, the Mayor, con- 
cerning this matter. This company is at all times ready 
to co-operate with your honorable body in bringing about a 
better state of affairs concerning these and all other street 
railway lines in this city, consistent with a reasonable pro- 
tection of the property in its charge." 

Cleveland Traction Situation 

J. J. Stanley, president of the Cleveland Railway, has 
asked the City Council for an increase of 1 cent per car 
mile in the allowance for operating expenses to cover the 
advance in the wages of motormen and conductors, made 
by the board of arbitration. The city named G. M. Dahl, 
street railway commissioner, to represent it in conference 
with the officers of the company regarding the matter. 
Mr. Dahl opposed the increase. Mr. Stanley says that the 
additional cost of operation must be defrayed. Refusal on 
the part of the city to make a change of this kind in the 
ordinance would remove the obligation of the company to 
the men by imposing conditions on the company that are 
impossible. The legislative committee of the Federation 
of Labor called upon Mr. Dahl on June 30, 1910, and urged 
that he place nothing in the way of the advance that has 
been recommended in wages. 

Owing to the supposed unsafe condition of the Superior 
Avenue viaduct draw, Mr. Stanley has instructed con- 
ductors to give transfers good over the Central viaduct, 
from West Side lines, if passengers desire them. The Su- 
perior viaduct may be abandoned as soon as connections 
are completed between the Abbey Street and other West 
Side lines. 

A number of accidents have occurred recently because 
people put their heads through the car windows on the 
devil strip side, and orders have been issued that the last two 
windows on the side of all cars be kept closed. The wire 
grills which at present extend well up the windows of the 
cars, will probably be extended so as to inclose the whole 

Traction Fund in Chicago Applicable to Subway Work 

The Supreme Court of Illinois has sustained the decision 
of Judge Carpenter of the Circuit Court that the City of 
Chicago is authorized to use for building subways the fund 
of about $4,500,000. which has accumulated as a result of the 
participation of the city in the earnings of the Chicago City 
Railway and the Chicago Railways. The decision of the 
Supreme Court says in part: 

"Our conclusion is that the city has pow er to acquire or 
construct street railways, and that street railways, properly 
construed, mean elevated, surface or underground railways; 
that the City of Chicago may exercise this power in ac- 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

cordance with the traction ordinance of 1907, and may ex- 
pend for such purpose either the special traction fund or 
any other available corporate funds belonging to the city. 

"No one would seriously contend that a city had the right 
to grant the exclusive use of its streets to a street railway, 
and thus compel all persons who used the street to travel 
upon the street cars of such company. 

"No such unlimited grant is contemplated by the traction 
ordinances. The clear meaning of the ordinance is that the 
city will not permit any other street car company to use 
the tracks in the subway that are leased to the present 
traction companies. 

"We have no doubt that if the city owned a certain 
street railway it would have the right to lease such track" 
and give the lessee the exclusive right of operating its cars 
upon such track, but the rights of the public in the street 
would be the same as they are where the street railway 
owns its own tracks." 

Ohio State Board of Arbitration and Threatened Strike at 

The employees of the Columbus Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Columbus, Ohio, who claim that the company has 
discriminated against them, have asked Governor Harmon 
to remove Judge Noah H. Swayne and Joseph Bishop from 
the State Board of Arbitration. Judge Swayne had been 
reappointed a few days previously, but resigned when he 
heard that the men objected to him. The law provides that 
the Governor shall appoint one person to represent the em- 
ployers and one to represent labor, and that these two shall 
recommend a third to be appointed by the Governor. It 
was alleged that Judge Swayne does not represent the em- 
ployers of labor. Mr. Bishop is affiliated with an associa- 
tion composed of iron, steel and tin workers, and was 
appointed a member of the board by William McKinley 
when he was Governor of Ohio. The motormen and con- 
ductors say that 'he is not an employee and was not an 
employee at the time of his appointment. Attorneys repre- 
senting the carmen conferred with Governor Harmon about 
the removal of Mr. Bishop, who intimated that he would 
not tender his resignation. They claimed that labor has 
been dissatisfied with Mr. Bishop for several years, but that 
complaint had not been made before because the board had 
not arbitrarily ordered a hearing. The Governor stated 
that he would take no action until he had an opinion from 
the Attorney-General. That official says that Mr. Bishop 
is technically an employee, and the Governor has refused 
to remove him. Albert F. Sparks, general manager of the 
James Leffel Company, Springfield, Ohio, manufacturers of 
water wheels, has been appointed to succeed Judge Swayne 
on the board. 

New Indiana Road Opened. — The Indianapolis, New 
Castle & Toledo Electric Railway, New Castle, Ind., which 
connects Indianapolis, Greenfield, New Castle, Muncie, 
Richmond, Winchester and Toledo, was placed in regular 
operation on June 28, 1910. 

Franchise Matter at Toledo. — The proposal of Mayor 
Whitlock, of Toledo, that an inventory should be made of 
the property of the Toledo Railways & Light Company 
was considered by the directors of the company at their 
meeting held during the week ended July 2, 1910, but no de- 
cision was reached. 

Interurban Terminal in Columbus. — The Columbus Inter- 
urban Terminal Company, incorporated by J. B. Foraker, 
Jr., F. A. Healy, Dana Stevens, W. H. McAllister and W. 
Kesley Schoepf, with a capital stock of $10,000, will erect 
an interurban station and provide an interurban terminal 
at Third Street and Town Street, Columbus, Ohio. 

Some Changes in the Space Numbering at the Atlantic 
City Convention. — The American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Manufacturers' Association has just issued a circular 
giving the plans of the pier at Atlantic City, which show a 
slight change in the numbering of the spaces at the end of 
the pier. The circular also gives the dirnensions for all of 
the booth spaces, head room and area, and complete instruc- 
tions for applying for space. 

Decision Against Chicago City Railway. — The Supreme 
Court of Illinois has decided in favor of Clarence H. Venner 

in his mandamus proceedings against the Chicago City 
Railway for an inspection of its books and records, and has 
reversed the decision of the Appellate Court, which was in 
favor of the company. The company contended that it was 
not subject to the general corporation law entitling stock- 
holders to such inspection, because it was incorporated by 
special charter before the corporation law was passed. This 
contention the Supreme Court has overruled in the decision 
just rendered. 

Unused Tracks Not a Trespass in New York. — Justice 
Erlanger, in the Supreme Court, has sustained a demurrer 
interposed by the receiver of the Fulton Street Railroad, 
New York, N. Y., to the complaint in a suit brought against 
him and the company by the city of New York for the re- 
moval of the tracks of the corporation, on the ground that 
they constitute a trespass and a nuisance. The company was 
authorized to operate a street railway along Fulton Street, 
West Street and other streets. The grant, or franchise, 
was originally acquired by the North & East River Railway, 
and was subsequently transferred to the Fulton Street Rail- 
road. The basis of the action was that no cars had been 
run on the line since June 1, 1908. 

Spokane Transportation Club. — At the meeting of the 
Spokane Transportation Club, on June 17, 1910, the subject 
of through billing was discussed with particular reference 
to the billing of freight direct from New York and Chicago 
to points on the Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad. Other 
subjects considered were largely of interest to the steam 
railroad officials in attendance. It was voted to accept the 
invitation extended by Waldo G. Paine, second vice-presi- 
dent and traffic manager of the Spokane & Inland Empire 
Railroad, and J. C. White, of the Red Collar Steamboat 
Line, to hold the annual outing of the club on July 20, 1910, 
on the St. Joe River. The cars of the Spokane & Inland 
Empire Railroad will be used as far as Coeur d'Alene. The 
party will then journey by boat on Coeur d'Alene Lake to 
the mouth of the St. Joe River. 

Electric Railways in Michigan. — The State Railroad Com- 
mission of Michigan reports that in the year ended Dec. 31, 
1909, 19 electric railways, with 1268.90 miles of track, were 
operated in Michigan. The cost of the electric railways up 
to June 30, 1909, was $90,591,665. Only 8.19 miles of new 
track were laid during 1909. The electric railways, have 
$38,693,100 of stock outstanding par value. The dividends 
iast year amounted to $90,901.79. The income statements 
showed 12 companies with a surplus for 1909 of $3,632,308, 
while seven had a deficit of $211,551. The total passenger 
revenue of the electric railways was $9,713,275.37, and the 
total revenue from transportation $10,500,523. The operating 
expenses were $6,500,745. There were 7153 employees on 
the electric railways of the State, including 98 general offi- 
cers, 223 clerks, with 29 superintendents. There were 1726 
passenger cars and 544 other cars in use. During the year 
43 persons were killed and 375 were injured. Five passen- 
gers were killed and 222 were injured. 

San Francisco Municipal Railway Bonds Declared Legal. 
— The Supreme Court of California handed down a decision 
on June 25, 1910, in which it was declared that the course ot 
the city officials of San Francisco in connection with the 
plan to issue bonds for the reconstruction of the Geary 
Street, Park & Ocean Railway by the city has been regular 
and construed the city charter and the State Constitution 
in such a way that no question is left as to the city's right 
to construct, complete or purchase a municipal street rail- 
way. The decision says: "Whatever basis there may be 
for the doubt expressed as to the wisdom of the policy of 
the acquisition and operation by the City and County of 
San Francisco of the proposed municipally-owned street 
railways, we have no doubt that the city and county has the 
power to construct and operate the same and the power to 
incur a bonded indebtedness for such purpose, and also that 
the proceedings in that behalf presented for review on the 
appeal are free from substantial irregularity. It necessarily 
follows that the conclusion of the trial court was correct. 
The judgment is affirmed, as is also the order denying the 
plaintiff's motion for an injunction." The Board of Super- 
visors of San Francisco has set the date for receiving bids 
for the bonds for July 11, 1910. The first issue of bonds 
will be $260,000, and will provide funds sufficient for getting 
the work on the municipal line started. 

July 9, 1910.] 



Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Market 

Progress of Metropolitan Street Railway Reorganization 

When the market reopened this morning after the three- 
day holiday Wall Street was hopeful that the persistent 
selling pressure would be lifted. The opening sales were 
at advances, but almost immediately large quantities of 
stock were offered and rapid declines followed, there being 
little professional support. Several of the more active is- 
sues made new low records for the year, and many were 
only fractionally higher than the low point of June 30. 
There was a slight recovery at the close, but net losses 
were generally recorded for the day. 

Money was easy at: Call, 2 to 2> l A P er cent; 90 days, 3% 
per cent. 

Other Markets 

The Philadelphia market was affected by Wall Street 
to-day, and was generally lower with considerable selling 
pressure. Rapid Transit has declined about 1 point and 
Union Traction less than 2 points. 

Massachusetts Electric issues and Boston Elevated have 
been fairly active in the Boston market both before the 
holidays and to-day. There has been some pressure to sell 
these issues and they have declined under the liquidation. 

In the Chicago market, the Elevated issues were affected 
by Mr. Blair's announcement that conditions were unfavor- 
able for the proposed elevated consolidation. Metropolitan 
preferred, which sold a week ago at 70, closed to-day at 
58J-4, and the common, which sold at 24 a week ago, closed 
at 20. South Side Elevated dropped to-day from 69 to 55. 

There continues to be some buying of United Railways 
certificates in the Baltimore market, but the price remains 
about 1354 to 14. Bond prices are unchanged. 

Quotations of various traction securities as compared with 
last week follow: 

June 28. July 5 

American Railway Company 344 8425-2 

Anrora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) a6o a*6o 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) aar *gi 

Boston Elevated Railway ai26 ai26 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies ai4 *I4 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) .... a74 *74 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common).... aio54 aio5-2 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred) . . a40 a40 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company T&Va 73% 

Brooklyn Rap. Transit Company, 1st pref. conv. 4s... 8354 82 

Capital Traction Company, Washington ai2g54 > ai30 

Chicago City Railway ai95 3195 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common).... *zYa *3 z A 
Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred) .... *7% *7/4 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 a75 a75 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 ai7 ai7 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 aii an 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4s a654 365-2 

Cleveland Railways *9 r /4 *9 r /4 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey 376 a75 

Consolidated Traction of N. J. 5 per cent bonds aio3 aio3 

Detroit United Railway *5o54 *5°/4 

General Electric Company.. •• 143 140 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) 3108 aio8 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) a87 a87 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (common) 18 17 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 49-4 49 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (454s) 80 7954 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common).... a25 3255.2 
Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) . . . a73 a73 

Manhattan Railway 130 ^ 125 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) ai5% *1S% 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) a8o *8o 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) a23-)4 a23!-4 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (preferred) a70 a-S^V-i 

Metropolitan Street Railway *i5 *'5 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred) *no *no 

North American Company 68 65 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) a22 a25 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) a6s a63 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common) 348 3425-2 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (preferred) a4354 343 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company ai9% ai851< 

Philadelphia Traction Company 38454 84 54 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent col. notes.... ao6 396 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs aioi sioo 

Seattle Electric Company (common) alio *no 

Seattle Electric Compsny (preferred) 3100 *ioo 

South Side Elevated Railroad (Chicsgo) a72?4 "'7234 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York a7% 754 

Toledo Railwsys & Light Company 8 (>Va 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common).... 1095-2 io6|4 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia 346 a44?4 

United Rys. & Electric Company, Baltimore.... ai454 ar45-4 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (common) _ 30 *3o 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (preferred) 55 5° 

Washington Ry. & Electric Compsny (commonj 33354 a33'-4 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) a88 387 54 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) a88 a88 

West End Street Railwav. Boston (preferred) 3100 aioo 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company 62 60 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st pref.) *r2S "125 

a Asked. "Lan Sale. 

It is expected that the plan for the reorganization of the 
Metropolitan Street Railway, New York, N. Y., prepared 
by the bondholders will be submitted to the Public Service 
Commission of the First District of New York for consid- 
eration on July 11, 1910. No official statement in regard 
to the details of the plan has been made, but it has been 
estimated that $12,000,000 will be required to meet the pres- 
ent needs of the company. Of this amount $5,500,000 will 
probably be available as a result of the offer made to W. 
W. Ladd, receiver of the New York City Railway, to end 
the litigation brought by him against the Metropolitan 
Securities Company and the Interborough-Metropolitan 
Company. The remainder of the $12,000,000 will be secured 
by assessing the stock of the Metropolitan Street Railway, 
for which income securities will be offered. It is, of course, 
expected that the stock of the Metropolitan Street Railway 
will be scaled down. It is proposed to refund the existing 
$12,500,000 of 5 per cent bonds of 1898, and the $16,000,000 
of 4 per cent bonds of 1902, and to care for the accident 
judgments held by the tort creditors of the New York City 
Railway. The tort creditors of the Metropolitan Street 
Railway proper, whose claims have grown out of accidents 
since the receiverships of September, 1907, are not affected 
by this settlement. Such tort claims are being met, as they 
accrue, as a part of the operating expenses of the road. 
According to the New York Times, it is expected that there 
will be an increase in gross earnings of about 3.5 per cent 
a year and that the operating ratio, with the present burden 
of taxes and rentals, will be about 70 per cent of the gross. 
That gives the following estimated income, applying the 
percentages to the figures compiled by Chairman Tripp, of 
the reorganization committee, as of Dec. 31, 1909: 

Gross from operation, $13,258,412 for 1909, plus 3.5 per cent ... $1 3,722,448 
Operating cost and taxes, (70 per cent) 9,605,711 

Net from operation $4,116,737 

Interest and rentals on underlying securities 2,353,978 

Net income $1,762,759 

Other income 200,000 

Gross income $1,962,759 

Interest (6 per cent) on $12,000,000 new cash 720,000 

Balance applicable to existing 4s and 5s $1,242,759 

Following the announcement that the bondholders' com- 
mittee was soon to submit to the Public Service Commis- 
sion a plan of reorganization which involves a discontinu- 
ance of the litigation between the receivers and the 
Interborough-Metropolitan Company and the Metropolitan 
Securities Company interests, Robert W. de Forest made 
the following statement: 

"The plan has received the approval of the bondholders' 
committee and is now before Judge Lacombe. 

"The gentlemen who are providing the funds for this 
adjustment have been actuated by a desire to terminate the 
costly and vexatious litigation which has been in progress 
throughout almost the entire period of receivership and to 
enable the early reorganization of the Metropolitan prop- 
erties in the interest of both the security holders and the 
public. Another important reason for the adjustment, 
which commends itself to all, is that it seems to afford, 
through the action of the bondholders' committee, the only 
means of providing relief for the holders of personal injury 
claims who have recovered judgments against the New 
York City Railway to the amount of almost $2,000,000, 
whose judgments would otherwise have been been ren- 
dered valueless by foreclosure. The salient features of the 
adjustment are as follows: 

"The sum of $5,500,000 is paid to the receivers in settle- 
ment of the claims of the receivers against the Metropoli- 
tan Securities Company and through that company against 
the Interborough-Metropolitan Company, its principal 
stockholder, representing the balance of the purchase price 
of $8,000,000 of Metropolitan Street Railway Company im- 
provement notes issued prior to the receivership and 011 ac- 
count of the purchase price of which only about $3,000,000 
had been paid at the time of the appointment of receivers, 
and also in settlement of the claim of the receivers of the 
New York City Railway, based upon the redemption at par 
of notes of the New York City Railway which had been 
originally issued at 70. The receivers claimed that the 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

Metropolitan Securities Company was liable to the extent 
of this difference, and they also contended that a corre- 
sponding liability rested upon directors, although they did 
not in any way individually profit from the transaction. 
Former directors have accordingly provided the sum of 
$1,500,000 as part of the general readjustment which ter- 
minates a litigation, the continuance of which might have 
prevented reorganization of the property for an indefinite 
length of time without offering any means of providing 
for the payment of the claims of those who had suffered 
personal injury through accidents. 

"All pending litigation will be ended by this adjustment." 

Theodore P. Shonts, president of the Interborough-Met- 
ropolitan Company, issued the following statement: 

"The Interborough-Metropolitan Company has agreed to 
contribute to the settlement announced by Mr. de Forest, 
not as any part of a plan to participate in a reorganization 
of the surface lines, for that question has not been deter- 
mined, but in order to put an end to all existing and threat- 
ening litigations against it. 

"The Interborough-Metropolitan Company is the holder 
of about 97 per cent of the stock of the Metropolitan Secu- 
rities Company upon which over $7,000,000 is still unpaid. 
As such stockholder it has been sued with the minority 
stockholders by the receiver of the New York City Railway 
to compel it and the minority stockholders to satisfy out of 
their personal stock liability the judgment amounting with 
interest to over $4,600,000 recovered by the receiver against 
the Metropolitan Securities Company. The receiver dis- 
putes the right of the Interborough-Metropolitan Company 
to any counterclaim to offset this liability. The company 
is also threatened with further similar litigations as the 
result of a pending suit brought by said receiver against 
the Metropolitan Securities Company, in which former di- 
rectors of the New York City Railway are joined as de- 
fendants to recover with interest over $4,000,000 on account 
of the issue to the Securities Company of the New York 
City Railway debentures at 70 and their redemption by 
the New York City Railway at par. It is also threatened 
with litigation by the receiver of the Metropolitan Securi- 
ties Company in aid of the collection from the Interbor- 
ough-Metropolitan Company of the said judgment and 
claims of the receiver of the New York City Railway. 

"To put an end to this litigation, existing and threatened, 
the I nterborough-Metropolitan Company has made a cash 
contribution of $4,000,000 in the form of payment upon its 
stock liability, the cash for this purpose being raised by the 
sale of its five-year 6 per cent notes at par. The remainder 
of the sum required, $1,500,000, has been contributed by 
certain of the directors of the New York City Railway 
already referred to. 

"The Interborough-Metropolitan Company also releases 
the New York City Railway and the Metropolitan Street 
Railway from certain uncollectible claims, and agrees not 
to participate directly or indirectly in the receivers' funds; 
but it retains all its valuable collateral. As a result of the 
settlement, provision has been made by the bondholders' 
committees of the Metropolitan Street Railway, subject to 
the approval of the Public Service Commission." 

Judge Lacombe, in the United States Circuit Court, has 
adjourned the sale of the property of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway under foreclosure until Sept. 27, igio. 

Sale of New Jersey Line 

Thomas N. McCarter, president of the Public Service 
Corporation of New Jersey, announced on July 2, 1910, that 
the Public Service Corporation had acquired by purchase 
from Ford, Bacon & Davis, New York. N. Y., a large ma- 
jority of the stock of the New Jersey & Hudson River 
Railway & Ferry Company and that the latter will here- 
after be operated as part of the Public Service Railway. 
A meeting of the board of directors of the Hudson 
River Railway & Ferry Company was held in New 
York on July 2, 1910, at which the officers of the company 
resigned and the officers of the Public Service Corporation 
were elected to succeed them. 

The New Jersey & Hudson River Railway & Ferry Com- 
pany operated chiefly in Bergen County in territory which 
had not been touched by the Public Service Corporation's 
lines. It also controlled the Fort Lee Ferry from Edge- 
water, N. J., to the foot of West 130th Street, New York. 

It possesses more than 48 miles of track, nearly half of 
which is built on private right of way. The terms of the 
sale were not disclosed, but it is understood that the same 
offer made by the Public Service Corporation for the major- 
ity of the stock was extended to all of the stockholders of 
the New Jersey & Hudson River Railway & Ferry Com- 
pany and that under it the Public Service Corporation will 
acquire practically all of the stock of the company. 

Federal Light & Traction Company, New York, N. Y. — 

The Federal Light & Traction Company, the organization 
of which was noted in the Electric Railway Journal of 
June 11, 1910, page 1041, has filed for record a certificate of 
the increase of its authorized capital stock from $2,000,000 
to $11,000,006, one-half of which is preferred. 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company, Indianapo- 
lis, Ind. — Judge Carter of the Superior Court has consented 
to have Charles L. Henry, receiver of the Indianapolis & 
Cincinnati Traction Company, file a petition on Aug. 20, 
1910, for the sale of the property of the company. The 
hearing on the petition will be heard on Sept. 7, 1910. Mr. 
Henry reported to the court that all the holders of the $2,- 
000,000 of outstanding bonds had signed agreements for the 
reorganization of the company except the holders of about 
$21,000 of the bonds. 

International Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y. — A com- 
mittee consisting of H. H. Littell and George R. Teller, 
Buffalo, X. Y., and John W. Green, Louisville, Ky., has 
called for deposits of the 50-year collateral trust 4 per cent 
bonds of the International Traction Company with the 
Commonwealth Trust Company, Buffalo, N. Y., or the 
Columbia Trust Company, Louisville, Ky., or a trust com- 
pany in New York to be designated later, in opposition to 
the plan announced in the Electric Railway Journal of 
June 25, 1910. page 11 14. The committee contends that the 
plan previously outlined undertakes to obtain from the bond- 
holders funds for improvements and extensions which 
should properly be contributed by the shareholders. 

Nevada Water, Light & Traction Company, Nevada, Mo. — 
The Nevada Water, Light & Traction Company has been 
incorporated by Edward Willard, Clifford Phillips and Mary 
Hopkins. Nevada, Mo., and Harry C. Barker and W. W. 
Seibert, St. Louis, Mo., with a capital stock of $350,000, as 
the successor to the Missouri Water, Light & Traction Com- 
pany, the property of which was sold recently under fore- 
closure to A. Mitchell, St. Louis. Mo. 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York, N. Y.— F. W. Whit- 
ridge, receiver of the Third Avenue Railroad, has paid off 
$500,000 of receivers' certificates from cash on hand. An- 
other $500,000 will be paid off shortly. This will leave out- 
standing $2,500,000 of the $3,500,000 of certificates which 
have been issued. This is the amount provided for in the 
proposed reorganization now under consideration by the 
Public Service Commission of the First District of New 

Tampa-Sulphur Springs Traction Company, Tampa, Fla. — 

Control of the Tampa-Sulphur Springs Traction Company 
has been sold to new interests, and Walter L. Weston, New 
York, has been elected president of the company; Peter O. 
Knight, Tampa, vice-president and general counsel; B. F. 
Hathaway, treasurer; C. Fred Thompson, secretary. A. G. 
Turner, C. C. Whitaker and C. O. Brewster have been 
elected directors of the company. 

West Penn Traction Company, Connellsville, Pa. — A 
special meeting of the stockholders of the West Penn Trac- 
tion Company has been called for Sept. 1, 1910, to vote to 
increase the indebtedness of the company from nothing to 
$25,000,000 by executing a mortgage to secure an issue of 
bonds and to take action on the proposed agreement be- 
tween the West Penn Traction Company and West Penn 
Railways as set forth in the amended proposition of the 
American Water Works & Guarantee Company, made to 
the stockholders of the West Penn Railways on Feb. 10, 
1910, and accepted by the stockholders of that company on 
Feb. 23, 1910. A special meeting of stockholders of the 
West Penn Railways has been called for Sept. 1, 1910, to 
vote to authorize $6,000,000 of bonds. This is an increase of 
$6,000,000 over present bonded indebtedness. At the same 
time action will be taken on the proposed agreement be- 
tween West Penn Railways and the West Penn Traction 
Company as set forth in the amended proposition of the 
American Water Works & Guarantee Company. 

July 9, 1910.] 



Traffic and Transportation 

Manitowoc & Northern Traction Company Increases Fares 

On April 20, 1909, the Manitowoc & Northern Traction 
Company, Manitowoc, Wis., announced an increase in the 
fare from 10 cents to 15 cents on its line between Manito- 
woc and Two Rivers, 7% miles distant, effective on May 1, 
1909. Shortly after the increase went into effect an in- 
junction was secured by the city attorney of Manitowoc on 
behalf of the city, restraining the company from charging 
more than 10 cents fare between Manitowoc and Two 
Rivers. On June 4, 1910, the injunction was dissolved and 
the case dismissed. The increase was therefore declared 
in effect on June 15, 1910, and the following notice was 
issued on June 8, 1910, in regard to the change: 

"On April 20, 1909, the following announcement was 
made relative to fares on our cars: 

" 'On and after May r, the fare between Manitowoc and 
Two Rivers will be 15 cents if paid on the car. City tickets 
will be sold as in the past, 24 for $1, and three of such 
tickets will be accepted as an interurban fare, making the 
fare when tickets are used, \2 l / 2 cents. 

" 'Those tickets will be sold at the National Bank of 
Manitowoc, at Kirst's drug store in Two Rivers, and at 
the office of the company. Workingmen's tickets will be 
sold as formerly at 7J-4 cents per ride, good on morning 
and evening cars going to and from work. 

" 'The increase of fare has become necessary on account 
of increased expense due largely to new legislation recently 
put in force, one feature of which is a change of basis of 
taxation causing an increase in our taxes amounting to 
about 120 per cent.' 

"About a week after putting those rates into effect, the 
City of Manitowoc secured an injunction restraining the 
company from charging more than 10 cents for a ride be- 
tween Manitowoc and Two Rivers, and the case has been 
in the courts up to June 4, when the injunction was dis- 
solved and the case dismissed. Now notice is hereby given 
that the rates put in force at that time as above set forth 
will be reinstated on June 15 next." 

Recommendations Regarding Service in Watertown 

The Public Service Commission of the Second District of 
New York has sent a communication to the Black River 
Traction Company, Watertown, N. Y., in regard to service 
on the lines of the company. The commission is of the 
opinion that Watertown has outgrown the existing street 
railway facilities; that the city is entitled to more extensive 
service over territory not now covered by existing tracks, 
and that additional service could be provided upon the 
present lines of the company. The commission asks whether 
the company has under consideration any plans for the ex- 
tension of its service, and calls attention to the fact that 
there are no directors of the company who are residents of 
Watertown. It suggests that the management of the com- 
pany be put in more direct touch with the needs and re- 
quirements of the city by the election of a suitable number 
of directors residing in the city who are interested in the 
company's welfare. The company is reminded of its 
promise to extend its present terminus to a point nearly 
opposite the works of the New York Air Brake Company, 
provided the necessary local franchises and local consents 
can be obtained, and directs that immediate application for 
such franchise be made to the city authorities. The com- 
mission also asks for assurance regarding the reconstruc- 
tion of the track on State Street. Open cars should be 
provided during the summer months. This would add to 
the convenience and comfort of the patrons and enhance 
the revenues of the company. The company is requested to 
state whether it will not continue on its own motion to 
place open cars in service. 

Meeting of the Central Electric Traffic Association. — The 

regular monthly meeting of the Central Electric Traffic 
Association will be held at Dayton, Ohio, on July 19, tqio. 

Cincinnati Union Depot Ordinance Passed. — On June 27, 
1910, the City Council of Cincinnati passed an ordinance 

giving the Union Depot & Terminal Company permission 
to build a depot and terminal for the railroads and electric 
railways which enter Cincinnati. John E. Bleekman is 
largely interested in the new company. 

Calgary P.-A.-Y.-E. Notices.— The Calgary Street Rail- 
way, Calgary, Alta., Can., has posted notices in its pay-as- 
you-enter cars to the effect that "Passengers are required 
to voluntarily place fares in the box. Neglect to pay is a 
criminal offense, subject to a fine or imprisonment." The 
Calgary system belongs to the city. 

Improved Service on the Winona Interurban Railway. — 

The Winona Interurban Railway, Winona Lake, Ind., plans 
to adopt a five-hour passenger schedule between Goshen and 
Indianapolis by way of Milford, Warsaw, Peru and Kokomo. 
The freight and express service will also be improved, and 
live stock and carload lots of grain, wood, tile, etc., will be 

Excursion of Train Dispatchers' Association of America. — 

The Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad, Spokane, Wash., 
and the Coeur d'Alene & St. Joe Transportation Company 
on June 22, 1910, conducted a trolley outing to Liberty Lake 
and Coeur d'Alene Lake and a steamer trip on Lake Cceur 
d'Alene for the members of the Train Dispatchers' Associa- 
tion of America, who were in session at Spokane. 

Another Trade Excursion in Indiana. — The Indianapolis 
Trade Association has planned a second trip in Indiana in 
the interest of the trades people of Indianapolis. July 15, 
1910. has been set as the date for this excursion. The route 
will include 14 towns on the line of the Indianapolis & Cin- 
cinnati Traction Company and the Chicago, Cincinnati, 
Cleveland & St. Louis Railway between Indianapolis, Rush- 
ville and Shelbyville. 

Hearing on Commutation Rates Before the Interstate 
Commission. — The Interstate Commerce Commission has 
ordered a hearing in Washington on July 12, 19T0, on the 
recent advances in commutation rates announced by the 
New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Erie Railroad, Central 
Railroad of New Jersey, Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, 
Pennsylvania Railroad, Lehigh Valley Railroad and the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad. 

Meetings of Seattle Employees to Consider Prevention of 
Accidents. — The first meeting of officers of the operating 
and claim departments of the Seattle (Wash.) Electric 
Company, and trainmen of the company, planned for the 
campaign of education to prevent accidents, was held at the 
Fremont barn on June 21, 1910. A. L. Kempster, superin- 
tendent of transportation; Geo. Carson, C. M. Carter, J. M. 
Wilmot, C. F. Young and Gustave Newberg, of the claim 
department; G. A. Richardson, assistant superintendent of 
transportation, and J. E. Allison, superintendent of employ- 
ment, all addressed the meeting. 

Arbitration in Connecticut. — The sessions of the board of 
arbitrators which is to consider the questions of wages and 
terms of service of the employees of the Connecticut Com- 
pany are to be held in the County Court House at New 
Haven. They will be begun on July 9, 1910, at 10 a. m., and 
will lie open to the public. The men will present their case 
first. As previously stated, the members of the board of 
arbitration are Clarence Deming, David E. Fitzgerald and 
Judge William S. Case of the Superior Court. Mr. Deming 
was selected by the company, Mr. Fitzgerald by the men, 
and Judge Case by Mr. Deming and Mr. Fitzgerald. 

Complaint by Electric Railway Against Steam Railroad 
Sustained. — In the complaint brought by the Wilkes-Barre 
& Hazleton Railway, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., against the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad regarding rates on coal the commission is 
of the opinion that "the rate of 40 cents per ton on anthra- 
cite buckwheat coal from Jeddo No. 4 Colliery via the 
Ebervale branch to the Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Railway 
Junction, a distance of 5.9 miles, as compared with the rate 
of 30 cents per ton from the same originating point on the 
same commodity to Hazleton via Lumber Yard, a distance 
of 8.7 miles, is unreasonable." The commission therefore 
recommends that the Lehigh Valley Railroad shall not here- 
after charge a higher rate from Jeddo No. 4 Colliery to the 
Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Railway Junction than is charged 
from the same colliery on the same commodity to Hazleton. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

Wages and Terms of Service in Toronto. — After consider- 
ing the questions of terms of service and pay since May 
16, 1910, the representatives of the employees of the To- 
ronto (Ont.) Railway and the officers of the company are 
unable to agree, and it is probable that the differences will 
be submitted to the conciliation board under the Lemieux 
Act. The company is willing to renew the present agree- 
ment for three years. If any changes are made, however, 
it insists that there shall be no badges for union men; that 
there shall be a reduction in the hours of pay on Sunday; 
that there shall be no guarantee of a 12-hour day; that one 
more new uniform shall be purchased by new men. and 
that if the matter goes to the conciliation board the advisa- 
bility shall be considered of reducing the pay of the em- 
ployees to the scale in force in Montreal, which is 20 cents 
an hour to first-year men and 21 cents an hour thereafter. 
The employees of the Toronto Railway demand 25 cents an 
hour for first-year men and 28 cents an hour thereafter. 

Increase in Wages on Third Avenue Railroad, New 
York. — On June 29, 1910, F. W. Whitridge, receiver of the 
Third Avenue Railroad, addressed the following communica- 
tion to the employees of the Third Avenue system. New 
York, N. Y.. including the Third Avenue Railroad, Union 
Railway, Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery Railroad, 
and the Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & St. Nicholas 
Avenue Railway: "The year ended June 30, 1910, has been 
a prosperous one for this road, and its earnings have ex- 
ceeded my anticipations. This result is due in part to the 
diligence and courtesy of the employees of the road, and I 
am happy to be able to recognize their share in producing 
the prosperity of the company by raising the wages of the 
motormen and conductors 2 cents per hour, after July 1, 
1910. I believe the men of the Third Avenue system — when 
the advantages of the benefit and insurance association are 
considered — are by this increase in pay, put in a better posi- 
tion than any other men engaged in the same business." 

Third Arbitrator Selected in Massachusetts. — E. C. Fos- 
ter and W. P. Hayes, members of the board of arbitration 
selected to decide the question of wages of the employees 
of the New England Investment & Security Company, have 
chosen Charles S. Hamlin, a Boston lawyer, as the third 
member of the tribunal. A preliminary meeting was ar- 
ranged to be held in Mr. Hamlin's offices in Boston, on 
July 5, 1910, at which plans were to be made for continuing 
the conferences. Mr. Hamlin was graduated from Harvard 
in 1883. and later studied at the Harvard Law School and 
at Washington and Lee University. He served as Assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury under President Cleveland and 
represented the United States at the Japanese conference 
in 1897 and in the fur seal fishery cases with Great Britain 
in the same year. In 1905 he was a member of the execu- 
tive committee of the Civic Federation of New England. 
The arbitrators are to meet daily except on Sundays, until 
all the evidence has been presented and the finding reached. 
The finding of the board is to be effective from June 1, 
1910, to June 1, 1911, and both the company and the men 
are to be bound to the terms imposed by the arbitrators. 

Wages Fixed in Yonkers. — Justice Keogh, of the Supreme 
Court, to whom the settlement of the question of the wages 
of the employees of the Yonkers (N. Y.) Railroad was re- 
ferred, has decided that the pay of one-year men should 
be increased to 23 cents an hour, and the pay of all men 
who have worked longer than a year should be increased to 
26 cents an hour. Justice Keogh, in his decision, said: "The 
intelligent and candid statement submitted by the receiver 
has been of great assistance to me in the investigation which 
I have made. I will increase the pay of one-year men to 23 
cents an hour, and I will increase the pay of all the men 
who have worked longer than one year to 26 cents an hour. 
I am adopting the sliding scale of compensation because I 
found it in force on the Yonkers Railroad. I have had 
neither the time nor the evidence to decide between the 
relative merits of the flat rate and the sliding scale rate of 
compensation. I will sign an order accordingly." The 
men demanded a flat rate of wages of 30 cents an hour. 
The course pursued by Leslie Sutherland, receiver of the 
company, following the strike, and the reasons for the sub- 
mission of the matter to Judge Keogh for settlement were 
referred to in the Electric Railway Journal of July 2, 1910, 
page 50. Judge Keogh subsequently made the order ap- 
plicable to the employees of the Westchester Electric Rail- 

Personal Mention 

Mr. Walter L. Weston has been elected president of the 
Tampa-Sulphur Springs Traction Company, Tampa, Fla., to 
succeed Mr. A. R. Swann. 

Mr. Peter O. Knight has been elected vice-president of 
the Tampa-Sulphur Springs Traction Company, Tampa, 
Fla., to succeed Mr. L. Brill. 

Mr. L. E. Woodward has been elected treasurer of the 
Gary & Interurban Railway, Gary, Ind., to succeed Mr. C- 
W. Chase, formerly secretary and treasurer of the com- 
pany, who retains the office of secretary. 

Mr. H. S. Cooper, retiring general manager of the Gal- 
veston (Tex.) Electric Company, was summoned to the car 
house of the company recently at midnight and presented 
with a sold watch and fob as a token of esteem. 

Mr. S. E. Simmons has been appointed superintendent of 
transportation of the Georgia Railway & Electric Company, 
Atlanta, Ga., to succeed Mr. H. N. Hurt, resigned. Mr. 
Simmons was formerly assistant superintendent of trans- 
portation of the company. 

Mr. C. M. Witt has been appointed auditor of the Indian- 
apolis, New Castle & Toledo Railway, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Mr. Witt was formerly connected with the Indiana Union 
Traction Company, Anderson, Ind., which he served for the 
last five years in the mechanical and auditing departments. 

Mr. M. J. Kehoe, superintendent of power in charge of 
operation of the main plant of the Fort Wayne & Wabash 
Valley Traction Company, Fort Wayne, Ind., has also been 
appointed superintendent of the light and power department 
of the company which does the commercial lighting in 
Fort Wayne. 

Mr. C. G. Goodrich, president of the Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company, Minneapolis, Minn., and Mr. G. G. Moore, 
one of the receivers of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric 
Railroad, Highwood, 111., have been retained by Judge 
Grosscup as advisor to assist him in passing on the claims 
of the holders of the securities of the Cicero & Proviso 
Street Railway, Chicago, 111., that the plan for the reor- 
ganization of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company 
does not offer them a fair settlement. The first meeting to 
consider the claims of those interested in the Cicero & 
Proviso Street Railway will be held in Chicago on July 

12, I9IO. 

Mr. W. I. Sturtevant, manager of the Everett Railway, 
Light & Water Company, Everett, Wash., has recently been 
appointed manager of the Seattle-Everett Traction Com- 
pany. Mr. Sturtevant was 
graduated from the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology with the degree of 
electrical engineer in 1901. 
He immediately entered 
the Boston office of Stone 
& Webster. Soon there- 
after he was transferred to 
the Seattle (Wash.) Elec- 
tric Company, with which 
he filled various positions 
for about three years, 
when he was transferred 
to the Paducah Light & 
Power Company, Paducah, 
Ky., as general superin- 

W. I. Sturtevant ten , dent ». c ^ arge of f the 

railway, lighting, steam 

heat and gas departments. Mr. Sturtevant remained in 
Paducah about 18 months, and was then appointed superin- 
tendent of the Pensacola (Fla.) Electric Company, also 
controlled by Stone & Webster. In 1907 Mr. Sturtevant 
was appointed manager of the Everett Railway, Light & 
Water Company, Everett, Wash., in charge of the railway, 
lighting and water systems of Everett. In addition to the 
duties of his office as manager of the Everett Railway, 
Light & Water Company, Mr. Sturtevant will also act as 
manager of the Seattle-Everett Traction Company, which 
operates a high-speed interurban electric railway between 
Everett and Seattle. 

July 9, 1910.] 



Mr. W. A. Carson, general manager of the Evansville 
(Ind.) Railways, who was also recently appointed general 
manager of the Owensboro (Ky.) City Railroad and the 
Henderson (Ky.) Traction Company, was born on October 
4, 1881, on a farm in Shelby County, Indiana. Mr. Carson's 
parents moved to Indianapolis when he was seven years 
old, and he was educated in the schools of that city, and 
was • graduated from the Indianapolis Manual Training 
School in 1901. Mr. Carson immediately took a clerical 
position in the office of the National Automobile Company, 
where he remained more than two years. In December, 
1903, Mr. Carson became associated with the Indianapolis 
& Cincinnati Traction Company, Indianapolis, Ind., as chief 
clerk to Mr. A. A. Anderson, general superintendent of the 
company in charge of operation and construction. This com- 
pany was then operating 28 miles from Indianapolis to 
Shelbyville and constructing 40 miles of single-phase line 
from Indianapolis to Shelbyville. During Mr. Carson's 
connection with the company the Shelbyville line was 
extended 22 miles to Greensburg and changed from 600- 
volt d.c. to 3300-volt a.c, and the Rushville line was extended 
16 miles to Connersville, completing a system of 107 miles. 
Mr. Anderson resigned from the Indianapolis & Cincinnati 
Traction Company in October, 1906, to become general 
manager of the Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Trac- 
tion Company and the Indianapolis & Louisville Traction 
Company, and Mr. Carson accepted the position of assist- 
ant general manager of the Indianapolis, Columbus & 
Southern Traction Company. In October, 1907, an exten- 
sion of the Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction 
Company's lines from Columbus to Seymour was placed 
in operation, and the same month the Indianapolis & Louis- 
ville Traction Company opened its line between Sellersburg 
and Seymour, completing the line between Indianapolis and 
Louisville, 117 miles, and through limited service was 
inaugurated. Mr. Carson remained in the capacity of assist- 
ant general manager of the Indianapolis, Columbus & 
Southern Traction Company until July, 1908, when he was 
appointed general manager of the Evansville Railways, 
which position he still retains. A syndicate composed of 
men interested in the Evansville Railways recently took 
over the Owensboro City Railroad and the Henderson 
Traction Company, and Mr. Carson was appointed general 
manager of both properties. 

The Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway has for several 
years published a descriptive folder of its system for the 
benefit of visitors interested in its engineering and operat- 
ing details. A new edition has recently been brought out, 
showing the latest additions to the rapid transit system, in- 
cluding the Forest Hills elevated extension, and the ex- 
tensions now under way toward Maiden, Everett and East 
Cambridge. The subway now being built by the company 
in the city of Cambridge is also shown, together with the 
subway authorized by law under the south embankment of 
the Charles River in Boston. The folder consists of a 
single sheet, which folds into six 4 l / 2 x 9-in. pages, the first 
page giving a map of the rapid transit system, exclusive of 
surface lines, and illustrating in comprehensive form the 
inter-relations of subways, tunnels and elevated lines. 

The interior of the folder is devoted to a pithy outline 
of the engineering features of the elevated structure, Wash- 
ington Street and East Boston tunnels, Tremont Street sub- 
way, and extensions mentioned above, including dates upon 
which different sections of the rapid transit system were 
opened for traffic, ownership, terms of leases, and distances. 
This is followed by a description of the elevated division, 
covering its organization, routes of trains, operation of 
transfer and ticket systems, rates of wages paid to em- 
ployees, distances on the elevated system, curves and grades, 
details of track construction, signal system, drawbridge, re- 
pair shops, and car equipment details. A list of the num- 
ber and character of elevated cars is given in the folder, 
including construction, tool and wrecking cars used on the 
overhead and tunnel lines. The company owns two electric 
locomotives which are used in shifting cars in its yards, and 
in miscellaneous car and material transportation. The 
folder has been warmly received by technical men visiting 
the elevated system, and also has proved advantageous in 
giving employees a summarized sketch of the more im- 
portant features of the road. 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously 


*Hanford & Summit Lake Railway, Hanford, Cal. — Appli- 
cation for a charter has been filed in California by this com- 
pany to build an electric railway through Grangeville and 
Hardwick, into the Summit Lake region, and to return 
through Lemoore and Armona. The railway, including an 
extension to Laton, will be 15 miles long. Capital stock, 
$15,000. Incorporators: Charles R. Harwick, J. O. Hick- 
man, Geo. C. Ayedelott, Hanford; Ralph W. Heins, Santa 
Cruz, and Clifford McClellan, San Francisco. 

*Alton & Southern Railroad, East St. Louis, 111. — Incor- 
porated in Illinois to build an electric railway from the right 
of way of the Southern Railway, in EiSt St. Louis, to the 
right of way of the St. Louis & Belleville Electric Railway, 
near Louisiana Boulevard. Principal office. East St. Louis. 
Capital stock, $10,000. Incorporators: Arthur V. Davis, 
R. B. Mellon, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Charles M. Hall, Niagara 
Falls, N. Y.; C. B. Fox, Filbert McCulloch, Charles Souder 
and W. H. Hebenstreit, East St. Louis, 111. 

*Cincinnati, Lexington & Licking Valley Railroad, Frank- 
fort, Ky. — Incorporated in Kentucky to build an electric 
railway through Fayette, Pendleton, Kenton and Campbell 
Counties, connecting Lexington and Newport. Capital 
stock, $30,000. Officers: Don G. McVean, Covington, Ky. ; 
R. W. Day, Scranton, Pa.; F. L. Fuller, New York; T. J. 
Foster and W. L. Connell, Scranton, Pa.; R. H. Reese and 
Wade H. Lain, Cynthiana, Ky. 

*Croft Railroad, Alexander, W. Va. — Chartered in West 
Virginia to build a railroad to be operated by steam or elec- 
tricity from a point near Alexander to Zenders Farm. Capi- 
tal stock, $8,000. Incorporators: J. H. Henderson. J. L. 
Kendall, S. A. Kendall and Milton J. Henderson, Pittsburgh; 
J. Gibson Mcllvain, Hugh Mcllvain and W. B. Mcllvain, 


Hot Springs, Ark. — The Little Rock & Hot Springs Elec- 
tric Railway, Little Rock, has asked the City Council for a 
franchise for an extension of its line in South Hot Springs. 

Glendale, Cal. — E. D. Goode, representing the Glendale & 
Eagle Rock Railway, Los Angeles, has been granted a fran- 
chise to build an extension to the northern city limits of 
Glendale. [E. R. J., June 18, '10.] 

Columbia City, Ind. — The Ft. Wayne & Winona Trac- 
tion Company, Ft. Wayne, has been granted a franchise to 
build a railway in Columbia City. This is part of a plan to 
build a proposed 40-mile interurban railway to connect Ft. 
Wayne, Areola, Coesse, Columbia City, Larwell, Pierceton, 
Wooster, Winona and Warsaw. J. A. Barry, Ft. Wayne, is 
interested. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Ft. Wayne, Ind. — The Ft. Wayne & Winona Traction 
Company, Ft. Wayne, has been granted a franchise by the 
Commissioners of Allen County to build a railway through 
Allen County, provided the company completes its pro- 
jected line by January, 1910. This is part of a plan to con- 
nect Ft. Wayne, Areola, Coesse, Columbia City, Larwell. 
Princeton, Wooster, Winona and Warsaw. J. A. Barry and 
E. T. Hoffman are interested. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Lansing, Mich. — The Michigan United Railway, Lansing, 
is planning to secure a franchise from the City Council to 
build a loop on Ottawa Street and Grand Avenue. 

♦Schenectady, N. Y. — Messrs. Angle & Strong, Schenec- 
tady, have asked the Common Council for a franchise to_ 
build a double-track line into Erie, along East Twelfth 
Street to State Street. 

Fostoria, Ohio. — J. D. McDonel, representing the Fos- 
toria & Fremont Electric Railway, has filed an application 
with the Seneca County Commissioners asking for a 25- 
year franchise to build a railway across the public highways. 
This is part of a plan to build a 21-mile electric railway 
from Fostoria to Fremont, via Havens, Burgoon, Kansas 
and Amsden. J. D. McDonel, secretary. [E. R. J., Dec. 
-'5. '09.] 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

Chattanooga, Term. — D. J. Duncan and associates have 
been granted a franchise by the Board of Aldermen to build 
a new street railway in Chattanooga. This is part of a plan 
to build a line over the main valley road from Hamilton 
County Court line to Rhea Springs. [E. R. J., Jan. 29, '10.] 

*Austin, Tex. — C. V. Burkhead, San Antonio, and asso- 
ciates, have been granted a franchise by the City Council 
to build a street railway in South Austin. 

*Spokane, Wash. — The Washington Water Company 
have been granted a franchise to build a railway on Cannon 
Hill to connect with its other lines. 


Helena Street & Interurban Railroad, Helena, Ark. — This 

company has extended its lines four miles from Helena to 
West Helena. 

Selma Street & Suburban Railway, Selma, Ala. — This 
company is said to be considering plans for the extension 
of its line from the northern part of Selma to Summerfiekl, 
a distance of 9 miles. 

*Texarkana, Ark. — W. J. Wood, Jr., is said to be inter- 
ested in promoting an electric railway to connect Texar- 
kana and Hot Springs, via Hope. 

British Columbia Electric Railway, Ltd., Vancouver, 
B. C. — This company will extend its lines to Millside in the 
near future and work on the Lulu Island section will be 
started soon. 

Monterey & Del Monto Heights Electric Railway, Mon- 
terey, Cal. — This company has completed the preliminary ar- 
rangements and construction has been started on its pro- 
jected 4-mile railway to connect Monterey and Del Monte 
Heights. F. M. Fairchild, Oak Street, San Fran- 

cisco, general manager. [E. R. J.. July 24, '09.] 

Oakland (Cal.) Traction Company. — This company is 
building a double-track line and installing sidings along the 
right of way leading to Leona Heights. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — This com- 
pany has opened its Wilmington-Long Beach branch to 
passenger traffic. It has also completed another 12-mile 
section toward Riverside. The company is said to be con- 
sidering plans to build a railway between the Cahuenga 
Valley and the San Fernando Valley, over the Cahuenga 

San Diego, El Cajon & Escondido Railway, San Diego, 

Cal. — This company is reported to have started grading 
preliminary to the construction of its -proposed 65-mile 
electric railway to connect San Diego, La Mesa, El Cajon, 
Bostonia, Lakeside, Morton, San Pasquel, Bernardo and 
Escondido. It is expected to have the line completed within 
a year. G. W. Pursell, San Diego, general manager. 
[E. R. J., Nov. 2, '09.] 

Bridgeport & Danbury Electric Railway, Bridgeport, 
Conn. — The Supreme Court has granted this company per- 
mission to build a railway between Bridgeport and Dan- 
bury. It will also connect Stepney, Monroe. Botsford, Hat- 
tertown, Newtown, Dodgingtown and with the lines of the 
Danbury & Bethel Street Railway, Danbury. Morton Plant, 
New London, Conn., is interested. [E. R. J.. June 11. '10. ] 

Connecticut Company, Bridgeport, Conn. — This company 
has awarded the contract for construction of the extension 
of the Barnum Avenue line from Bridgeport to Stratford 
to Bryan F. Mahan, New London. 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company, Atlanta, Ga. — This 
company has begun rehabilitating its line from East Lake 
Junction to Decatur, so that through cars will be run from 
Atlanta to Decatur. 

Fairburn & Atlanta Railway, Fairburn, Ga. — Grading has 
been completed by this company on its 20-mile line between 
Atlanta and Fairburn, with the exception of a i-mile stretch 
in Fulton and De Kalb Counties. Track-laying will begin 
at once. The company is said to be considering the advisa- 
bility of installing Edison storage battery cars. W. T. 
Roberts, Fairburn, president. [E. R. J., Oct. 2, '09.] 

Egyptian Traction Company, Eldorado, 111. — This com- 
pany has nearly completed preliminary arrangements, capi- 
tal has been obtained and construction will soon start on 
its proposed 100-mile railway from Mt. Vernon, Ind., to 

Murphysboro, 111. T. E. K. Hixon, Eldorado, general man- 
ager. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Waukegan, Rockford & Elgin Traction Company, Pala- 
tine, 111. — This company, it is said, will start construction 
as soon as $100,000 in stock is subscribed for its proposed 
electric railway from Palatine to Lake Zurich and Wau- 
conda, and ultimately to Volo Lake, Pistake Lake and Fox 
Lake. [E. R. J., Oct. 23, '09.] 

Ft. Wayne & Winona Traction Company, Ft. Wayne, 
Ind. — This company, recently incorporated, advises that it 
will start construction as soon as deeds can be secured 
on its proposed 40-mile interurban electric railway to con- 
nect Areola, Coesse, Columbia City, Wochester, Pierceton, 
Winona and Warsau. Officers: J. A. Barry, Ft. Wayne, 
president and treasurer; G. M. Leslie, vice-president, and 
Ralph Barry, secretary. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Muncie & Portland Traction Company, Portland, Ind. — 
This company is said to be considering a plan to extend its 
line eastward from Portland to Celina, via Coldwater and 
Fort Recovery, Ohio. 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Railway & Light Company, 
Cedar Rapids, la. — This company, it is said, will extend its 
line to Muscatine. 

Iowa City (la.) Electric Railway. — This company advises 
that it will start work July 21 on its proposed 4-mile 
railway in Iowa City. Power will be purchased from the 
Iowa City Light Company, and it will operate six cars. 
Capital stock authorized, $100,000. Bonds authorized, $60,- 
000. Officers: J. O. Schulze, president, general manager 
and purchasing agent; J. H. Rober, vice-president, and D. A. 
Reese, secretary and treasurer. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Haverhill & Amesbury Street Railway, Merrimac, Mass. — 
This company has nearly completed the work of rebuilding 
its railway between Haverhill, Merrimac and Amesbury. 

Detroit, Lansing & Grand Rapids Railway, Detroit, 
Mich. — This company has surveyed between Lansing and 
Detroit, and has now started surveys from Brighton to De- 
troit, on its proposed 150-mile railway between Detroit and 
Grand Rapids. It is expected to start work this fall. [E 
R. J., June 18, '10.] 

*Nixa, Mo. — H. M. Wilson and W. H. Schrieber are said 
to be promoting an electric railway to connect Nixa and 

Westchester Northern Railroad, White Plains, N. Y. — 

This company has been authorized by the Public Service 
Commission, Second District, to issue $60,000 par value 
common capital stock. The proceeds are to be used for the 
acquisition of right of way of the company's line. This 
company is one of the subsidiary companies of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, and was recently 
authorized by the commission to construct its line in West- 
chester. The line also extends into Connecticut. [E. R. J., 
June 4, '10.] 

Ohio Electric Railway, Cincinnati, Ohio. — This company 
reports that it expects to build new track between Williams- 
burg and Hamilton, which will make the line from Dayton 
to Hamilton standard construction, above high water, and 
will enable the operation of heavy equipment. 

Central Ohio Promoting Company, Columbus, Ohio. — 
This company is engaged in securing rights of way for its 
proposed 60-mile railway to connect Columbus and Zanes- 
v'llle. James L. Holden, Columbus, president. [E. R. J., 
June 4, '10.] 

Hocking-Sunday Creek Traction Company, Nelsonville, 
Ohio. — This company has recently completed three miles 
of track from Nelsonville. and expects to build to Athens, 
a distance of 13 miles, this summer. 

Johnstown (Pa.") Traction Company. — It is stated that 
this company proposes to extend its main line to New Hope, 
with a branch to the bridge at Washington's Crossing. 

South Dakota Interurban Railway, Centerville, S. D. — 
This company, which expects to build an interurban rail- 
way from Parkston to Bijou Hills, Chamberlain and Sioux 
City, has recently perfected its organization by electing the 
following officers: W. E. Miller, Bijou Hills, president; 
A. F. Grimm, Parkston, vice-president; F. E. Graves, Bijou 
Hills, secretary, and R. W. Thwing, treasurer. [E. R. J., 
Feb. 19, '10.] 

July 9, 1910.] 



Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. — 

This company has been asked by the citizens from Prince 
George and Surry Counties to extend its lines from the 
present terminal at Petersburg to Norfolk. 

Roanoke Street Railway & Electric Company, Roanoke, 

Va. — This company has awarded the contract to Messrs. 
Huggins & Bates for the survey of its entire system. 

Graham (Va.) Electric Railway. — James F. Dudley, presi- 
dent of this company, which was recently chartered to build 
a 2-mile railway from East Graham to West Graham, 
writes that the company is now completing preliminary ar- 
rangements, and it is expected that it will soon receive its 
franchise. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Clarksburg & Weston Electric Railway, Clarksburg, W. 
Va. — Work has been started by this company on the first 
seven-mile section of its proposed 24-miles railway to con- 
nect Clarksburg and Weston. The company is said to have 
purchased three bridges across the Ohio River, from the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. James O. Watson, Fairmont, 
general manager. [E. R. J., June 11, '10.] 

Elkins (W. Va.) Electric Railway. — This company reports 
it will build 7 or 8 miles of track during the next three 
months. P. B. Bloomfield, general manager. 

Middle Island Railroad, Middlebourne, W. Va. — This com- 
pany x recently incorporated, advises that it is making sur- 
veys and that construction will be started in the near future 
on its proposed 60-mile railway to connect Sistersville, Kid- 
well, Middlebourne, Shirley and Clarksburg. It will furnish 
power for lighting. Bonds authorized, $450,000. Officers: 
T. Moore Jackson, Clarksburg, president; I. M. Underwood, 
Middlebourne, vice-president; John F. Shore, Middlebourne, 
secretary and treasurer. [E. R. J., April 9, '10.] 


Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, Ottawa, 111. — This 
company will build a car repair shop 60 ft. x 300 ft., en- 
closing three tracks and an equipment of car-repair tools. 
The structure will be built of brick and steel, and will be 
similar in design to the Decatur shop buildings of the 
Illinois Traction System. 

Union Street Railway, New Bedford, Mass. — This com- 
pany has awarded the contract to H. P. Converse & Com- 
pany, Boston, for building its new car house at New Bed- 
ford. Estimated cost is $156,000. Louis E. Dectrefnps, New 
Bedford, architect. 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway. — This 
company has prepared plans for a large addition to the 
Gates Lane car house in Worcester. 


British Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver, B. C. — 

This company will soon start work upon its new power 
plant in the Chilliwack district, northeast of the Popkum 
Indian reserve. The site of the proposed plant is a 100- 
acre tract. Power to be derived from Jones Lake, 18 miles 
east of Chilliwack, and Chilliwack Lake, 23 miles southeast 
of Chilliwack. The tunnel from Jones Lake is to be 10,200 
ft. long. The tunnel from Chilliwack Lake is to be 14 by 16 
ft. in size and 5% miles long. 

Ohio Electric Railway. Cincinnati, Ohio. — This company 
states it expects to build three new substations between 
Dayton and Richmond and Dayton and Union City and 
connect them with transmission line so as to furnish power 
from the Lindenwald power plant. It has purchased six 
substation equipments from Westinghouse Electric & Man- 
ufacturing Company for the Dayton and Richmond and 
Dayton and Union City divisions. F. A. Healy, secretary. 

Richmond & Henrico Railway, Richmond, Va. — This 
company has awarded the contract to the Babcock & 
Wilcox Company for forged steel boilers for its new power 
house to be erected on Louisiana Street, in Fulton. Esti- 
mated, cost is $10,000. 

Twin City Light & Traction Company, Centralia, Wash. — 
This company, it is said, has let the contract for building a 
power plant to be located 4 miles southeast of Centralia 011 
Coal Creek. Estimated cost of plant is $150,000. 

Elkins (W. Va.) Electric Railway. — This company will 
build a new power station this summer. 1'. B. Bloomfield, 
general manager. 

Manufactures & Supplies 


Calgary (Alta.) Street Railway is said to be planning to 
purchase 12 new cars. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company is understood 
to be in the market for new snow-fighting equipment. 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway, Portland, Ore., 
is said to be considering the purchase of several additional 

Oregon Electric Railway, Portland, Ore., has ordered one 
electric locomotive from the American Locomotive Com- 

San Jose & Santa Clara Railroad, San Jose, Cal., is 

planning to buy several broad-gage cars and other new 

Los Angeles & Redondo Railway, Los Angeles, Cal., is 

building io passenger cars and 20 additional freight cars at 
its shops in Redondo. 

Iowa City (la.) Electric Railway, which expects to begin 
work shortly on a 4-mile street railway in Iowa City, is 
considering the purchase of six cars. 

Charles City Western Railway, Charles City, la., which is 
building a 20-mile line from Charles City, has purchased 
one 55-ft. gasoline motor car from the McKeen Motor Car 

Woodstock & Sycamore Traction Company, Sycamore, 
111., has purchased one 55-ft. gasoline motor car from the 
McKeen Motor Car Company, for use on its line, which is 
now being built between Woodstock and Sycamore. Addi- 
tional cars of this type will be put in service on this line 
when track laying is completed. 

Havana (Cuba) Central Railroad, noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Feb. 26, 1910, as having placed an 
order with The J. G. Brill Company for 10 semi-convertible 
cars, has specified the following details for these cars: 

Length of body 28 ft. Fenders or wheelguards.H. B. 

Over bumpers 38 ft. Gongs Brill Dedenda 

Width over sills. .7 ft. 11^ in. Hand brakes Brill 

Over posts at belt. 8 ft. 2 in. Motors, type and number. 

Body wood GE-67 

Interior trim mahogany Registers International 

Underframe composite Sanders Brill Dumpit 

Bumpers Brill angle iron Seats Hale & Kilburn 

Couplers Brill-Hovey Trolley base Union 

Curtain fixtures Forsyth Trucks, type. 

Curtain material. ... pantasote Brill No. 27-GE 1 


I. R. Nelson & Company, Newark, N. J., have moved 
their headquarters to 85 Columbia Street, Newark, N. J. 

McKeen Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb., has delivered 
two 70-ft. gasoline motor cars to the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific Railroad. 

Crocker-Wheeler Company, Ampere, N. J., has filed an 
amended certificate of incorporation increasing its capital 
^tock from $2,000,000 to $5,000,000. 

Massachusetts Chemical Company, Walpole, Mass., is en- 
larging its plant at Walpole by the addition of buildings 
which will have two and a half acres of floor space. 

Asbestos Protected Metal Company, Canton, Mass., has 
opened an office at 100 Broadway, New York, N. Y. P. M. 
Stewart, formerly building commissioner, is resident man- 

L. R. Pomeroy, assistant to the president of the Safety 
Car & Lighting Company, New York, N. Y., has resigned 
lo become connected with J. G. White & Company, Inc., 
New York, N. Y., as chief engineer of their railway and in- 
dustrial division. 

United States Electric Company, New York, N. Y., an- 
nounces that it has secured the services of W. E. Harkness, 
who has been identified for a number of years with the 
Western Electric Company, New York, N. Y., in the devel- 
opment of train dispatching. Mr. Harkness will devote his 
entire attention to telephone, telegraph and selector equip- 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 2. 

Indian Refining Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, has secured 

for its railway lubrication department the services of Isaac 

B. Connor, formerly with the Galena Signal Oil Company, 
and Adolph J. Varrelmann, formerly connected with the 
Pay-As-You-Enter Car Corporation. Mr. Varrelmann will 
have his headquarters at 30 Church Street, New York, N. Y. 

St. Louis Steel Foundry, St. Louis, Mo., which is owned 
and operated by the Curtis & Company Manufacturing Com- 
pany, has recently completed an extensive addition to its 
steel plant in St. Louis. The new apparatus installed in- 
cludes additional crane and grinding equipment. By the 
addition of this extension the floor space of the plant has 
been increased nearly 100 per cent. 

S. K. Elliott Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio, on 
July 1 discontinued the sale of Westinghouse generators, 
motors, etc., and has taken up the sale of apparatus manu- 
factured by the Fort Wayne Electric Works, Fort Wayne, 
Ind. The line of apparatus manufactured by the Fort 
Wayne Works covers all sizes of a.c. and d.c. generators, 
motors, switchboards, transformers, etc. 

George E. Austin Company, New York, N. Y., has 
been appointed export representative for the following 
manufacturers: Cleveland Rubber Works of the Mechanical 
Rubber Company, Eureka Tempered Copper Works, Sam- 
son Cordage Works, American General Engineering Com- 
pany, Imperial Rubber Company, Massachusetts Chemical 
Company, Macomber-Whyte-Moon Company and A. W. 
Chesterton & Company. 

Lord Manufacturing Company, Lord Electric Company 
and Lord Construction Company, New York, N. Y., are 
taking contracts for lighting installations for amusement 
parks, railway shops and factories. In these contracts the 
companies are supplying their Luminator flaming arc 
lamp, which gives a very brilliant light, and when hung at 
a sufficient height above the ground makes an even, pleasing 
glow. The ability of these companies to take contracts of 
this kind and to supply and install- equipment complete has 
proven of interest to many large operators. 

Edgar Allen American Manganese Steel Company, Chi- 
cago, 111., has purchased the Chicago Heights plant of the 
American Brake Shoe & Foundry Company, devoted to the 
manufacture of manganese steel castings. The Edgar Allen 
American Manganese Steel Company has a similar plant at 
New Castle, Del. The Chicago Heights plant employs 500 
men, and extensions under consideration will more than 
double the force. Stockholders of the American Brake Shoe 
& Foundry Company are represented in the directorate of 
the new company and in the personnel of its officers. Edgar 
Allen & Company, Ltd., Chicago, 111., and Sheffield, England, 
have also become identified with the corporation. The 
Edgar Allen American Manganese Company was incor- 
porated in Maine, with an authorized capital of $3,000,000. 
The company's Chicago office is in the McCormick Building, 
193 Michigan Avenue. The directors are: R. Ortmann, 
president; J. B. Terbell, J. C. Ward, Otis H. Cutler, Joseph 

C. Gallagher. J. C. Ward is also a director of Edgar Allen 
& Company, Ltd., Sheffield, England, and is general man- 
ager of its American business. 

Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis., has elected 
David Van Alstyne vice-president in charge of manufac- 
ture, with headquarters at Milwaukee. Mr. Van Alstyne 
was born in Louisville, Ky., on June 14, 1865, and was 
graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
in 1886. He became a machinists' apprentice on the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad, and was connected with that 
railroad for eight years, during which time he served in 
various capacities. For three and a half years he was en- 
gaged in the foundry business in Louisville, after which he 
was for one year master mechanic on the Louisville. Hen- 
derson & St. Louis Railroad. In 1899 Mr. Van Alstyne 
entered the service of the Chicago Great Western Railroad 
as a division master mechanic, but was shortly afterward 
made superintendent of motive power, remaining in that 
position until May, 1904, when he accepted a position as 
mechanical superintendent on the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road. In 1907 he was elected vice-president in charge of 
manufacture of the American Locomotive Company. Dur- 
ing the past few months Mr. Van Alstyne has been retained 
in a consulting capacity for a Western railroad. 

National Electrical Manufacturing Company, Elgin, 111., 

has issued a folder describing and illustrating the National 
crossing signal for electric railways. 

Edison Storage Battery Company, Orange, N. J., has 
issued a leaflet calling attention to the Edison storage bat- 
tery for ignition and lighting purposes. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., has 
issued a 48-page catalog describing briefly many of the 
graphite products which it manufactures. 

Chicago Concrete Machinery Company, Chicago, 111., has 
issued a 40-page catalog illustrating and describing the 
various types of Chicago mixers which it manufactures. 

Cairnduff Automatic Register Company, Syracuse, N. Y., 
has issued an illustrated folder which contains a compre- 
hensive description of its automatic register step. The 
Cairnduff system is applicable to prepayment cars. 

American Mason Safety Tread Company, Boston, Mass., 
has issued a booklet describing Karbolith flooring. In con- 
nection with the booklet, the company is mailing samples 
of the approximate shade of its No. 50 red Karbolith. 

Uehling Instrument Company, Passaic, N. J., has pub- 
lished a series of pamphlets, among which is one devoted 
to a description of the Uehling gas composimeter^ and 
another describing the Uehling pneumatic pyrometer. ' 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., describes 
in Bulletin 4739 the Mazda tungsten filament incandescent 
lamp, which gives three times as much light as a carbon 
filament lamp with the same consumption of energy. 

Alexander Milburn Company, Baltimore, Md., has is- 
sued a 48-page catalog, in which are described and illus- 
trated the various sizes of Milburn portable acetylene lights 
which it manufactures. This type of light is constructed to 
meet the demands for contractors, railways, tunnels, steam 
shovels, etc. 

Electric Service Supplies Company, Philadelphia, Pa., in 

the "Keystone Traveler" for July discusses the merits of its 
"Pay-Within" type car. Many of the company's specialties 
are also described, among them the lock-on controller 
handle, Garton-Daniels lightning arrester, protected rail 
bond, the automotoneer, Keystone compound, International 
fare register, and the Lyon reinforced steel gear case. 

Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, Mass., 
has reprinted in booklet form an article entitled "The 
Wages of Faith," which appeared in the Stone & Webster 
Public Service Journal of October, 1909. The article contains 
deductions from correspondence with several engineers and 
employers of contractors regarding forms of construction 
contracts. The company has also published a booklet which 
contains a record of construction contracts completed or in 
progress during the second quarter of 1910, with classifica- 
tions, locations and totals. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, calls attention to 
several features of its new No. 8 and "H" catalogs. The 
first contains a number of new and improved devices on 
electric line material, such as a rigid cross-over; small por- 
celain insulators; feeder wire splicer; mechanical feeder; 
wire strain clamp; track drill; bond compressor; two types 
of third-rail insulators; sander valve; sand trap; O-B elec- 
tric car signal system, and Tomlinson couplers and acces- 
sories. Catalog "H," on steam specialties, lists a pres- 
sure regulating valve which is said to be meeting with 
great success; also gage cocks, water gages, and various 
lines of ordinary valves. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has reprinted in full Judge Cross' opinion filed 
in the United States Circuit Court, District of New Jersey, 
May 24, 1910, in the split motor frame case involving the 
Schmidt patent No. 609,977, in which the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company was complainant and 
the Allis-Chalmers Company defendant, and the order on 
the motion for a preliminary injunction filed on June 6, 
1910, in the United States Circuit Court, Southern District 
of Ohio, Western Division, involving the Lange and Lamme 
patent No. 518,693, in which the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company was complainant and the Cincin- 
nati, Milford & Loveland Traction Company defendant. 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Vol. XXXVI. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 16, 1910 No. 3 


McGraw Publishing Company 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 
James H. McGraw, President. 
Hugh M. Wilson, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President. 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. 
Associate Editors: 
Rodney Hitt, Frederic Nicholas, Walter Jackson. 
News Editors: 
G. J. MacMurray, Frank J. Armeit. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 

For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere: United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per 
year. Single copies, 10 cents. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our 
European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 


Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 1010, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal, 8500 copies 
are printed. 



Rail Wear in the New York Subway 99 

Track Department Equipment 99 

Shortening Delays in Interurban Service 99 

Exactitude in Legislation 100 

Loading Speed of Prepayment Cars 100 

The Committee Report on Wages and the Prices of Commodities 101 

The 1200-Volt D. C. Interurban Lines of the Milwaukee Railway & 

Light Company 102 

Interline Baggage 108 

Another Volume of Third Avenue Railroad Correspondence 109 

Report of the Committee of Fifty 111 

Boston & Eastern Hearings Resumed 115 

Hearing by Alassachusetts Commission on South Framingham Fares.. 1 1 =; 

Preparation of Plans for Chicago Subway 116 

Meeting of Joint Committee on Shop Accounting 117 

Change in Exhibit Space at Atlantic City 117 

Meeting of the Committee on Buildings and Structures 117 

Construction Progress of the Rock Island Southern Railroad 117 

A New Self -Feed Rip Saw 118 

New Mechanical Switch Throw at Decatur 118 

Pay-As-You-Enter Cars for Syracuse 119 

A Pressed-Steel Heater 119 

Oklahoma Combination Interurban Car 120 

Gasoline Car foi Rogue River Valley Railway 121 

Electric Switching Locomotive 121 

Portable Electric Hoists for Rental 121 

News of Electric Railways 122 

Financial and Corporate 124 

Traffic and Transportation 126 

Personal Mention 128 

Construction News 129 

Manufactures and Supplies 131 

Rail Wear in the New York Subway 

The New York subway has been in operation only five and 
one-half years, but every one of the Bessemer steel rails orig- 
inally laid has been worn out and replaced. On curves the rails 
last less than six months in spite of liberal superelevation. For 
the last three years open-hearth steel rails have been used for 
all replacements and it is interesting to note that a much longer 
life is being obtained with them than formerly was obtained 
with Bessemer rails. The open-hearth rails, however, are no 
more free from corrugation than the Bessemer rails, and many 
peculiar examples of this mysterious phenomenon have been 
noted on both straight and curved track. The longer life of the 
open-hearth rails no doubt is due to the greater hardness ob- 
tained with 70 to 75 points of carbon, but this hardness does not 
prevent corrugation. An order for 100 tons of rolled man- 
ganese steel rails for use on curves has recently been placed and 
it will be interesting to learn whether corrugations are found 
on the surface of these rails as quickly and as sharply defined 
as on the hard and soft carbon steel rails which they will re- 

Track Department Equipment 

Because the track department handles only heavy, rough 
material its equipment of work cars and tools is often supplied 
from the odds and ends of the other departments and is al- 
lowed to deteriorate to a shocking degree of dilapidation. The 
result is invariably reflected in the labor costs and the intangible 
expense due to delays to regular cars. A powerful work car, 
well built and well maintained, is an invaluable tool. It saves 
time in transporting men and material and can be depended 
upon to get to a designated point and get back without holding 
up traffic. Tf equipped with a motor-driven crane it can be used 
for many operations which otherwise would require a large 
gang of men. A piece of special work, for example, can be set 
with a crane by four men in as many minutes, whereas 15 or 20 
men might be required to lift and place it. Counting their time 
from the beginning to the end of the operation, not less than 
half or three-quarters of an hour would be taken. Only a few 
jobs of this kind are needed during a working season to save 
in cost the interest on the investment in the car. Economical 
maintenance of track requires efficient tools just as much as 
economical maintenance of cars requires adequate shop facilities. 

Shortening Delays in Interurban Service 

It is not easy to discover new aspects of the problem of 
delays in interurban service, but repeated observation of the 
handling of through cars over routes occupied by several com- 
panies forces attention upon the importance of making crew 
changes quickly at system boundaries. The cost of time lost 
in this way in the course of a few weeks on a busy system is 
by no means inconsiderable. Where the volume of traffic war- 
rants the maintenance of a starter at the junction of roads 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 

forming part of a through route much good can be accom- 
plished in the way of minimizing the length of stops while 
crews are changed. With proper discipline every man will be 
on the alert to take his car at the required time; the starter 
or other designated employee will take register readings imme- 
diately after the stop is made, and there will be no discussion 
and perhaps telephoning to headquarters to determine who is 
to make specified runs. The establishment of rules stating 
precisely what each man is to do in changing cars will help to 
minimize delays, and in some cases the plan of requiring the 
-crew which arrives early to meet the on-coming car at the first 
stop beyond the system terminus might work out advantageous- 
ly, since the starter could watch the car which had arrived 
while the crew was losing no time in waiting for passengers 
to enter and leave the car which is due. The main point, 
kowever, is to get rid of the discussion and delays in getting 
upon the platforms when the moment for the crew change ar- 
rives. Better team work is possible in countless instances. 
Another possible source of speed improvement is in operating 
the car with full multiple controller service to a safe distance 
inside the urban system, instead of cutting in the half-speed 
•commutating switch at the system boundary. Sharper work on 
branch lines is also desirable, not only for its own sake, but 
because it tends to reduce the waits of main line cars for con- 
nections. The car with the shorter run should be the one to do 
most of the waiting. 

Exactitude in Legislation. 

A lesson in the elementary principles of law making was 
recently read to Congress by the Court of Appeals of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. As the occasion of the lecture related to 
street railway service and as the legislation criticised was of 
that slovenly character which is passed not infrequently in 
State as well as in national capitals, it should be of interest to 
companies elsewhere. About two years ago Congress enacted 
a law requiring the street railway companies in the District of 
Columbia "to give expeditious passage to all persons desiring to 
use the cars, without crowding the cars." It authorized the 
Interstate Commerce Commission to make all needful rules, to 
compel obedience with this law, and imposed a fine of not more 
than $1,000 a day as a penalty to a violation of either the act 
itself or of the regulations of the commission based upon it. 
Although the Interstate Commerce Commission issued no 
regulations of the kind authorized, the United States Attorney 
for the District of Columbia brought suit under the law against 
both of the principal companies in Washington, alleging that 
the cars were being unlawfully overcrowded. But as the court 
clearly pointed out, a condition which one judge or jury might 
consider crowded, another might think should not come under 
that definition, so that the act was void on account of its 
vagueness and uncertainty. This principle of law was re- 
iterated by the court in a large variety of ways, a fact which 
is refreshing in these days of general legislation and con- 
demnation. Thus the court said : "In a criminal statute, the 
elements constituting the offense must be so clearly stated and 
defined as to reasonably admit of but one construction. Other- 
wise, there would be lack of uniformity in its enforcement. 
The dividing line between what is lawful and unlawful can not 
be left to conjecture. The citizen cannot be held to answer 
charges based upon penal statutes whose mandates are so 
uncertain that they will reasonably admit of different construc- 
tions. A criminal statute can not rest upon an uncertain foun- 

dation. The crime, and the elements constituting it, must be 
so clearly expressed that the ordinary person can intelligently 
choose, in advance, what course it is lawful for him to pursue. 
Penal statutes prohibiting the doing of certain things, and pro- 
viding a punishment for their violation, should not admit of 
such a double meaning that the citizen may act upon one con- 
ception of its requirements and the courts upon another." Evi- 
dently the court thought that this axiom in penal legislation 
was not thoroughly understood and wished to drive the lesson 
home. As to the question as to whether the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission had the power to supply what the statute 
lacked, the court declined to say. No such regulations had been 
passed and the question was not up for adjudication. 


The widespread acceptance of the prepayment principle of 
fare collection has caused a complete re-equipment of many 
types of old cars. Practically all of the companies which 
have purchased new prepayment cars have added various 
fittings to their older equipments with a view of obtaining 
greater receipts and lessened accidents. In various instances 
these changes have brought about a reduction in car-hours, be- 
cause the more orderly handling of passengers has shortened 
the time required for loading. In other instances local condi- 
tions have been thought to be of such moment as to warrant 
considerable variation from platform designs found to be 
satisfactory elsewhere, and the cars, while giving better re- 
sults than before re-equipment, have not gained the success 
that was expected with them. 

At first, long platforms were thought to be a necessary fea- 
ture of successful prepayment operation. Figures now avarl- 
able show that within certain limits the length of the platform 
exercises only a slight influence on the speed of loading and 
is effective only during the rush-hour periods when the 
progress of the car is so delayed by other causes that fast 
schedules could not be attained in any event. On the other 
hand, short platform cars weigh less per seat and cost less to 
move than long-platform cars, so that their economy during 
the hours of light travel should be considered in connection 
with any slowness of schedule during rush hours. 

Some interesting testimony upon the effect of width of en- 
trance upon loading time with the prepayment type of car has 
recently been adduced from tests of several types of prepay- 
ment cars now operated in Chicago. The observations were 
made in the congested retail section of the city during the 
evening rush hours, and the loading time per passenger was 
obtained by noting the total time required for all passengers 
to board 100 succeeding cars at one street intersection, and 
dividing this total by the number of passengers. 

The car with the widest passenger entrance in Chicago is 
the new type of pay-as-you-enter equipment of the Chicago 
Railways Company, having a clear space of 40 in. between the 
vestibule post and the dividing stanchion at the top of the rear 
step. The average time required for passengers to board this 
type of car was 1.05 seconds. The new pay-as-you-enter cars of 
the Chicago City Railway have a similar entrance, 34^2 in. 
wide, and the count showed that the average loading time with 
this narrower entrance was 1.15 seconds per passenger. The 
latter company has rebuilt some older cars without lengthen- 
ing the platforms and these cars have pay-as-you-enter en- 

July 16, 1910.] 



trances 22J4 in- wide. A count showed that 1.66 seconds were 
required for each passenger to board one of these cars. That is 
to say, the speed of loading is by no means proportional to the 
width of entrance. This condition is of course due to the fact 
that but one passenger can enter the car at a time with either 
the largest or the smallest entrance. 

The Chicago Railways Company, before the completion of its 
rehabilitation, operated about 400 double-end, vestibuled closed 
cars of the St. Louis type with open platforms. The average 
time required for a passenger to board one of these cars was 
0.92 seconds and this low figure was obtained because both 
ends of the car were thrown open at all stops. The difference 
in loading time per passenger, however, between the old go-as- 
you-please method and the prepayment method with the 40-in. 
entrance is only 0.13 seconds per passenger, so that the new cars 
are not at a great disadvantage, certainly not so great as to over- 
weigh the advantages which the new type offers in the way of 
better fare collection and less platform accidents, to say noth- 
ing about comfort to passengers. These comparisons may be 
useful to those companies which are hesitating about adding 
prepayment features to old equipment. 


Part I, containing 138 pages, of the report of the select com- 
mittee of the Senate on wages and the prices of commodities 
has just been made public. This committee was appointed last 
February with Senator Lodge of Massachusetts as chairman 
and statements relating to its hearings have occupied consider- 
able space in the daily papers since that date. A summary of 
the findings of the committee was published about two weeks 
ago but the report now at hand contains some very interesting 
statements. The subject is of special interest to electric railway 
companies because an increase in wages and in the prices of 
commodities is synonymous with a decrease in the purchasing 
power of the fare received from each passenger. 

It seems, from the report of the committee, that the advance 
in prices has been world-wide, although farm and food prod- 
ucts have advanced more rapidly in price than have manufac- 
tured articles. The advance in prices for commodities has been 
more rapid since 1900, however, in the United States than in 
the other countries from which statistics were obtained by the 
committee, except possibly in Canada and Russia. This is ex- 
plained partly on the theory that the prices in most European 
countries, especially in England, were at a higher level 10 years 
ago than in this country. A further analysis of the prices of 
materials in the United States shows that farm products have 
advanced in price twice as much in percentage as any other 
group of commodities. 

Wages have not advanced as rapidly as the prices of com- 
modities, but they have increased more rapidly in the United 
States than in European countries. In fact, in some European 
countries, practically no advance has been made in wages dur- 
ing the 10 years under consideration. Moreover, wages have 
not advanced in the United States as rapidly in proportion as 
food prices, with the exception of the wages of farm hands 
which the committee found had increased from 45 to 75 per 
cent during the period from 1900 to 1910. This increase, of 
course, has been an important factor in the increase of the 
price of food, but it is by no means the only one. The selling 
price of farm lands seems to have doubled on the average 

Two or three decades ago the richest of land could be secured 
from the Federal Government for a merely nominal cost, but 
the supply of governmental land suitable for general farming 
is now largely exhausted. The richness of the virgin soil is 
also disappearing and the fertility of the land can be main- 
tained only by the use of expensive fertilizers. Other causes 
which have tended to increase the cost of farm products are 
better financial facilities in the agricultural districts which en- 
able the producers to market to better advantage than formerly, 
higher standards of living in agricultural districts, pure food 
laws, local sanitary and other regulations, etc. The increased 
costs of production of farm products, however, would not have 
been sufficient to create the conditions of sale prices found by 
the committee if the demand for farm products had not also 
increased rapidly, in fact more rapidly than the supply. 

The committee did not consider that the tariff had any ma- 
terial effect on the situation, because the groups of articles 
which have shown the greatest advances are those for which 
there has been no change in tariff during the past ten years. 
The same cannot be said, however, of industrial combinations. 
While the prices of many of the trust-produced commodities 
have not advanced as rapidly as those of other commodities, 
the community in most cases has not enjoyed the benefit of the 
economies of production and distribution afforded by combina- 
tion, and the conditions of purchase have been made more 
arduous. Undoubtedly the increased gold supply has been an 
element in the increased prices, but to what extent it is difficult, 
if not impossible, to determine. Immigration is also held to 
have been an important factor in increasing the cost of food. 
During the last ten years over 8,000 000 immigrants arrived in 
the United States, but of this enormous number only a very 
small per cent entered agricultural pursuits. Instead, practically 
all engaged in industrial work, so that instead of becoming 
producers of food they have become consumers. 

A study of the report as thus far issued does not hold out 
any encouragement of a material reduction in prices. Each of 
the factors of importance mentioned by the committee, so far 
as present indications and prospects go, seems to be of a per- 
manent character. Some improvement can be made probably 
in scientific farming, but reductions in costs thereby effected 
would undoubtedly be more than counterbalanced by other 
conditions which will have the effect of increasing prices. 
It is natural to expect that there will be fluctuations in the cost 
of commodities in the future just as there have been in the 
past, but the general trend is undoubtedly upward. 

Those most severely affected by any increase in costs are 
those whose income remains upon a basis fixed by previous 
conditions of a higher purchasing power of the standard of 
value. This class is by no means confined to investors whose 
income is derived from bonds and mortgages, but includes 
many corporations, notably city transportation companies. The 
condition of these latter can be improved, indeed must be im- 
proved, if they are to serve properly the communities where 
they exist. In the latter sixties aand early seventies, when 
prices were on an inflated paper basis and gold was at a pre- 
mium, the standard fare on most street railways was 6 cents. 
Revision should not always be downward, and with the much 
longer ride now given for a single fare and with prices for 
labor and materials higher than at any period in the last 20 
years, it is time that some step should be taken either to revert 
to the old rate or in some other way to increase the receipts 
so as to compensate for the increased cost of operation. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 



The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company besides 
its extensive city service of street railways, lighting and other 
public utilities owns and operates the more important inter- 
urban roads radiating from Milwaukee. It also furnishes both 
light and power for most of the towns served by these inter- 
urban lines. The size and importance of the system will be 
appreciated by studying the accompanying map, Fig. 1. 

Fig. 1 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Map 

The interurban lines to be dealt with in the present article 
traverse remarkably beautiful sections of Wisconsin which are 
rich in lakes, rivers and other attractions which makes the 
summer schedule very severe at certain times, although gener- 
ally speaking the country through which the roads pass is 
sparsely populated. 

The three most important interurban roads are those running 
to Watertown, East Troy and Burlington. Of these lines those 
sections between Waukesha Beach and Watertown, between 
St. Martins and East Troy and between St. Martins and Bur- 
lington, were formerly operated with a 3300-volt single-phase 
trolley but they have now been changed over for 1200-volt d.c. 
operation. In addition the track between West Allis and St. 
Martins will be operated by 1200 volts in the near future and 
it is likely that the 1200-volt trolley will be adopted between 
Waukesha Beach and West Allis. 

The following distances will show that at present there are 
67.99 miles of road operating with the 1200-volt system : 

waukee, one at Oneida Street and the other at Commerce 
Street; the third source is derived from the new hydraulic 
development of the Southern Wisconsin Power Company at 
Kilbourn which is about 70 miles from Watertown and over 
120 miles from Milwaukee. Overhead transmission lines serve 
all of the interurban roads, while the energy is transmitted to 
and from Milwaukee and West Allis underground at 13,200 

At present the tension of the system is 38,100 volts, but when 
some additions at present under way have been completed the 
transformer connections will be changed from delta to Y and 

Fig. 3 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Interurban Car 

the potential will be raised to 66,000 volts at three-phase, 25- 
cycles. The 1200-volt d.c. substations that affect the inter- 
urban divisions now under consideration are as follows: For 
the Watertown road, at Watertown and Waukesha Beach and 
for the East Troy and Burlington roads, at East Troy, Bur- 
lington and West Allis. Feeders are strung on the trolley 
poles for the entire length of the interurban lines and are 
tied to the trolley wire at suitable intervals. 


The initial rolling stock for service on these interurban 
roads consists of 30 cars, 25 passenger and five utility cars. 
Fifteen of these cars are new at the present date and were 
manufactured by the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and are equipped with GE-207 motors. The 16 
other passenger cars were constructed by the St. Louis Car 
Company and are now equipped with GE-205 motors, whereas 
they formerly had single-phase apparatus. The remaining five 
cars used as utility rolling stock have GE-205 motors. 

Fig. "2 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Plan of Interurban Car 

Waukesha Beach to Watertown 27.42 miles, St. Martins to 
East Troy 20.75 miles, St. Martins to Burlington 19.82 miles. 
It is also of interest to note that the distance between Mil- 
waukee and Waukesha Beach is 23.86 miles, Milwaukee and 
Watertown 51.28 miles, Milwaukee and St. Martins 15.07 miles, 
West Allis and St. Martins 7.25 miles and' West Allis and Mil- 
waukee 7.82 miles. 


There are three main sources of power feeding into the 
transmission system. These are the two power houses in Mil- 

The electrical equipments of all these cars are so similar, 
being all four motor equipments, that they can be described col- 
lectively after the different ratings of the GE-205 and GE-207 
motors have been stated. The former is a 75-hp unit, while 
the rated capacity of the latter is 125 hp. Both motors are 
of the General Electric commutating pole type and are de- 
signed for operation on both 600-volt and 1200-volt trolleys. 
The GE-207 equipments are furnished with 60-tooth split gears 
and 22-tooth steel pinions, while the GE-205 equipments have 
gears with 53 teeth and pinions with 21 teeth, giving gear 

July 16, 1910.] 



ratios of 3.05 and 2.525 respectively. The motors are connect- 
ed two in series when running on 1200 volts. 

The control is the type "M," non-automatic design. As is 
usual with this type of equipment a dynamotor is used to sup- 
ply current at 600 volts for the control and lighting circuits 
during 1200-volt operation. In this instance the compressor 

Fig. 4 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Interior of Interurban 


motor is insulated for 1200 volts and is run on both voltages 
with a decreased speed on 600 volts. The eommutating switch 
is placed under the car and is operated from either end by a 
lever in the motorman's cab. This switch has a dual func- 
tion ; first, it changes the motor connections from series to 
series-parallel during 1200-volt operation and from series- 

The balance of the electrical equipments is substantially 600- 
volt apparatus with additional insulation to withstand the 
greater electrical potential. The current is collected by a 
standard type of trolley pole and wheel and passes through a 
circuit breaker, contactors, reverser and eommutating switch to 
the motors. This circuit breaker, the contactors and re- 
versers are electrically operated and as stated are of standard 
600-volt construction. 

The car bodies of the 15 new cars have many features of 
special interest. Fig. 2 shows a plan from which it will be 
noticed that the arrangement is somewhat unusual. In gen- 
eral the two ends are symmetrical, the rear compartment al- 
ways being used as a smoking compartment and the front 
serving for seating passengers and taking baggage when there 
is any to be handled. This front compartment is practically 
an observation end. These cars are of the semi-steel type. The 
deep plate side sills are girders and form the principal mem- 
bers of the underf raining which extends from side door to 
side door on both sides of the car. There are- no bulkheads in 
the car, the load of the car ends being carried by 4-in. channel 
center sills and two diagonal trusses constructed of 4-in. I- 
beams. All the other smaller members of the underf raining 
are steel. 

The floor is a composition laid on Keystone galvanized iron 
flooring. The surface of this composition is -Ms-in. above the 
iron flooring and covers the entire floor and platforms. It 
somewhat resembles cement in appearance. The covers of 
the motor trap doors are filled with the same composition. 
The more important data concerning these cars are as follows : 

Length over all 53 ft. 5 in. 

Length over corner posts 40 ft 

Extreme width 8 ft. 7 in. 

Height from rail over roof boards 11 ft. 6 in. 

Distance between truck centers 28 ft. 4 in. 

Weight of car body and trucks 48,000 lb. 

Total weight 80,000 lb. 

Seating capacity 64 


Type Brill M. C. B. 

Wheel base 6 ft. 1 in. 

Diameter of wheel 36 in. 

Weight, exclusive of motor 14,000 lb. 

Fig. 5 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Motor Car and Three Trailers 

parallel to parallel during 600-volt operation, thereby giving 
full speed at both voltages ; second, it transfers the auxiliary 
circuits (excepting the compressor circuit) from the trolley 
to the 600-volt tap of the dynamotor during T2oo-volt operation 
and vice-versa during 600-volt operation. 

Figs. 3, 4, and 5 show respectively the exterior of one of 
these cars, an interior view and a car hauling three trailers. 


The substation at Watertown is situated on the banks of -the 
Rock River and besides housing the 1200-volt railway appar- 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 

atus it contains two frequency changer sets for the lighting 
and power business of Watertown ; in addition to these ma- 
clines there is one 300-kw generator driven by a hydraulic 
turbine to take care of the day lighting and power load of 
Watertown. Fig. 6 is an interior view of this substation, show- 
ing the railway apparatus in the foreground and the frequency 
changer sets and water wheel unit in the background. 

Fig. 6 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Interior of Watertown 

The West Allis substation is very large. It takes care of 
both city lighting and 600-volt city railway apparatus, and also 
contains apparatus for generating" current at 1200 volts for 
the system being described. The energy from Kilbourn is re- 
ceived over the transmission line and transformed by six 2000 
kva 66, coo-volt, 13,200-volt O-I-W-C transformers, Figs. 7 
and 10 are two exterior views of the West Allis substation ami 
in the latter it will be seen that car house and office facilities 
are provided under the same roof. 

The Waukesha Beach substation and those at East Troy and 
Burlington, are typical 1200-volt substations. Their layout and 
functions are the same with the one exception that at Wau- 
kesha Beach 6oo^volt current is fed in the direction of West 
Allis and 1200-volt current towards Watertown. Both the 600- 
volt and 1200-volt feeders are fed from the same rotary con- 
verters, which are connected in series. As these three substa- 
tions are practically identical in design and are used solely for 
railway work, one description will cover all of them. Fig. 8 

Fig. 8 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Exterior of Burlington 
and Waukesha Substations 

shows the exterior of the Burlington and Waukesha Beach sub- 
station. The building is of very neat design and is construct- 
ed of cream-colored brick with concrete floors. Fig 9 shows a 
plan of the East Troy and Burlington substation, while Fig. n 
gives sectional views which apply to all three substations. 

This latter illustration with but slight modification would also 
apply to the Waukesha Beach substation. Figs. 12 to 15 are in- 
terior views of the Waukesha Beach substation. The buildings 
are each divided into a high tension compartment and a ma- 
chine compartment. The former contain the lightning arresters 
and oil switches, etc., is very roomy and provides ample spac- 
ing between all high tension leads. 

The leads from the high tension transmission line are 
brought into the substation through- vertical roof bushings in 
the high tension compartment roof and pass through double- 
throw, triple-pole switches, then through choke coils, K-10 
automatic oil switches and disconnecting switches to the pri- 
maries of the transformers. The secondaries of these trans- 
formers are double. The leads from the secondaries go 'to the 
reactances and thence to the collector rings of the rotary con- 
verters. The rotaries are 600-volt machines connected in series 
to give 1200 volts for the trolley. The lightning arresters are 
tapped from the high tension leads immediately after they 
have passed the double-throw triple-pole switches. They are 
of the G. E. aluminum cell type and have horn gaps. 

The number of rotary converters and transformers in- 
stalled in each substation is shown in the accompanying table, 
which also gives their capacity. There are three rotaries in the 
Waukesha Beach substation, two of which are connected irt 
series to form a pair giving 1200 volts while the third serves 
as a spare. 


— Rotary-Converters — — Transformers — 
Capacity Capacity 
Number each Number each 

Watertown 4 300 kw 6 200 kw 

West Allis 2 500 kw 6 185 kw 

East Troy 4 300 kw 6 200 kw 

Burlington 4 300 kw 6 200 kw 

Waukesha Beach .... 3 500 kw 9 185 kw 

Xote : There are also two 500-kw rotary converters and six 
185 kw transformers installed in the existing substation at 
West Allis. 


The twelve 300-kw rotary converters are General Electric 

Fig. 7 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line— Exterior of West Allis 

four-pole machines. They run at 750 r.p.m. and have a full 
load direct current of 500 amp. The five 500-kw rotary con- 
verters are six-pole units with a speed of 500 r p.m. and have 
a full load direct current of 834 amp. A number of short cir- 
cuit tests were made in the factory which showed that the ef- 

Fig. 10 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Exterior of West Allis Substation 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 

fects of flashovers on the brush rigging and commutators was 
no more serious than in the case of 600-volt machines. There 
is no tendency to hunt and tiie factory tests also showed that 
these rotaries can stand very severe overloads. 

The potential of each machine is 600 volts and two units are 
connected in series to give the desired 1200 volts. In all es- 
sentials the machines are standard 600-volt units with addi- 

Fig. 12 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Interior of Waukesha 


tional insulation. They are compound wound with the shunt 
fields excited from the individual machine, and the series fields 
of each pair connected in series on the grounded side. Each 
machine is provided with a speed limiting device and a magnetic 
oscillator, while metallic graphite brushes are used on the a.c. 
side, making lubrication unnecessary and decreasing the 
amount of dust from brush and ring wear. The d.c. brush rig- 
gings are all supported from the magnetic frame so that there 
will be no metal around the commutator on which an arc 
could hold should a flash-over occur from a short circuit. The 
projecting ends of the commutator clamping rings are entirely 
insulated and the metal shell and bolts of the collector rings 
which are usually exposed are covered with insulation. 

The reactive coils used with the 300-kw rotary converters 

wound for 38,100 volts when delta-connected and 66,000 volts 
when Y-connected. The secondaries are wound with two dis- 
tinct windings for supplying the rotaries in series, each wind- 
ing giving 370 volts; 50 per cent starting taps are provided in 
the secondary windings. Those transformers are used in con- 
junction with the 300-kw rotary converters, there being three 
single-phase transformers to each pair of rotary converters. 

The nine 185 kw transformers used in conjunction with the 
500-kw rotaries at Waukesha Beach, have the same arrange- 
ment of primaries as above, but the secondaries are wound for 
430 volts and have 1/3 and 2/3 starting taps. The six trans- 
formers installed in the West Allis substation are also single- 
phase, 185-kw units, but the primaries are wound for 13,200 
volts and the secondaries for 430 volts. These secondaries also 
have 1/3 and 2/3 starting taps. 


The high-tension oil switches (see Fig. 13) in all of the 
substations described are of the K-10 type, which is a top- 
connected switch designed for open wiring. It is made up of 
single pole elements and may be operated either by hand or by 
solenoid. This switch requires no masonry cells, each single 
pole element incorporating the advantages of a brick com- 
partment in itself. The oil receptacles which constitute the 
body of the switch are made of steel boiler plates and support 
the switch leads and operating parts. The insulators are of 
the built-up type, having porcelain ends, and intermediate sec- 
tions of a special insulating material with projecting washers 
to give a very large creepage surface. After these insulators 
have been assembled they are filled with compound and are 
clamped and supported separately on iron plates which are in 
turn bolted to the top of the oil tank. This construction 
permits the removal of parts without dismantling the switch. 
The stationary contacts are supported at the bottom of the in- 
sulator and consist of a double set of flared fingers which pre- 
vent pitting at the contact surfaces. A horizontal contact bar 
with wedge-shaped blades closes the circuit. This bar is con- 
nected to the operating mechanism by a series of treated 
wooden rods and in a set of three switches, forming a three- 
phase group ; these liars are in parallel and are operated in a 
vertical direction to open or throw the switch. The drop of 
these contact bars interrupts the circuit, producing a double 
break or two breaks in series in each of the single pole ele- 



Fig. 11 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Sectional View of Typical Substation. (For Plan, See Fig. 9) 

have a capacity of 45 kva and those used with the 500-kw 
machines are 75 kva. They are all oil-cooled and have stand- 
ard starting switches with protecting covers, mounted on the 


The 18-200-kw transformers are General Electric single- 
phase units of the oil-cooled core type with primaries multiple 


The lightning arresters are of the electrolytic type, being 
aluminum cone-shaped plates housed in steel tanks. The tanks 
are of such a capacity as to hold an ample quantity of elec- 
trolyte and oil. Fig. 14 gives an illustration of these lightning 
arresters as installed in the Waukesha Beach substation. The 
three-phase legs are shown with the latest type of high tension 

July 16, 1910.] 


out-door bushings. The horn gaps are placed on the roof of 
the substation just above the ceiling bushings and are operated 
by a rod brought down into the substation. 

The switchboards each consist of five panels, two low ma- 
chine panels, two high machine panels and one 1200-volt feeder 
panel. There is also a swinging bracket. The most important 
items of equipment on the high machine panels are the circuit 


The transmission line from Kilbourn to Watertown is 
owned by the Southern Wisconsin Power Company and was 
constructed to feed the railway system of the Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Company from the hydroelectric develop- 
ment on the Wisconsin River. 

The distance between Kilbourn and Watertown is approxi- 

Figs. 13 to 15 — Milwaukee 1200- Volt Line — Waukesha Beach Oil Switches, Lightning Arresters and Switchboard 

breakers, rheostat hand-wheel and power-factor meter. The 
circuit breakers are mounted on the back of the board and 
barriers are provided to eliminate all clanger of rlashovers ; 
they are operated by handles mounted on the point. The 
equipment of the low machine panels is similar to that of the 
high machine panels, with the exception that a switch is sub- 
stituted for the circuit breaker and an ammeter is provided. 

The 1200-volt feeder panel is equipped with both a circuit 
breaker and a switch with the circuit breaker tripping device 
brought to the front of the board. The swinging bracket is 
furnished with two volt-meters and the sub-bases are provid- 
ed with the wattmeters. Fig. 15 shows a view of one' of these 
switchboards and it will be noted that in this instance the rheo- 

mately 70 miles. At present the potential is 38,100 volts with 
the transformers connected in delta, but eventually connections 
at 66,000 volts will be used. The transmission line is in dupli- 
cate for the entire 113 miles from Kilbourn to West Allis and 
is carried on steel towers between Kilbourn and Waukesha 
Beach, the remainder being carried on wooden poles. The 
steel tower line will extend to West Allis in the near future 
and then the voltage will be raised as explained. Stranded 
copper wire of No. o gage is employed between Kilbourn and 
Watertown, while stranded aluminum is used between Water- 
town and West Allis, the aluminum conductors having a cur- 
rent carrying capacity equivalent to No. copper wire. Be- 
tween West Allis and St. Martins the transmission line is also 

Figs. 16 to 18 — Milwaukee 1200 Volt Line — Examples of High-Tension Towers and Combined Trolley and Feeder Line 

stats are mounted above the board. This is because there was 
no room on the ground at the back of this particular board for 
their reception, where there is sufficient room they are in- 
stalled on the ground. All of the switchboard equipment, in- 
cluding instruments, was manufactured and supplied by the 
General Electric Company, but the panels were made and 
equipped in the shops of the Milwaukee Electric Railway tk 
Light Company. 

in duplicate and consists of No. 2 copper wires carried on 
wooden poles. From St. Martins to East Troy and from St. 
Martins to Burlington the transmission line is single (three 
wires) ; it is carried on wooden poles and consists of No. 2 
copper wires. A ground wire if desirable will eventually be 
strung throughout from West Allis to Watertown, and be- 
tween Watertown and Kilbourn it is possible that two ground 
wires will be employed. 



[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 

The transmission line throughout is a most excellent piece 
of construction work consisting' of galvanized steel towers 
bolted together on the ground. Figs. 16 and 17 are representa- 
tive of the transmission line. The insulators are of the sus- 
pension type and each consists of three units. Fig. 19 gives a 
close view of the high-tension roof bushings. Fig. 20 shows 
very clearly the way the transmission line is carried on the 

Fig. 19— Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — High-Tension Roof 

roof of substations and the manner of tapping. The horn 
gaps for the lightning arresters are in the background. 


The overhead construction on the interurban roads is the 
same as when single-phase equipments were in use. It is of 
the catenary suspended type on all i2t»-volt sections. The 
accompanying table will give the more important detail cover- 
ing the trolley, track and feeders. For convenience the dis- 
tances between the substations is also given in this table: 

Fig. 20 — Milwaukee 1200-Volt Line — Tapping Transmission 
Line on Substation Roof 

Watertown Waukesha 

to Waukesha Beach to West Allis West Allis 

Beach West Allis to East Troy to Burlingt' in 

Feeder material Aluminum Copper Aluminum Aluminum 

Feeder size ) 795,000 500,000 795,000 795,"^ 

1 circ. mil. circ. mil. circ. mil. circ. mil. 

I Single Double Single Single 

Trolley type •! bracket span bracket bracket 

[ catenary catenary catenary 

Trolley size No. 00 No. 000 No. 00 No. 0000 

Track Single Double Single Single 

Distance 27.42 miles 16.04 miles -'Smiles 27.07 miles 

The feeders are carried on the same poles as the trolley. Fig. 
18 gives a good general idea of the construction. The pole 
lines are a splendid example of interurban railroading; the 
poles are all painted, are perfectly straight and are kept in per- 

fect alignment The track is well ballasted throughout the 
entire system; 8o-lb. rails are used for the major portion of 
the distance. 


The density of traffic varies with the season of the year. 
During the winter months the trains running on two hourly 
headway in each direction take care of the business, but in 
summer trains are run on one hour headway regularly and 
often several sections of two, three and four car trains are 
necessary to take care of the traffic. The holiday traffic is 
abnormally heavy. On holidays it is a common practice to haul 
as many as three trailers with one car and during the busy 
hours every day one or two trailers are usually hauled. The 
weight of each trailer is about 35,000 lb. The 1200-volt cars 
run right into the city of Milwaukee to the terminal station 
in the Public Service Building. 


At the meeting of the Central Electric Accounting Confer- 
ence on the steamer Greyhound on June 25 Water Shroyer, 
'auditor Indiana Union Traction Company, led a discussion on 
the subject of "Interline Baggage." Supplementing the refer- 
ence to the discussion on this subject in the report published in 
the issue of the Electric Railway Journal for July 2, 1910, 
Mr. Shroyer has furnished the following statement of his 
remarks : 

"The subject of interline baggage is one that has not been dis- 
cussed heretofore by the members of this conference, pre- 
sumably for the reason that it has not been considered im- 
portant from a revenue point of view. 

"While to my knowledge there has been no serious objection 
to the present system of handling this class of business, it ap- 
pears that some improvement might be made that would assist 
materially in the auditing work. I would suggest, therefore, 
that an interline excess baggage check be adopted, providing 
a coupon for each road over which such baggage is handled, 
thus conforming with the present method of handling interline 
tickets and freight way bills. As additional coupons are neces- 
sary only in case of a movement over more than two lines, the 
check may be printed separate from the regular form and on 
light weight paper. These forms may be made up and for- 
warded by the auditor's office of the forwarding line to the 
auditor of the intermediate line, thereby giving the latter a 
record of the movement, which he does not have under the 
present system. 

"The form of the interline excess check proper need not differ 
materially from the present form, but in order that such checks 
may be readily identified they should be printed on a different 
color tag board and be given an entirely different serial num- 
ber, using the prefix T,' indicating 'Interline.' This will not 
only save time in assorting in the accounting office, but it will 
also enable the agents at junction points to identify the 
checks readily, thereby insuring a prompt transfer to connecting 
line. A different serial number will assist to some extent in 
verifying the foreign line's report, enabling a check to be made 
from the conductor's train record of baggage handled. 

"Another matter that might be given consideration at this 
time is the proper method of accounting in connection with the 
checking of interline baggage on Central Electric Traffic Asso- 
ciation mileage. The Traffic Association has this matter under 
consideration at this time, and as it will probably recommend 
the use of a mileage ticket, it would seem advisable for the ac- 
countants to be ready to make such recommendations as are 
necessary to avoid any complications in the accounting work 
and establish uniform practice relative to reports and manner 
of settlement between lines." 

The Bluegrass Traction Company, Lexington, Ky., has ten- 
dered Gov. A. E. Willson. of Kentucky, the use of a special 
train of cars to tour the Bluegrass country when the Gover- 
nors' conference is in session in Kentucky in November, 1910. 

July 16, 1910.J 


Frederick W. Whitridge, receiver of the Third Avenue 
Railroad Company and of the Union Railway Company, of 
New York, has published Volume 111 of his correspondence 
with the Public Service Commission of the First District of 
New York. Vols. 1 and II were reviewed in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Feb. 20 and Aug. 7, 1909. Volume III 
contains 464 pages exclusive of index, and is prefaced by the 
following statement : 

"This third volume of correspondence with the Public 
Service Commission, like the preceding volumes, requires little 

"The flood of communications from the commission has 
somewhat abated, and it has a new transportation engineer, 
who is a man of sense and some experience, but generally 
speaking, time, experience and even the breath of adversity 
which touches us all. have passed over the commission and 
left it unchanged and scathless. Its work in regulating me 
is here recorded, but I am informed (I hope correctly) that 
in other directions it has done marvelous things, and that 
having secured from the Long Island Railroad Company 
copies of its schedules for the last five years — amounting to 
some tons of printed matter — it has been able, after a study 
of those data, to find a method by which all the trains on the 
Long Island Railway will hereafter be on time. 

"I had intended to print in this volume the report of a speech 
of the chairman of the commission made 011 May 25. That 
report contains, however, such gross misstatements of fact 
and is in such shocking taste, that the chairman probably is, 
and his colleagues much more probably are, by this time, 
ashamed of it. 'Keep your temper' and 'Tell the truth' are 
sound rules of controversy, and it is also true, and the chair- 
man ought to be able to find comfort in the thought of it, that 
honest laughter is incompatible with malice and far removed 
from spite. 

"I assume that some plan for the reorganization of the 
Third Avenue Railroad Company will shortly be approved 
by the commission, or otherwise be carried into effect, and 
this receivership will end. This, therefore, will probably be 
the last volume I shall have occasion to publish, and I hope 
that students of State regulation may, hereafter, find this 
record of what the commission has actually accomplished in 
one branch of its business, and of the manner in which the 
commissioners went about that business, of interest and 
possibly of value. 

"From it all, I think it appears that, while the Public Service 
Commission in the First District might have been useful and 
even valuable, it is almost incredible that it should in this 
instance have caused the needless expenditure of so much time 
and money to so little purpose. 

One of the early letters in the volume gives Mr. Whitridge's 
views on appraisals in answer to the request by the commission 
for certain data. Mr. Whitridge's reply to Mr. Eustis was as 
follows : 

"I have yours of the 17th inst, in which you request me to 
furnish you with certain data which you say is most urgently 
needed in connection with your 'Appraisal Work.' 

"In reply thereto I have to say that in view of my cor- 
respondence with your commission on the subject of appraisals 
and of the apparent unwillingness of the commission to define 
its position in respect thereto, T have come to the conclusion 
after the examination of the statutes that your 'Appraisal 
Work' is one that you have no business to undertake at the 
public expense. It is extra legal, if not illegal, and may prove 
very mischievous. I shall, therefore, be unable to furnish you 
with any information whatever for use in your 'Appraisal 
Work' except upon an order of the Court, the request of the 
Third Avenue Bondholders' Committee or such legal order 
as the commission may itself make. I am sure you will under- 
stand that I very much regret to come to this decision, for 1 
am particularly anxious to work in harmony with the com- 


mission, and I dislike any disagreement with them, but I 
think you will recognize that my views being what they are, I 
cannot do otherwise." 

A few other letters addressed by Mr. Whitridge to the 
secretary of 'the commission, giving his views on various 
subjects, follow: 

"New York, Oct. 22, 1909. 
"I have your letter of the 21st, informing me that all of 
my reports require correction in respect to certain matters 
mentioned therein. I do not quite understand what is referred 
to. All of the interest paid by me and all of the taxes are 
shown in full properly proportioned in each monthly report. 
Of course, I do not keep any depreciation account, because I 
have no capital account, and it is obvious that there is no 
sense in keeping a depreciation account when all the money 
we can get from any source is being expended upon the 

It occurs to me that you may possibly refer to the unpaid 
franchise tax, but the courts and the railroads have been 
endeavoring for nine years to find out what that tax is, and 
I am not in position to apportion it or take any cognizance of 
it until 1 do so ascertain. . I may mention, however, for your 
information, that some months ago I made a proposition for 
the settlement of these taxes for all prior years and for the 
fixing of an amount for future years. On reference to the 
Attorney General, the Honorable William N. Cohen was 
appointed by him to consider the matter, and he thought it 
necessary to obtain an opinion from the Court of Appeals upon 
one point, which has now been rendered, and I hope within 
thirty days to carry that compromise through to pay all the 
back taxes through the issue of receiver's certificates, and 
thereafter, of course, we will have a definite amount which 
can be charged pro rata each month." 

"New York, Nov. 27, 1909. 

"I have your letter of the 23d instant, enclosing final order 
in case No. 1 170, by which I am directed to see that all my 
cars are equipped with suitable apparatus for heating, and 
that the temperature in all of them shall be maintained at not 
less than 40 nor more than 65 degrees Fahrenheit, and that a 
copy of these regulations be placed in the cars ; and finally, you 
ask whether this order of the commission is accepted and will 
be obeyed. 

"In reply, I would say that all the cars controlled by me are 
equipped with the best heating apparatus known, and I sent 
to you, months ago, a copy of my regulations in respect to 
the same, all of which I assume you approved, as I have heard 
nothing to the contrary. I consider that I have thus done 
everything in my power to effect the result you have seen fit 
to order. 

"I accept your order No. 1 170, and so far as it is applicable 
to me personally 1 shall obey it cheerfully. But whether the 
temperature will be maintained as you have ordered that it 
shall be maintained, the Lord only knows." 

"New York, Jan. 31, 1910. 

"1 have yours of the 29th, in which you ask me to report 
defects in my cars classified under forty-five different heads, 
and also request that in case any defects occur to the cars 
which are not included in any of these forty-five heads they 
should be reported under some other head. 

"I have no doubt that these statistics will be enormously 
interesting, and \ shall take great pleasure in supplying them. 
I think it is possible that you may be able to employ some- 
body, if you will pay sufficient salary, who will agree to read 

The three following letters relate to a complaint filed by a 
passenger against the condition of the Fort George cars: 

"New York, Jan. 28, 1910. 
"Secretary Public Service Commission, New York City. 

"Dear Sir : The undersigned desires to complain about the 
filthy condition of the cars leaving Fort George about 7.30 
a. m. 

"As they are a serious menace to tin- health of the people 
who are compelled to use them, a complaint will also be made 




[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 

to the Department of Health and to the receiver of the Third 
Avenue Railroad Company. 

(Signed) Irving C. Lavendol." 

"New York, Feb. 2, 1910. 
"Secretary, Public Service Commission, New York City. 

"My Dear Sir: I have yours of the 1st instant, referring to 
the complaint of Mr. Irving C. Lavendol. I have investigated 
Mr. Lavendol's complaint in consequence of a letter received 
from him a few days ago, and I really do not know what 
he is talking about, except that the cars at the time he speaks 
of are as they are left by the persons who use them between 
6 and 7 in the morning. The cars are clean when they go out. 
I enclose a copy of my previous letter to Mr. Lavendol. 

"New York, Jan. 29, 1910. 
"Mr. Irving C. Lavendol, New York City. 

"My Dear Sir: I have yours of the 28th, in which you speak 
of the filthy condition of the cars leaving Fort George about 
7.30 a. m., and say that, as they are a serious menace to the 
health of the people who use them, you propose to inform 
the Board of Health and the Public Service Commission: 
inferentially I suppose of my misconduct in allowing them to 
remain in that condition. 

"In reply thereto I beg to inform you that between the 
hours of 6 and 7 a very large number of your fellow citizens, 
who are engaged in rough manual labor, use the cars going in 
the direction of Fort George to reach the scene of their labors. 
They are much less particular than you in their habits, and 
after they have used the cars, which were clean when they got 
into them, I find that they are apt to be in the condition which 
is so offensive to you and to all right-minded people. This, I 
believe, is a temporary condition, as the labors in which they 
are now engaged will, within a few months, be completed, and 
this travel will cease. 

"In the meantime I do not feel justified in building a barn 
at Fort George for the purpose of washing the cars after these 
particular fellow citizens of yours and mine have got through 
using them, and I suggest that you should invite the Board 
of Health, and above all the Public Service Commission, to 
examine these gentlemen or what other cause there may be 
for the condition of the cars to which you refer, and get them 
to provide, suggest, or order some immediate remedy for these 
conditions; perhaps they or some of them will be able to 
prevent these particular fellow citizens of ours from chewing 
tobacco or gum, from expectorating, from drinking absinthe, 
from abstaining from soap and water and from exuding 
offensive effluvia from their bodies. Recfiver." 

The following letters refer to the operation of pay-as-you- 
enter cars by the Third Avenue Railroad Company : 

"New York, April 13, 1910. 
Receiver, Third Avenue Railroad Co., New York City. 

"Dear Sir: By resolution of the Board of Aldermen, the 
Public Service Commission has been requested to take such 
steps as might be necessary to eliminate the inconvenience 
which passengers are subjected to on pay-as-you-enter cars 
at the various terminals, from which such cars are operated. 
As you well know, due to the fact that the majority of pas- 
sengers do not have the proper change, passengers are com- 
pelled to wait in line while the conductors make change and 
collect the necessary fares before they can enter the cars. 
These conditions could be eliminated if cashiers, whose duty 
it would be to make change, were installed in a small booth 
at such points. All passengers could then be required to 
obtain the necessary change before boarding the car. Please 
take this matter under consideration and reply by the 25th 
inst. Secretary, Public Service Commission." 

"New York, April 14, 1910. 
"Secretary, Public Service Commission, New York City. 

"Dear Sir: I have yours of the 13th, referring to the reso- 
lution of the Board of Aldermen requesting me to take steps 
to eliminate the inconvenience to which passengers are sub- 
jected on pay-as-you-enter cars, adding that, as I well know, 
'the majority of passengers do not have proper change.' 

"As a matter of fact, I do not know anything of the kind. My 
personal observations have given me the impression that at least 
three-quarters of the passengers who get on the pay-as-you- 
enter cars have their nickels ready. If, however, I am mis- 
taken about this, I am not at all sure that the conditions could 
be eliminated by installing cashiers in small booths at terminal 
points and endeavoring to compel passengers to obtain the 
necessary change at those booths. I do not know how they 
could be 'required' to do it. They could be requested to do it, 
but I doubt whether it is possible for railroads to eliminate 
inconveniences caused by the stupidity of the people them- 
selves, any more than it is possible to keep cars invariably 
clean and sweet smelling which are used by people with filthy 
habits, which seemed to be the notion underlying the last 
resolution the Board of Aldermen levelled at me. 

"I am disposed, as you know, to do anything I can to gratify 
the Honorable Board of Aldermen and the Public Service 
Commission, and if you can get me a permit to put a small 
booth in front of the Post Office, at which a cashier can be 
stationed to make change for the patrons of the road, and 
will tell me how either you or I or the Aldermen can compel 
people to go there to get change, I am prepared to go to the 
expense of paying for the cashier and building the booth. 
My notion is that the experiment would disappoint the Alder- 
men and yourselves, and therefore I should only be willing, in 
the first instance, to install one booth at the most crowded 
terminal as a matter of experiment. Receiver." 

"New York, May 5, 1910. 
"Receiver, Union Railway Co., New York City. 

"Dear Sir : Following a resolution from the Board of Alder- 
men, we made investigations as to conditions at the 155th 
Street terminal of your lines. Our observations show that 
in this special case the delays to passengers boarding pay-as- 
you-enter cars are not caused by the necessity of conductors 
making change, but by the passengers leaving the car at the 
forward end when the car is entering the terminal. This 
delays opening the entrance doors, making it impossible for 
passengers to enter until all those wishing to alight have left 
the car. 

"It is believed that if the man who is stationed at this point 
would assist in this, by opening the doors corresponding to the 
front exit on the return trip, and by announcing that the pas- 
sengers should leave by this door, considerable time in some 
cases could be saved, and the conductor could then start collec- 
tions as soon as the station was entered. Please reply. 

"Secretary, Pub. Serv. Commission." 

"New York, May 7, 1910. 
"Secretary, Public Service Commission, New York City. 

"My Dear Sir : I have yours of the 5th instant in respect 
to a recent resolution of the Board of Aldermen about pay-as- 
you-enter cars. In your letter of April 13 you informed me 
that 'the inconvenience to passengers was, as I well knew, due 
to the fact that the majority of passengers do not have the 
proper change,' and you suggested a remedy which, in my 
opinion, would not be a remedy, and which is impracticable, 
although I offered to try it experimentally. 

"In your present letter you inform me that you have been 
making certain investigations and observations, the result of 
which shows that the inconvenience to passengers in the case 
which you observed and investigated, was not due to the cause 
to which you attributed it, in your letter of the 13th. The 
remedy which you propose in your letter of May 5th for the 
inconvenience which your observations and investigations had 
detected in the case therein referred to, would involve either 
the employment of an additional conductor, which I cannot 
afford, or the practical abolition of the pay-as-you-enter 
feature, to which I am unwilling to assent. 

"I submit to you and to the Board of Aldermen that the 
real objection to the pay-as-you-enter cars is that people are 
obliged to pay their fares before they can enter the cars. 


The volume concludes with a letter which Mr. Whitridge 
sent to the commission enclosing reports on inspectors of the 

July 16, 1910.] 


1 1 1 

commission, published on page 953 of the Electric Railway 
Journal for May 12, and a letter from Mr. Whitridge to 
James N. Wallace that he would be glad to retire as receiver 
of the Third Avenue R. R. if any considerable number of 
bondholders should consider that his services were imperiling 
the property. This letter was published on page 11 12 of the 
Electric Railway Journal for June 25. 


The Committee of Fifty, appointed in Detroit to investigate 
the street railway situation, has embodied the results of its 
consideration of the problems involved in a full report, which 
has been published in book form. The book covers the con- 
clusions reached on every subject but that of the value of the 
property. No decision in which the full committee joined was 
reached on that matter. The sub-committee on appraisal pre- 
sented a report concerning the valuation of the property made 
by Frederick T. Barcroft, but the values as determined were 
not accepted by the full Committee of Fifty. 

The introduction to the report states that expert engineers 
and other experts were employed to assist the committee and 
its sub-committees wherever the services of trained men 
and minds were deemed essential in gathering the facts and 
figures necessary to a complete investigation. The labors of 
the committees extended throughout practically a year. 

The action of the various sub-committees on the many 
questions concerned is shown by the following abstracts of the 
reports : 


The committee on this subject secured information from rail 
way companies in Buffalo, Cincinnati, Chicago, Detroit, Denver, 
Minneapolis and St. Paul, New Orleans, Pittsburgh and Phila- 
delphia, and compiled the data in tabular form. Table I, pub- 
lished herewith, is a summary of the figures relating to earn- 
ings, expenses, population, traffic, etc. Table II shows com- 
parative fares and various costs as compiled by the committee. 
Other costs are shown in Table III. 

The committee also submitted diagrams to show that the 
peak load in Detroit from 5 to 6 p. m. is greatly in excess of 
that in the other cities, due to the fact that the workingmen's 
tickets, which are sold at eight for 25 cents, may be used during 
that hour. The committee recommended the adoption of the 
point of destination transfer used in Buffalo. The members 
of this committee were Frank H. Conant, William C. Noack, 
Frank Danzer, A. J. Dunneback, Russell A. Alger, John H. 
Brown and Joseph E. Schiappacasse. 


The report on this subject, independent of the detailed report 
on the appraisal, contains brief references to several of the 
points brought out in the investigation, including the follow- 

"No more buildings should be erected by this corporation 
without approval by the new civic plan and improvement com- 

"Power plants, including buildings, have been appraised like 
the entire property, as a going concern, and the values reached 
upon them have been arrived at by considering them from their 
output standpoint absolutely. 

"The track has been classified to various types of construc- 
tion, and investigation discloses that there are 21 types of rail 
used in this city, 91 types of track formations, and 204 classes 
of track construction, including pavement. 

"Two of each type of cars were examined very carefully 
and checked with the original specifications in every detail, 
and then every car in the city was inspected for its present 
condition and classified to the proper type to which it belongs. 
The electrical equipment was gone into equally thoroughly, 
and also the equipments as they came into the shop for repairs 
were checked in order to reach a fair idea as to the general 
condition of the equipment as a whole. 

"It was impossible to ascertain what proportion of the shops 
should be charged off to the outside lines. 

"Overhead charges are based on the necessary charges 
required in register, interest charges, interest items during con- 
struction, engineering and administration charges and such 
other charges as are incident to any similar construction. This 
item has not been depreciated due to the lack of any defined 
purpose to which this appraisal is to be applied. Expiring 
franchises naturally destroy this amount to a large degree, and 
it becomes non-existent. 

"The engineers and others who have been associated as 
assistants, collaborators and advisors of the director of 
appraisal, Frederick T. Barcroft, on the various parts of this 
work, have done their work thoroughly, conscientiously and 
well, and it is a pleasure to give publicity to their names. They 
are : Frank E. Johnson, Walter H. Evans, Fred H. Froehlich, 
John C. McCabe, William D. Ray, Albert H. Sisson, Harry 
Knowlton, William E. Richards, H. D. Sanderson, Edward 
C. Dunbar, Fred G. Simmons, Herbert L. Russell, Henry D. 
Miles, Frank W. Hall, Daniel M. Deininger, Fred S. Quacken- 
bush, George D. Mason, Charles Kotting, Edward I. Stimson, 
John H. Tigchon, Claude M. Harmon, James B. McKay and 
Homer Warren. 

"The report of Prof. Henry C. Adams on franchise values 
is based on the physical valuation of the property as found by 
Mr. Barcroft, applied to car-mileage under operating conditions 
as they now exist. The present value of the unexpired fran- 
chises as determined under above conditions is $2,810,613. 

"The net earnings for the year 1908 from the lines upon 
which the franchises have expired was $799,319. Deducting 
6 per cent allowance on physical values as determined by 
appraisal, $234,376, would leave an earning power of $564,942.77 
per annum, or the rental value to the city of the expired fran- 
chises conditioned upon operating conditions continuing as at 

The members of this committee were Edwin A. Burch, acting 
chairman ; Louis R. Geist, William M. McMahon, W. W 
Hannan, Fred C. Hees and D. W. Simons. 

The report of Professor Adams on the valuation of fran- 
chises said in part : 

"The significant fact in a municipal railway franchise con- 
sists is the right conferred by the common council to invest 
capital on the city streets. The right conferred is the right of 
limited and conditioned occupancy, and the value of such a right 
is measured by the unusual profit that may be gained from 
its exercise. Commercially speaking, the basis of franchise 
value is the revenue which accrues from operation in excess 
of operating expenses and of a reasonable return upon the 
investment in the physical plant. This remainder is, in fact, a 
surplus revenue which, in the case of a street railway operat- 
ing on a franchise, is protected against competition by the 
terms of the ordinances concerned, and, provided the amount 
of this permanent excess profit can be determined for a year, 
the value of the underlying franchise is obtained by computing 
its present worth for the number of years which the franchise 
has to run. 

"In this report I have not undertaken to express an opinion 
upon any of the strictly legal questions that arise in the 
interpretation of the ordinances and resolutions which confer 
operating rights upon the Detroit United Railway. The report 
of Mr. Webster, chairman of the legal committee, is accepted 
as final in regard to all such points. 

"With regard to minor points concerning which differences 
of opinion may exist, this report assumes that the use made 
by the company of the rights conferred is the interpretation 
which must be placed upon the ordinance, or the ordinances, 
granting those rights. 

"The assumption that the franchise should be valued accord- 
ing to the actual use made of the rights which they confer, 
rather than the possible use that might be made of them, 
enables the problem before the appraisal committee to be stated 
as follows : What were the several rights to operate an electric 
railway over the streets of the City of Detroit worth on 
March 1, 1909, under the conditions of actual operation. 

"The financial arrangements of the corporations included in, 

1 12 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 

the system are somewhat interdependent, but that fact has no 
bearing on the problem in hand. It is not necessary to con- 
sider the mortgages or the manner in which they are placed, or 
to inquire whether the securities issued on one property are in 
any way bound up with the securities issued on the other prop- 
erties. The question of the present worth of an operating 
right must be determined from the point of view of operation 

"It is evident that any feasible method of computing the 
value of the unexpired rights of operation must conform to 
the accounts as kept by the operating companies. 

"Each of the main companies, namely, the Detroit United 
Railway, the Rapid Railway, the Detroit, Jackson & Chicago 
Railway, and the Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Railway maintains 
an independent set of operating books from which may be 
taken the operating revenues and operating expenses of the 
respective companies. With one minor exception, each of the 
above-named companies has its own power plant, and furnishes 
its own power, so that no embarrassing questions touching the 
rental of power are involved. 

"The treatment in the accounts of the three independent 

regarded as an expense incident to the several divisions of the 
Detroit United Railway assigned to interurban service. 

"No accounting record is made of the fact that motormen 
and conductors on the pay roll of the independent interurban 
lines operate cars within the city limits, for the reason that a 
sufficient number of crews on the pay roll of the Detroit United 
Railway is assigned to the operation of interurban cars out- 
side of the city limits, to balance the interurban crews running 
cars within the city limits. I see no reason to question the 
propriety of the above-named adjustments so far as they have 
any bearing upon the franchise values within the city. The 
accounts of the Detroit United Railway Company permit, with 
one or two exceptions, an exact separation of revenue as 
between the city lines and the divisions of the Detroit United 
Railway operating outside the city. 

"The usual rule for separating operating expenses in cases 
of this kind is to accept car-mileage as a basis of separation. 
When, however, one considers the many differences which 
exist between the operation of an interurban and of a city line, 
the propriety of accepting car-mileage as the basis for the 
localization of expenses at once arises. The rule adopted by 


Operat. expenses—, 
Gross Per 
earnings cent 
Annual per of gross 
interest car- earn- 
charges. mile. ings. 
$700,633 $0.2632 61.92 




mile of Miles of 

Cities. track, track. 

"Buffalo 1,074 372.59 

Cincinnati L933 219.88 

Chicago Railways Company.... 4,340 306.445 

Chicago City Railway 4,34° 252.29 

Detroit 1,171 399.22 

Denver 733 212.75 

Minneapolis and St. Paul '.45 5 368.39 

New Orleans..... 1,909 196.49 

Pittsburgh 1,114 49>-44 

Philadelphia i,455 626.32 

1 ,462,057 


Carp in 




• 273 








• 131 

• 175 

1. 558 

Passenger Passenger 
car-miles. car-hours. 
19,555,087 2,217,464 

1 1,024,181 

4., 206, 628 

1 1 5,044,608 

1 04,468,226 
17-749. 726 





, Cost of track construction per mile — ■ — , , 

-Paving per mile, single track—, 

S c 

> % 
< m 

Buffalo 03607 

Cincinaati 0366 

Chicago Railways Co 02883 

Chicago City Railway 0295 


Denver 0374 

Minneapolis and St. Paul. ... 

New Orleans 0412 

Pittsburgh 0429 

Philadelphia 03564 



.Oi "5 5 











• 031 





6 re 






" c 






— - 1 


iz & 


•a t 

C u 

Single 1 

•O t 






O E 

8 8 

.9 1= 

w u 


a re 

i2.2 5 








2 1 ,000 




























1 7,1 60 









1 1,000 
1 1,000 

interurban companies operating within the city of Detroit is as 
follows : The revenue collected up to the city limits is credited 
to the revenue accounts of the interurban companies, but the 
revenue collected within the city limits is . credited to the 
Detroit United Railway and is separately stated in the accounts 
of that company. As against this revenue the Detroit United 
Railway pays each of the interurban companies named two 
cents per car mile within the city limits, this payment being 
regarded as an operating rental charge and is assumed to cover 
repairs, maintenance, depreciation and rental proper for inter- 
urban cars not the property of the Detroit United Railway, 
operating within the city limits. 

"The Griswold street passenger station, which is used jointly 
by the three independent interurban companies above named, 
and by the interurban cars of the Detroit United Railway (as, 
for example, the Pontiac cars) is maintained and operated by 
the Detroit United Railway, but the three independent inter- 
urban companies pay a flat rental of $60 per month as their 
portion of the expense of maintenance and operation. The 
difference between these amounts and the actual expense, 
chargeable to the maintenance and operation of the station is 



rail com- 

Buffalo $56,150 


Cost of track and paving 
per mile with 2 track 
90-lb. rail. 

Asphalt Block 
90-lb. 90-lb. 
rail com- rail com- 
plete, plete. 
$66,654 $66,654 

Cost of double 
truck cars and life 

Chicago Railways Co 

Chicago City Railway 

Detroit 77,682 


Minneapolis and St. Paul 

> ew Orleans 

Pittsburgh 6 \ooo 

Philadelphia 56,172 


7 1 000 

86 000 
90,1 78 




$-' 750 

1 5 to 20 

to $9,000 











10 to 12 



this report in place of the straight car-mileage pro rate is as 
follows : The expense per car-mile on the interurban roads 
which maintain independent operating expense accounts is first 
computed and the rate of expense thus determined is applied 
to the car-miles made on the interurban divisions of the Detroit 
United Railway; the sum thus arrived at is then subtracted 
from the total operating expense of the Detroit United Rail- 

July 16, 1910.] 



way and the remainder is accepted as the amount of expenses 
properly assignable to the operation of city lines. 

"In order to understand the operation of cars within the 
city limits, and of the statistics and accounts pertaining thereto, 
it will be necessary to hold in mind a technical definition of 
a 'line' and of a 'route.' By a 'line' is meant the unit of opera- 
tion used in the compilation of revenue ; that is to say, the 
revenue collected upon any particular operating line may be 
taken directly from the books of the company. 

"The difficulty so far as computing the value of unexpired 
operating rights is concerned, arises from the fact that the 
ordinances of the council give the company the right to operate 
over streets; whereas two or more lines, as above defined, may 
operate over the same street, which results in the fact that 
certain streets are covered by lines operated under grants that 
expire at varying dates. Moreover, certain streets belonging 
to a line are used more frequently than other streets belonging 
to the same line. It becomes necessary, therefore, to divide 
the line into routes ; and a 'route' in this connection is defined 
as the trip scheduled for cars and crews. For this reason it 
is necessary in order to work out the problem in hand, to 
localize density of traffic on certain streets, and also to separate 
the traffic thus located according as it pertains to lines which 
operate under grants which expire at different dates. To meet 
this necessity streets over which franchise rights are conferred 
are divided into 'accounting units.' 

"The revenues which accrue to the several lines may be 
taken directly from the books of the company (excepting 
$7,081.96 out of a total, which is distributed to lines on the 
basis of the revenue earned by each) but the revenue and routes 
of which the lines are composed are not a matter of record. 
Car-mileage by routes, however, may be computed from the 
statements rendered daily to the car accountant showing the 
number of trips made over each route each day. It is assumed 
that the revenue of an operative line localizes itself to any 
portion of the line in proportion to car mileage. Not only is 
this assumption in harmony with the generally accepted unit 
theory as applied to street railway operation, but it is infer- 
entially recognized by the common council of the City of 
Detroit in the requirement that a car started over an adver- 
tised route must run to the end of the route. It is not neces- 
sary for the localization of revenue to take into consideration 
the varying weights or types of cars used, for the reason that, 
as a rule, the same type of car is used on all routes of a given 
line. The important point to be held in mind is that the 
revenue is assumed to vary on different parts of the same line 
according to car mileage. 

"The allocation of expenses presents a more difficult prob- 
lem; for, in the first place, the books of the company do not 
show the expenses separately by lines, and, in the second 
place, car-mileage cannot be accepted as a satisfactory basis 
of assignment for the reason that a light car used on one 
line should not carry with it the same ratio of expense as a 
heavy car used on another line. In strict theory, it would be 
necessary to standardize car-mileage. I endeavored to secure 
from the company data as to the weight and type of the cars 
used on the various lines and other pertinent data by which 
a standardization of cars in service might be made, but was 
informed that this could not be given without considerable 
trouble and expense. Moreover, the frequency of stops made 
is quite as important as the weight and type of cars, in deter- 
mining the normal unit of expense incident to the operation of 
electric cars. Information of this sort could not be obtained 
from the company. The rule adopted by this report localizing 
expenses is not claimed to be a perfect rule, but it is believed 
that it leads to more trustworthy results than would be the 
case should expenses be localized on the straight car-mileage 
basis. The following statement expresses the rule. 

"First : The operating expense accounts kept by the company 
permit the separation of expenses incurred for the 'operation 
of cars' from other expenses. This class of expense covers 
wages paid conductors and motormen, expense of sanding 
track, removal of snow and ice, cleaning cars, and other similar 

expenditures, all of which are independent of the weight or 
type of the cars. The expense for 'operation of cars,' which 
amounts to between 43 and 44 per cent of the total operating 
expenses is, therefore, properly distributed on a straight car- 
mileage basis. 

"Second: The remainder of operating expenses, amounting 
to between 56 per cent and 57 per cent of the total, is assigned 
on the basis of passengers carried, rather than on the basis of 
car mileage. The justification of this portion of the rule rests 
upon the fact that different kinds and types of cars are 
assigned according to the demands of the service, and in such 
a manner that the average loading of a car in proportion to the 
weight or size of the car is about the same for all lines. 
Whether this part of the rule for the localization of expense 
be entirely satisfactory or not, it is certain that it will lead to 
more nearly correct results than the distribution of expenses 
on a straight car-mileage basis. 

"In one particular it was found necessary to modify the 
above rule to meet a peculiar condition in the franchises upon 
which street railways are operated in the City of Detroit. 
According to the ordinances passed, the so-called '3-cent' lines 
are excused from any expenditure for 'paving, repaving, or 
repairing' on the streets, whether within or without the rails, 
while the 5-cent lines are obliged to provide for such expendi- 
tures. It was not possible to obtain the amount expended for 
this purpose in the case of the 3-cent lines. From an examina- 
tion of the accounts it is believed that this expense would 
amount to about 5 per cent of the total operating expense. In 
order to give the 3-cent lines the benefit of this provision of 
the ordinance, it was necessary to make a corresponding allow- 
ance in the assignment of expenses. The important point in 
explaining the plant is that expense incurred in the 'operation 
of cars' is localized on the basis of car-mileage, the remaining 
expenses being assigned on the basis of passengers carried. 

"The Detroit United Railway adopts the rule of a single 
transfer. This being the case, it is assumed that each of the 
two lines which unite in carrying a passenger will receive an 
equal amount of revenue; that is to say, as many transfers will 
be used in one direction as in the other. It is not claimed that 
revenue allocates itself equitably as between the 14 operating 
lines. The deficit on the Depot line, for example, is explained 
in large measure by the fact that this line carries an unduly 
large number of non-paying passengers. This, however, is a 
condition of operation which is reflected in the revenue of the 
properties operated. 

"It has been urged that the 3-cent lines will suffer a loss on 
account of the expiration of the franchises of the 5-cent lines 
and that this prospective loss should be reflected in the present 
value of their franchise rights. The loss referred to will 
arise, if I properly understand the contention, from the fact 
that at present the 3-cent lines now collect five cents from a 
passenger who asks for a transfer, whereas after the expiration 
of the 5-cent lines' franchises the 3-cent lines will be benefited 
to the extent of V/z cents only from the passengers who use 
transfers. This assumes that the new franchises to be granted 
will demand a 3-cent service over the streets now occupied by 
the 5-cent lines. I find nothing in the ordinances which warrant 
such a conclusion. 

"It is clear from the description under which the railways of 
the City of Detroit are operated that the value of franchises 
can not be computed without determining the net revenue of 
operation for selected portions of the streets over which the 
railway operates. These selected portions are called computing 
units, and are determined by two considerations: 

"First, the fact that traffic on one portion of an operating 
line is more dense than on another portion of the same line ; 
and, second, the fact that two or more lines operating under 
different grants may operate over the same street sections. 

"It is necessary in order to properly localize net revenue for 
the purpose of the problem in hand to treat a street as though 
it were made of a series of sections, each section possessing 
the same density of traffic and affected by the same franchise 

ii 4 


[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 

"The basis of the computation to determine franchise value 
is the net revenue from operation, and it is evident that -this 
unit may be arrived at by lines, by streets, or by combinations 
of streets. Assuming the valuation of the physical property 
to be classified in the same manner, or that by combination of 
computing units, this net revenue from operation can be deter- 
mined for whatever classification of physical values is reported 
to the committee, the next step in the determination of a fran- 
chise value is to subtract from the net revenues from operation 
a reasonable charge for the support of the capital invested as 
stated in the report on physical values. What remains will 
be the surplus revenue accruing to the company from the 
exercise of its rights to occupy the streets for a definite period, 
and to charge for the service rendered, for that period, the 
price named in the ordinances. The final step in the determina- 
tion of the value of unexpired franchise, so far as computation 
is concerned, consists in computing the present worth of the 
surplus revenue considered as an annuity continued up to the 
date when the franchise shall expire. 

"A complication arises on account of the fact that lines 


ises classi- 

Net revenue 

Six per cent 

fied aecordingto 

earned under 

on value of 

date of 

franchise for 





. .Nov. 

14, 1909 



30, 1910 



, Oct. 

17, 19 1 5 



1 ■ 1916 



Fort Street 

, , Mar. 

29, 1917 


4,1 11 

24, 1919 



Chene Street 

. .Jan. 

28, 1921 

3. 171 

1 ,090 

14. 1921 



Gratiot Avenue 

. May 

7. 1921 



Fort Street West. 

, Dec. 

14, 1921 




4, 1924 



Michigan Avenue 


1, 1927 




14, 1928 



Jefferson Avenue East. 

. .May 

3. 1935 

32.1 19 




resting on grants expiring at different dates have operating 
rights over the same streets. This means that the physical 
value located on such streets must pertain to the operation of 
both lines until the expiration of the shortest franchise, but 
after the shortest franchise has expired, the entire value of the 
track and overhead constructions must be used for the opera- 
tion of the line or lines operating on more extended franchises. 
To meet this difficulty it is proposed to use the net revenue 
accruing from the operation of both lines, as also the entire 
physical value pertaining to the streets in question, until the 
date of the expiration of the shortest franchise. At that date, 
so far as the franchise problem is concerned, it is assumed 
that that portion of the surplus revenue which accrues to the 
line operating on the expiring franchise will have ceased to 
exist, and that the surplus revenue accruing to the other line or 
lines is alone concerned ; the physical value of the computing 
unit in question should, however, be reduced by the rolling 
stock and other elements of physical value which pertain 
exclusively to the operation of the line whose franchise 

"There are not many cases of this sort, but the rule is neces- 
sary for working out the problem in hand. It should further 
be added that it is proposed to apply this rule in the case of 

those streets over which the lines resting on extended fran- 
chises operate by contract as well as over those streets on 
which the ordinance compels no construction. 

"It should be further noted that, quite apart from franchise 
values, the data supplies the basis of an estimate of the com- 
mercial value of the right to occupy certain streets for tran- 
sportation purposes. The accompanying statement, Table IV, 
is instructive in this connection. It gives the net revenue for 
each of the 14 operating lines separately for the calendar year 

"The above rule does not consider the increased value of 
the unexpired franchises due to the probable increase in the 
population of the City of Detroit. There is, of course, no way 
of computing this value. It is purely speculative. In case the 
committee deems it wise to allow a present value on account 
of the probable increase in the density of traffic during the 
years to come, it would seem to me that the amount of such 
an allowance could best be determined by the committee itself." 

Table V shows the franchise valuations as computed by 
Professor Adams. 


Net revenue 
or deficit 
per car- 
mile (cents). 

*2. 736873 

Present value 


suminf an an- 

Earning power 

Franchise life from 

Present value 

nual increase 

of franchises 


ov. 14,1909. 

of franchise. 

of 6 per cent 

for 1908. - 

in future net 






16 days. 




1 1 mos. 3 days 






1 mo. 17 days 






4 mos. 1 5 days 






7 mos. 10 days 




1 1 


2 mos. 15 days 




1 1 


5 mos. 




1 1 


5 mos. 23 days 




1 2 


1 mo. 






20 days 


1,094.953 , 




7 mos. 17 days 






6 mos. 






5 mos. 19 days. 



$2.810,61 5 



The rest of the report, which will be abstracted in next 
week's issue, relates to cost of service, municipal ownership, etc. 


The American Street & Interurban Claim Agents' Associa- 
tion has made an arrangement with the Hooper-Holmes Infor- 
mation Bureau of New York by which members of the associa- 
tion will have the use of the files of that association in check- 
ing accident claims. All reports will go through the main office 
of the American Street & Interurban Railway Association. Un- 
der the plan adopted members of the association will file with 
Secretary Donecker the names of claimants with whose history 
they may not be familiar or about whom they may have doubts. 
These reports will be turned over to the bureau and if no pre- 
vious record is found of the individual no reply will be sent. 
If, however, another claim record is found the road will be 
notified promptly. The Hooper-Holmes Bureau has about 1,- 
700,000 claim records increasing at the rate of 225,000 a year, 
so that the service should be of great value to the member 
companies. The association has mailed to member companies 
instructions as to the proper method of preparing reports. 




Passengers Expenses for than operat- Total Gross Net revenue 

Line. Car-miles. carried. operating cars. ing cars. expenses. revenue. or deficit. 

Jefferson 2,628,121 18,988,855 $160,806 $213,317 $374,123 $642,639 $268,516 

Woodward 2,837,059 21,022.732 173,590 236,166 409,756 792,219 382,463 

Michigan 2,703,939 19.949,297 165445 224,107 389,552 714,085 3-4.533 

South Chene 203,529 1,199,990 12,453 13,481 25,934 27,583 1,649 

Third 658,127 5,564,828 40,269 62,514 102,783 197,132 94.349 

Eater 1,272,866 9,213,990 77,882 103,509 181,391 310,524 129,133 

Brush 518,067 3,827,819 31.699 43,001 74.700 125,512 50,812 

Trumbull 915,465 6,411,902 56,014 72,030 128,044 225,049 97,005 

Depot 110,621 363,480 6,769 4,083 10,852 9,131 * 1,721 

Fort 2,214,417 13,693.981 135, J93 1=3,836 289.329 457,915 168,586 

Sherman 2,318,989 16,572,714 141,891 182,940 324,831 456,663 131,832 

Springwells 252,654 503.168 15,459 5.653 21,112 14,197 6,915 

Crosstown 1,966,697 11,876,230 120,336 131,097 251,433 261,145 9,7 ] 2 

Fourteenth 2,378,603 19,651,849 145.539 216.929 362,468 521,524 159,056 

^Deficit. • 


July 16, 1910.] 


On July 6, 1910, the Massachusetts Railroad Commission re- 
sumed public hearings upon the petition of the Boston & Eastern 
Electric Railroad for a certificate of exigency. The petitioners 
were represented by Charles S. Baxter, counsel, and in oppo- 
sition the following counsel appeared on behalf of the trans- 
portation companies in the territory through which the Boston 
& Eastern Electric Railroad desires to operate : Melvin O. 
Adams, Frederic E. Snow, Bentley W. Warren, William H. 
Coolidge and Woodward Hudson. The petitioners referred to 
the finding of the board in 1908 that public necessity and con- 
venience have been shown, and stated that the Legislature of 
1910 has passed a law enabling the company to build a tunnel 
under Boston Harbor to complete its enterprise. The petitioner 
then rested his case, and counsel in opposition were heard. 

Frederic E. Snow, for the Boston Elevated Railway, pointed 
out that at the time the board found that additional facilities 
were necessary in the densely populated territory north of 
Boston no certificate of exigency was issued because there was 
no authority then to build a tunnel under Boston Harbor, as 
shown by the petitioner's plans. The whole matter was re- 
ferred to a joint board consisting of the Railroad Commission 
and the Boston Transit Commission, and that joint board unani- 
mously reported to the Legislature that no tunnel ought to be 
located under Boston Harbor except in connection with other 
questions which were then under consideration by the board. 
Mr. Snow said that the law of 1910 was merely an enabling act 
giving the necessary authority to adopt whatever plan might 
finally be determined to be the wise one. The Legislature ex- 
pressly stated that it did not in any way pass upon the question 
of exigency. Mr. Snow said that what may have been a public 
exigency in 1908 may be an entirely different question now. 
Since 1908 the Boston Elevated Railway had completed its loca- 
tion for its elevated structure to Maiden Square ; it had changed 
its facilities at Sullivan Square, and the possibility of using that 
terminal as an entrance into Boston was very different now than 
it was at the time the matter originally come before the board. 

Bentley W. Warren, for the Boston & Northern Street Rail- 
way, pointed out the necessity of suspending judgment upon the 
enterprise pending further deliberations of the joint commission 
with respect to metropolitan improvements. He contended that 
it would be highly prejudicial to the respondents and other pub- 
lic interests to issue a certificate at the present time, in view of 
the questions before the various boards studying the transporta- 
tion situation at Boston. He considered that an informal ex- 
pression of the board's opinion on behalf of the project, al- 
though representing its best judgment at the time it was ren- 
dered, was not binding on the board, the public or any other 
interest. Conditions have changed since the board indicated its 
favor regarding the necessity of the road, and if the road was 
built the East Boston tunnel could handle the traffic into and 
out of the city proper. 

Mr. Warren contended that if the Boston & Eastern Rail- 
road should be built, the electrification of the railroads would 
be retarded at Boston, and the construction of an interstation 
tunnel might be prejudiced. 

William H. Coolidge, for the Boston & Maine Railroad, said 
that if the new line should be built, and the Boston & Maine 
Railroad electrified, there would be two electric railroads in one 
territory, with a duplication of facilities. This would be dis- 
astrous. The interstation tunnel, to cost $15,000,000, could not 
be justified unless it could be used to handle suburban business. 
The Boston Elevated Railroad was attending to the business of 
the metropolitan district, but beyond that area was a great terri- 
tory to be served by electric motive power and the interstation 
tunnel in Boston. 

The hearing was continued on July 11, when F. E. Snow, for 
the Boston Elevated Railway, emphasized the importance of 
maintaining a single system of transportation in Boston. He 
stated that the Boston Elevated Railroad would never have con- 
sidered making its present huge investments and leases in sub- 
ways and tunnels, elevated extensions, etc., unless it had felt 


assured that it would be protected in its right to handle the 
traffic entering and leaving the business center. If the board 
grants the Boston & Eastern Railroad a certificate, Mr. Snow 
said that the whole attitude of the company toward future rapid 
transit extensions would be altered, as it would not feel safe in 
its investments in the face of competing lines allowed to enter 
the city. He desired an extension of time in which to present 
evidence that the East Boston tunnel could be utilized by the 
company to bring in the Boston & Eastern Railroad passengers, 
the work being done by the Boston Elevated Railway. C. S. 
Sergeant, vice-president of the Boston Elevated Railway, stated 
that it would be possible to operate the trains of the Boston & 
Eastern Railroad with proper car clearances in the tunnel to- 
gether with a single car service, since the latter cars are already 
equipped for multiple unit operation when necessary. The Bos- 
ton Elevated Railway desires to handle all incoming and out- 
going traffic. The hearing was continued to permit the prepara- 
tion of further evidence for the Boston Elevated Railway. 


The Massachusetts Railroad Commission gave a hearing on 
June 16, 1910, upon the petition of the Selectmen of Framing- 
ham and Holliston for a reduction in fares between South 
Framingham and Holliston on the Milford & Uxbridge Street 
Railway. The petitioners were represented by Walter Adams, 
Joseph P. Dexter, and Maxham E. Nash, and the company's 
case was conducted by Wendell Williams, counsel, and Walter 
L. Adams, superintendent. The principal issue was the in- 
crease in the fare from 5 cents to 10 cents between South 
Framingham and Holliston, which went into effect on June 
r, 1910. During the presentation of the petitioners' case the 
company showed that only 65 employees out of 2600 in the 
plant of the Dennison Manufacturing Company, South Fram- 
ingham, had signed the petition for a reduction in the fare and 
that only three employees had left on account of the raise in 
rates. The officials of the Dennison Manufacturing Company 
were unable to say what proportion of their employees traveled 
between South Framingham and Hopkinton by the Boston & 
Albany Railroad and what proportion traveled by the Milford 
& Uxbridge Street Railway. 

Arguments on the case were heard by the Board on June 
24. For the company Wendell Williams stated that on June 
1, 1910, in accordance with a vote of the board of directors, the 
Milford & Uxbridge Street Railway increased its fare be- 
tween South Framingham and Holliston from 5 cents to 10 
cents, as a reasonable means of increasing the revenue. The 
company had been compelled to make large expenditures in 
building and maintaining its road, and had been obliged for 
several years to carry a large floating indebtedness through the 
credit of individual stockholders, who have received no re- 
turn. In the same manner only was it possible to fund a por- 
tion of this floating indebtedness by means of issues of pre- 
ferred stock and bonds. Only two officers of the company out- 
side the superintendent and attorney receive any salary, and 
those are nominal. For years the public alone has received 
substantial benefit from the operation of the road. 

Mr. Williams stated that the stock of the company was 
divided among 134 holders more than 60 of whom are women. 
They purchased the stock about 10 years ago when 8 per cent 
in dividends was paid and was believed to be a good invest- 
ment at about $140 per share. For years there have been no 
sales of the stock, and its appraised investment value would be 
not more than $25 per share. Soon after the operation of the 
road was begun it was found that the dividend could not be 
continued and the road maintained. During the last six years 
the company's earnings have not averaged 2V3 per cent per 
year on its stock, and irregular dividends have been paid, in 
no year in excess of 3 per cent, with an average of less than 
V/ 2 per cent per year. The cost of maintenance was constantly 
increasing and wages have been raised to per cent. 




[Vol. XXXVI. No. 3. 

The fare from Holliston to South Framingham, 5.7 miles, 
has been 5 cents, and from Holliston to Milford, 6.5 miles, 10 
cents. The fare limit in Holliston extends as far as Highland 
Street. There was no reason why the fare from Holliston to 
South Framingham should be practically one-half as much as 
for the same distance on other portions of the road. The earn- 
ings from the portion of the road in question do not warrant 
it. The cost of operation per car mile on the system for the 
year ending Sept. 20, 1909, was 21.61 cents, making the cost be- 
tween Holliston and South Framingham for the year $29,461. 
The receipts between the same points were $23,757, showing a 
loss of $5,704. The cost will undoubtedly be greater this year 
and with no probability of increased earnings. The following 
table of fares on the roads running out of Worcester, South 
Framingham and Milford shows that for 10 years Holliston 
and South Framingham have had the benefit of a fare much 
below that in force in other towns similarly situated. 


Worcester to Miles. Fare. 

Milbury 6 $0.10 

Wilkinsonville . . .• 8 .15 

Saundersville 9 .15 

Fisherville 10 .20 

Farnumsville 11. 5 .20 

Rockdale 13 .25 

Riverdale 15 .30 

Whitinsville 17 .35 

Linwood ]q .35 

Uxbridgc 21 .40 

South Framingham tit 

Natick 3.75 .06 

Wellesley 5-75 12 

North Natick 3-75 -06 

Wellesley Hills 8.5 .12 

Newton Highlands 11 .18 

Chestnut Hill 14 .25 

Ashland 3-75 .06 

Hopkinton 7 .12 

Woodville 9.5 .18 

Westboro 13.5 .24 

Holliston 6.7 .10 

Last-named fare was 10 cents prior to June 1, 190s 

Milford to 

Franklin 9 .15 

Woonsocket 11 .20 

Med way 7.25 .10 

Hopkinton 6.5 .10 

North Grafton 17 .30 

Hopedale 2 .05 

Uxhridge 9 .15 

South Framingham 12.2 .20 

Last-named fare was 15 cents prior to June 1, 19 10. 

Mr. Williams pointed out that South Framingham was not 
being discriminated against, but that for years every other 
community on the company's lines had been unjustly discrim- 
inated against by the low fares formerly in force to South 
Framingham. Milford had for years complained that its mer- 
chants and business were unjustly and injuriously affected by 
the fact that Holliston patrons were permitted to ride to South 
Framingham for 5 cents and charged 10 cents to Milford, 
practically the same distance. The effect of the increase on the 
workers was counteracted by the issue of so-called working- 
men's tickets at the same rate and in the same manner as is 
done in the case of men working in Milford. 

It had been suggested that in 1900, when a turnout was built 
at Holliston, it was agreed that the fare should be 5 cents be- 
tween Holliston and South Framingham. Mr. Williams said 
that if the present management of street railways took the 
burden of living up to all agreements that the original promoters 
of the roads made, no country street railway in Massachu- 
setts could be successfully operated. The fare had been charged 
for 10 years, but it was not within reason that under all pos- 
sible changed conditions the fare should never under any cir- 
cumstances be changed. Five cents does not purchase the 
same quantity of labor, materials and supplies that it did five 
years ago, and there was no reason why it should purchase as 
much for the passenger in the way of transportation. Mr. Wil- 
liams said that the charge of the petitioners that the company 
had lost money in a park maintained on its line was incorrect, 
since the operation of a pleasure resort had always been 
profitable to the management. There had been very little in- 
crease in traffic on the Milford & Uxbridge Street Railway in 
the last 10 years. The total number of passengers handled be- 
tween South Framingham and Holliston last year was 475,140. 
Mr. Williams urged that it was impossible to carry passengers 
on the rural lines at 1 cent per mile. The hearing was closed. 


Under date of July 8 Bion J. Arnold, chief subway engineer 
of Chicago, has made a brief outline to the local transportation 
committee of the City Council rejating to the work accom- 
plished so far in the preparation of plans. Mr. Arnold was ap- 
pointed by the mayor on Feb. 7, 1910, and he has perfected an 
organization which has devoted nearly half its time to the com- 
pilation of data relating to congestion on the Union Elevated 
Loop. The subway work consists of various surveys and 
records and the tentative development of the following designs, 
applicable to various streets of various widths: 


Two tracks for upper or lower level ; side-station platforms ; 
utilities below or on the side. 
For medium level: island-station platforms: vestibule station 

entrance above ; utilities below. 


Three tracks for upper or lower level ; side station platforms; 
express track in center; utilities below or on side. 


Two tracks on upper level for surface cars; two tracks on 
lower level for elevated trains; balance of space on upper level 
for pedestrians ; utilities on lower level. 

Alternate tracks on same level, alternately upper and lower ; 
vestibule station entrance over depression; island -station plat- 

Center pair of tracks on lower level ; outer tracks on upper 
level at stations, depressed for entrance station vestibule; island 
station platforms. 

Island station platforms for each pair of tracks at alternate 
stations ; tracks swing between stations ; vestibule station en- 
trance above and utilities below ; all tracks on same level. 

Pair of tracks on one side on upper level with side and center 
station platforms; pair of tracks on other side depressed for 
vestibule station entrance ; stations for each pair alternate ; 
utilties below. 

Center pair of tracks on lower level with side station plat- 
forms; outer tracks on upper level with island station plat- 
forms; stations for all trains at same point; utilities below. 

Two outer tracks on upper level with side station platforms ; 
inner pair of tracks on either upper or lower level, with island 
station platforms ; station vestibule entrance above ; utilities be- 

Two tracks on upper level and two tracks on lower level ; 
all side station platforms ; stations for upper pair and lower 
pair of tracks alternate ; moving sidewalks and escalators. 


Center pair of tracks on lower level with island station 
platforms ; two tracks on one side on upper level with side 
station platforms, while the two tracks on other side are 
depressed for station entrance vestibule. 


Center pair of tracks on upper level over center pair of 
tracks on lower level ; tracks on side rise and fall to give 
station entrance vestibules over depression; inner side track 
is on upper level when outer side track is at lower level ; 
island station platforms. 

Center pair of tracks on upper level over center pair of 
tracks on lower level ; inner tracks on lower level ; outer 
tracks depressed to give station entrance vestibule above; island 
station platforms. 

Sufficient detail plans of these various designs are being 
made to demonstrate their efficiency and to estimate their cost. 

Abutting buildings have been divided into three classes, as 
follows : Class "A," with continuous basement walls ; Class 
"B," with steel frame and columns on spread foundations; 
Class "C," with steel frame and columns on caissons. Different 
methods for caring for the three different classes of buildings 
have been developed. 

A method of construction for subways in streets 100 ft. in 
width, the structure occupying the full width of 100 ft., has 

July 16, 1910.] 



also been developed. This construction provides for all street 
traffic being continued during construction with free entrance 
to all business places. A thorough investigation has also been 
made of the cost of all material and labor that would enter 
into the construction and equipment of a subway located in 
any street in the city. This includes the labor and material 
involved in the different methods of construction, signals, 
lighting, power installation, stations, track, waterproofing, etc. 

The location of initial subways has been given consideration. 
The report says that State Street is a desirable street in 
which to locate a north-and-south subway, by reason of its 
extensive width, the fact that there are fewer utilities under 
its surface than any other street in the downtown or subway 
district, except Michigan Avenue, and that there are no 
elevated lines, except where the loop crosses at Lake and 
Van Buren Streets. 

Studies for the location of initial east-and-west subways 
are being made in the streets between the Chicago River and 
Twelfth Street, as well as east-and-west connections to the 
north and south subways on Division Street and Twenty- 
second Street, to accommodate the elevated trains. 

In addition, studies and investigations are being made of 
all matters that concern subway traffic, including the traffic 
of both surface cars and elevated lines in and out of the 
downtown district during rush hours, with sufficient data to 
estimate the future traffic to be cared for. Unit cost figures 
have also been prepared to apply to any design of subway 
that may be found desirable and construction methods have 
been determined to care for abutting buildings, and to avoid 
disturbance of street traffic. 

Mr. Arnold and his assistants are now engaged in a process 
of elimination with the intent of developing a final plan for 
recommendation, but are prepared to develop any design of 
subway that may be determined upon from those enumerated, 
giving cost and capacity in any street or streets that may be 



The joint committee on shop accounting of the American 
Street & Interurban Railway Accountants' and Engineering- 
Associations met on Tuesday, July 12, at the association head- 
quarters in New York to prepare a report to submit to the two 
associations. There were present : P. S. Young, co-chairman ; 
John Lindall, Charles Hewitt and N. E. Stubbs, of the com- 
mittee; also H. H. Adams and M. R. Boylen, who have been 
assisting the committee in its work. Mr. Adams and Mr. 
Boylan presented a report on the cost system of shop account- 
ing which after some discussion and a few changes was ac- 
cepted by the committee. The committee will cover in its final 
report recommendations as to analytical sub-divisions of the 
standard accounts which are desirable for the use of the larger 
companies, and will outline a practical cost system for car 
repair shops, suggestions as to the handling of the sale of scrap 
material and a report on the method of procedure in obtaining 
mileage of car wheels, brake shoes, etc. 


The committee on buildings and structures of the Engineer- 
ing Association held a meeting at the office of the association, 
29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York City, on July 6. Those 
present were Martin Schreiber, engineer maintenance of way, 
Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J., chairman; F. F. Low, 
architect, Boston Elevated Railway, Boston, Mass. ; George H. 
Pegram, chief engineer, Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
New York City, and Charles H. Clark, engineer maintenance of 
way, Cleveland Railway. This committee was not appointed 
until last April and this was its first meeting. On account of 
the short time remaining for the preparation of a report, Mr. 
Schreiber suggested that the subject of economical maintenance 
of buildings and structures which was assigned to the com- 

mittee should be passed over this year and taken up next year 
by the new committee. The report which will be presented at 
the Atlantic City convention will deal with the general prin- 
ciples involved in the design of terminals for urban and inter- 
urban railways. Some of the points which will be taken up in- 
clude general arrangement of tracks; type of building and 
train sheds; spacing of tracks; toilet facilities; entrance and 
exit gates and ticket offices. The chairman will make a rough 
draft of the report and send it to each member of the com- 
mittee with the request that the members enlarge upon the 
points brought out in the discussion of each of these features. 


The exhibit committee of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Manufacturers' Association announces that a radical 
change will be made in the exhibit space arrangement on the 
Million Dollar Pier for the 1910 convention of the American 
Street & Interurban Railway Association. This has been found 
necessary by the contractor because the Gv A. R. convention 
will be held in Atlantic City the latter part of September and 
the pier will have to be used for entertainment purposes at 
that time. The Manufacturers' Association is now preparing 
a new diagram of the exhibit space at the pier. This diagram 
will be mailed as soon as possible to all exhibitors in case the 
changes necessary in the diagram alter the exhibitor's space, 
as indicated in his application blank. 

There will be no change in Machinery Hall and in Building 
No. 3, but there will probably be a change in the general ar- 
rangement of Buildings No. 1 and No. 2, especially in the front 
spaces of Building No. 1. This change necessitates a postpone- 
ment of the final assignment of exhibit space by the com- 
mittee, but it is hoped that all space can be assigned by Aug. 1. 
The exhibit committee also says that the change mentioned 
makes it more necessary than ever that every exhibitor should 
give the weights and dimensions of the apparatus he expects 
to exhibit. The members of the exhibit committee held a con- 
ference in Atlantic City, last week, in regard to the situation. 


The Rock Island Southern Railroad Company is fast com- 
pleting a high-speed freight and passenger road, the initial di- 
vision of which will have 50 miles of track fed with 11,000-volt 
trolley. From Rock Island the road extends southward 21 
miles over a steam railroad grade and thence 29 miles over a 
new grade to Monmouth, 111. Later the road will extend from 
Monmouth to Burlington, on the Mississippi River, and a 
branch 7 miles long will be built from Gilchrist to Aledo. The 
new electric line has traffic arrangements with the Rock Island 
system and will undertake to handle heavy trains of coal 
with a.c. locomotives as well as a high-speed passenger busi- 
ness. In the north half of the line the maximum grade is 1.1 
per cent and in the southern half 0.7 per cent. The maximum 
rate of curvature on any part of the line is 2 deg. The trolley 
wire will be carried on a line of heavy poles set 9 ft. from the 
track center, supporting Ohio Brass Company's brackets 10 ft. 
6 in. long and using catenary material of the same manufacture. 
The trolley wire will be No. 0000 supported by a 7/16-in. 
Siemens-Martin high-strength steel cable. The pole line has 
been erected and work has just commenced on stringing the 

The power plant is located at about the midpoint of the line 
and will include, at first, an installation of 12,000-kw capacity 
in Westinghouse turbines. Current will be generated at 2300 
volts and stepped up to 11,000 volts for feeding directly to the 
trolley wire. No auxiliary feeders or transmission system will 
be required for the operation of the railway, but a 44,000-volt 
high-tension line will be constructed to carry current for com- 
mercial uses in Burlington, Iowa. No. 2 copper will be used for 
the transmission system. 



[Vol. XXXVI. X... 3. 


J. A. Fay & Egan Company, Cincinnati, O., the well-known 
manufacturer of woodworking machinery, has just put on the 
market a new self-feed rip saw known as No. 264 and designed 
for general ripping in the car shop for both light and heavy 
work. The frame is a heavy structure, cast in one piece so as 
to be free from vibration. The machine is designed to rip a 


The Decatur (111.) Railway & Light Company has obtained 
good service from a mechanically-operated switch throw which 
lias been installed on its city lines for 18 months and has 
operated at 10-minute int